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README.md

Port of the OBERON RISC Emulator to Ultibo

============================================ Port this program to Ultibo

For the Oberonians:


What is Ultibo ?

citation from the Ultibo web-site:

"Ultibo core is an embedded or bare metal development environment for Raspberry Pi. It is not an operating system but provides many of the same services as an OS, things like memory management, networking, filesystems and threading plus much more."

What they write only in the footnote is:

"Ultibo is written entirely in Free Pascal and is designed to act as a unikernel or a kernel in a run time library. That means when you compile your application the necessary parts of Ultibo are automatically included by the compiler so that your program runs without needing an operating system."

For all, not yet knowing what the Raspberry Pi is:

What is the Raspberry Pi ?

"The Raspberry Pi is a series of credit card-sized single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and developing countries" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raspberry_Pi

And the most important thing: The RPI is cheap: The smallest model costs here in Germany incl. tax 15 EUR, the biggest iron 38 EUR. Here we have 4 ARM cores @ 1 GHz, HDMI, USB, Network interface, PIO, LED,audio, etc. etc. + 1 GByte + SD card etc.

The RPI is mostly used with LINUX. That's nice but with LINUX you are far, far away from the hardware. And its quite crazy for my opinion, to use Gigabytes of code to blink a LED.

###So what is Ultibo for me: The ideal tool! You have more or less infinite RAM and power, you can and MUST write all programs in PASCAL, and you have with Lazarus a real nice and fast development environment for Windows and Linux (with Wine)

For the Ultiboys and Ultigirls:

What is OBERON:

  1. OBERON is a programming language designed from 1988 by the Turing award winner Niklaus Wirth, the inventor of PASCAL and some other programming languages. OBERON is quite similar to PASCAL with object extension and units as known from Turbo Pascal 6.0+.
  2. OBERON is also, and that's sometimes confusing, the name of a complete operating system, including graphical user interface with mouse control, an editor, compiler, libraries etc. Wirth was 1977/78 at the XEROX park labs in Palo Alto, where he worked with the ALTO workstation. This was the first computer with a mouse and a graphical user interface. In 1986 Wirth developed his own 32bit computer called CERES incl. his own operating system written in his own language called OBERON. From 2013 Wirth was developing a new workstation based on one single FPGA and called it Project OBERON. See http://www.projectoberon.com/ or http://www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/xcell_articles/91-5-oberon-system-implemented-on-a-low-cost-fpga-board.pdf or https://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/co/2012/07/mco2012070008.pdf

The complete system including the kernel, the editor, the compiler and the GUI has about 10000 (ten thousand) lines of code. The Linux 4.x kernel has about 15 million lines of code.

For both:

Project Oberon aka FPGA OBERON is a very interesting system, but fiddling around with FPGAs, especially with the development environments of Xilinx or Altera is, friendly spoken, demanding. Even producing a video signal for a modern interface like HDMI or display port with a FPGA is for example 10 times more complex then the whole so called RISC5 processor for the Project OBERON.

In 2014 Peter de Wachter has written an emulator for Project OBERON on the PC. A nice project, but written in C, a non-Wirthian languge. So i made a port of his program to (Free)-Pascal. The emulator works fine, but making the graphic and the mouse interface with the SDL library was a typical example for the complexity of Linux and Windows.

My intension to bring OBERON to Ultibo on the RPI:

  1. Having a total type save Wirthian system!
  2. A proof of concept and test for Ultibo.
  3. Having an OBERON system for 15 EUR
  4. Having direct hardware access from OBERON. Up to now only the Blink.Run works, but integrate GPIO, the serial interface etc. may be done with only a few lines of code.
  5. Its quite easy to expand OBERON with some TCP/IP functionality, which is already part of the Ultibo libraries.
  6. Maybe in the future OBERON can be used as a kind of inelligent shell, including editor, compiler etc. for Ultibo.

Hints, Design, Problems etc.

  1. The software is pre-beta!
  2. There is a bug in the USB interface in Ultibo. You must use an USB hub to connect mouse and keyboard. At least one of both must be connected via the hub. There seems to be a DMA problem for slow HID devices. Its a known issue.
  3. Due to lack of time, I have the code only tested for the RPI2.
  4. I have realised the sw in one single thread follwing Wirths original design.
  5. The code is not optimized for performance at all.
  6. The RISC5 code and the FPU code is from 2014, the latest FPU improvements etc. are not coded yet.
  7. The OBERON file system is encapsulated in one single file oberon.dsk, it would be nice for sure, to mirror it in FAT or similar.
  8. The disk image is from Peter de Wachter at: https://github.com/pdewacht/oberon-risc-emu/blob/master/DiskImage/Oberon-2016-08-02.dsk
  9. Ultibo has no command line options, so everything is hard coded.
  10. the F4 and F12 keys are not working yet.
  11. For Non-Oberonians: Before you play with the software please read: https://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/wirth/ProjectOberon/UsingOberon.pdf The using of the mouse and the windows (here called viewers) is different from the Windows or OsX world. Even if Allen, Wozniak, Gates and Jobs said that they have been at least "inspired" by the ALTO system they had seen at Xerox.
  12. You need a 3 button mouse.
  13. .. and many more..
  14. Only tested with a 1280 x 1024 screen

#Licenses

#Licenses Copyright: (c) Markus Greim, August 2016 Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the below copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.

##Ultibo core is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License v2.1 and is freely available to use, modify and distribute within the terms of the license. The license includes an exception statement to permit static linking with files that are licensed under different terms.

##Free-Pascal http://www.freepascal.org/faq.var#general-license

##Oberon Project Oberon, Revised Edition 2013

Book copyright (C)2013 Niklaus Wirth and Juerg Gutknecht; software copyright (C)2013 Niklaus Wirth (NW), Juerg Gutknecht (JG), Paul Reed (PR/PDR).

Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software and its accompanying documentation (the "Software") for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHORS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THE SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES OR LIABILITY WHATSOEVER, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE DEALINGS IN OR USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE.

##All other copyright things below, I hope.

Below the Radme file of the original port:

Oberon RISC Emulator for Pascal

translation of the Oberon Risc Emulator from Peter De Wachter to Freepascal.

I was using:

SDL2 headers translation for Free Pascal https://bitbucket.org/p_daniel/sdl-2-for-free-pascal-compiler from P. Daniel

SDL Simple DirectMedia Layer Copyright (C) 1997-2013 Sam Lantinga slouken@libsdl.org SDL2.

The Oberon bootload code risc_boot.inc from Paul Reed at http://projectoberon.com/

Original Project Oberon design and source code copyright © 1991–2014 Niklaus Wirth (NW) and Jürg Gutknecht (JG) at http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/wirth/ProjectOberon/ or http://projectoberon.com/

Requirements: the freepacal compiler see:

Freepascal or http://www.freepascal.org/

09.jun.2016

  • Added the latest dsk file from Peter de Wachter
  • removed 2 calls in SDL2.pas because they are not compatible with libSDL2-2.0.0

you may find this code at:

https://github.com/MGreim/riscpas_repo

================================================================================

below the orignal README.md from Peter de Wachter

================================================================================

Oberon RISC Emulator

This is an emulator for the Oberon RISC machine. For more information, see: http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/wirth/ and http://projectoberon.com/.

Requirements: a C99 compiler (e.g. GCC, clang) and SDL2.

A suitable disk image can be downloaded from http://projectoberon.com/ (in S3RISCinstall.zip). Warning: Images downloaded before 2014-03-29 have broken floating point.

Current emulation status

  • CPU

    • No known bugs.
  • Keyboard and mouse

    • OK. Note that Oberon assumes you have a US keyboard layout and a three button mouse.
    • The left alt key can now be used to emulate a middle click.
  • Display

    • OK. You can adjust the colors by editing sdl-main.c.
    • Use F11 to toggle full screen display.
  • SD-Card

    • Very inaccurate, but good enough for Oberon. If you're going to hack the SD card routines, you'll need to use real hardware.
  • RS-232

    • Implements PCLink protocol to send/receive single files at a time e.g. to receive Test.Mod into Oberon, run PCLink1.Start, then in host risc current directory, echo Test.Mod > PCLink.REC
    • Thanks to Paul Reed
  • Network

    • Not implemented.
  • LEDs

    • Printed on stdout.
  • Reset button

    • Press F12 to abort if you get stuck in an infinite loop.

Copyright

Copyright © 2014 Peter De Wachter

Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.