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Network Working Group A. Dulaunoy
Internet-Draft A. Iklody
Intended status: Informational D. Servili
Expires: April 6, 2020 CIRCL
October 4, 2019
MISP galaxy format
draft-dulaunoy-misp-galaxy-format
Abstract
This document describes the MISP galaxy format which describes a
simple JSON format to represent galaxies and clusters that can be
attached to MISP events or attributes. A public directory of MISP
galaxies is available and relies on the MISP galaxy format. MISP
galaxies are used to add further informations on a MISP event. MISP
galaxy is a public repository [MISP-G] [MISP-G-DOC] of known malware,
threats actors and various other collections of data that can be used
to mark, classify or label data in threat information sharing.
Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 6, 2020.
Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2. values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3. related . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.4. meta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. JSON Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1. MISP galaxy format - galaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2. MISP galaxy format - clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Introduction
Sharing threat information became a fundamental requirements on the
Internet, security and intelligence community at large. Threat
information can include indicators of compromise, malicious file
indicators, financial fraud indicators or even detailed information
about a threat actor. Some of these informations, such as malware or
threat actors are common to several security events. MISP galaxy is
a public repository [MISP-G] of known malware, threats actors and
various other collections of data that can be used to mark, classify
or label data in threat information sharing.
In the MISP galaxy context, clusters help analysts to give more
informations about their cybersecurity events, indicators or threats.
MISP galaxies can be used for classification, filtering, triggering
actions or visualisation depending on their use in threat
intelligence platforms such as MISP [MISP-P].
1.1. Conventions and Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
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2. Format
A cluster is composed of a value (MUST), a description (OPTIONAL) and
metadata (OPTIONAL).
Clusters are represented as a JSON [RFC8259] dictionary.
2.1. Overview
The MISP galaxy format uses the JSON [RFC8259] format. Each galaxy
is represented as a JSON object with meta information including the
following fields: name, uuid, description, version, type, authors,
source, values, category.
name defines the name of the galaxy. The name is represented as a
string and MUST be present. The uuid represents the Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) [RFC4122] of the object reference. The uuid
MUST be preserved. For any updates or transfer of the same object
reference. UUID version 4 is RECOMMENDED when assigning it to a new
object reference and MUST be present. The description is represented
as a string and MUST be present. The uuid is represented as a string
and MUST be present. The version is represented as a decimal and
MUST be present. The type is represented as a string and MUST be
present and MUST match the name of the galaxy file. The source is
represented as a string and MUST be present. Authors are represented
as an array containing one or more authors and MUST be present. The
category is represented as a string and MUST be present and describes
the overall category of the galaxy such as tool or actor.
Values are represented as an array containing one or more values and
MUST be present. Values defines all values available in the galaxy.
2.2. values
The values array contains one or more JSON objects which represent
all the possible values in the galaxy. The JSON object contains four
fields: value, description, uuid and meta. The value is represented
as a string and MUST be present. The description is represented as a
string and SHOULD be present. The meta or metadata is represented as
a JSON list and SHOULD be present. The uuid represents the
Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) [RFC4122] of the value
reference. The uuid SHOULD can be present and MUST be preserved.
2.3. related
Related contains a list of JSON key value pairs which describe the
related values in this galaxy cluster or to other galaxy clusters.
The JSON object contains three fields, dest-uuid, type and tags. The
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dest-uuid represents the target UUID which encompasses a relation of
some type. The dest-uuid is represented as a string and MUST be
present. The type is represented as a string and MUST be present and
SHOULD be selected from the relationship types available in MISP
objects [MISP-R]. The tags is a list of string which labels the
related relationship such as the level of similarities, level of
certainty, trust or confidence in the relationship, false-positive.
A tag is represented in machine tag format which is a string an
SHOULD be present.
"related": [ {
"dest-uuid": "f873db71-3d53-41d5-b141-530675ade27a",
"type": "similar",
"tags": ["estimative-language:likelihood-probability=\"very-likely\""]
} ]
2.4. meta
Meta contains a list of custom defined JSON key value pairs. Users
SHOULD reuse commonly used keys such as complexity, effectiveness,
country, possible_issues, colour, motive, impact, refs, synonyms,
status, date, encryption, extensions, ransomnotes, ransomnotes-
filenames, ransomnotes-refs, suspected-victims, suspected-state-
sponsor, type-of-incident, target-category, cfr-suspected-victims,
cfr-suspected-state-sponsor, cfr-type-of-incident, cfr-target-
category, suspected-victims, suspected-state-sponsor, attribution-
confidence, payment-method, price, spoken-language, official-refs
wherever applicable. Additional meta field MAY be added without the
need to be referenced or registered in advance.
refs, synonyms, official-refs SHALL be used to give further
informations. refs is represented as an array containing one or more
strings and SHALL be present. synonyms is represented as an array
containing one or more strings and SHALL be present. official-refs is
represented as an array containing one or more strings and SHALL be
present.
date, status MAY be used to give time information about an cluster.
date is represented as a string describing a time or period and SHALL
be present. status is represented as a string describing the current
status of the clusters. It MAY also describe a time or period and
SHALL be present.
colour fields MAY be used at predicates or values level to set a
specify colour that MAY be used by the implementation. The colour
field is described as an RGB colour fill in hexadecimal
representation.
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complexity, effectiveness, impact, possible_issues MAY be used to
give further information in preventive-measure galaxy. complexity is
represented by an enumerated value from a fixed vocabulary and SHALL
be present. effectiveness is represented by an enumerated value from
a fixed vocabulary and SHALL be present. impact is represented by an
enumerated value from a fixed vocabulary and SHALL be present.
possible_issues is represented as a string and SHOULD be present.
Example use of the complexity, effectiveness, impact, possible_issues
fields in the preventive-measure galaxy:
{
"meta": {
"refs": [
"http://www.windowsnetworking.com/kbase/WindowsTips/WindowsXP/AdminTips/Customization/DisableWindowsScriptingHostWSH.html"
],
"complexity": "Low",
"effectiveness": "Medium",
"impact": "Medium",
"type": [
"GPO"
],
"possible_issues": "Administrative VBS scripts on Workstations"
},
"value": "Disable WSH",
"description": "Disable Windows Script Host",
"uuid": "e6df1619-f8b3-476c-b5cf-22b4c9e9dd7f"
}
country, motive, spoken-language MAY be used to give further
information in threat-actor galaxy. country is represented as a
string and SHOULD be present. motive is represented as a string and
SHOULD be present. spoken-language is represented as an array
containing one or more strings describing a language using ISO 639-2
code and SHALL be present.
Example use of the country, motive fields in the threat-actor galaxy:
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{
"meta": {
"country": "CN",
"synonyms": [
"APT14",
"APT 14",
"QAZTeam",
"ALUMINUM"
],
"refs": [
"http://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/whois-anchor-panda/"
],
"motive": "Espionage",
"attribution-confidence": 50
},
"value": "Anchor Panda",
"description": "PLA Navy",
"uuid": "c82c904f-b3b4-40a2-bf0d-008912953104"
}
encryption, extensions, ransomnotes, ransomnotes-filenames,
ransomnotes-refs, payment-method, price MAY be used to give further
information in ransomware galaxy. encryption is represented as a
string and SHALL be present. extensions is represented as an array
containing one or more strings and SHALL be present. ransomnotes is
represented as an array containing one or more strings ans SHALL be
present. ransomnotes-filenames is represented as an array containing
one or more strings ans SHALL be present. ransomnotes-refs is
represented as an array containing one or more strings ans SHALL be
present. payment-method is represented as a string and SHALL be
present. price is represented as a string and SHALL be present.
Example use of the encryption, extensions, ransomnotes fields in the
ransomware galaxy:
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{
"description": "Similar to Samas and BitPaymer, Ryuk is specifically used to target enterprise environments. Code comparison between versions of Ryuk and Hermes ransomware indicates that Ryuk was derived from the Hermes source code and has been under steady development since its release. Hermes is commodity ransomware that has been observed for sale on forums and used by multiple threat actors. However, Ryuk is only used by GRIM SPIDER and, unlike Hermes, Ryuk has only been used to target enterprise environments. Since Ryuk's appearance in August, the threat actors operating it have netted over 705.80 BTC across 52 transactions for a total current value of $3,701,893.98 USD.",
"meta": {
"ransomnotes-filenames": [
"RyukReadMe.txt"
],
"ransomnotes-refs": [
"https://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/RansomeNote-fig3.png",
"https://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/RansomeNote-fig4.png"
],
"refs": [
"https://www.crowdstrike.com/blog/big-game-hunting-with-ryuk-another-lucrative-targeted-ransomware/"
]
},
"uuid": "f9464c80-b776-4f37-8682-ffde0cf8f718",
"value": "Ryuk ransomware"
}
Example use of the payment-method, price fields in the ransomware
galaxy:
{
"description": "This is most likely to affect English speaking users, since the note is written in English. English is understood worldwide, thus anyone can be harmed. The hacker spread the virus using email spam, fake updates, and harmful attachments. All your files are compromised including music, MS Office, Open Office, pictures, videos, shared online files etc..",
"meta": {
"date": "March 2017",
"encryption": "AES-128",
"extensions": [
".enc"
],
"payment-method": "Bitcoin",
"price": "0.1",
"ransomnotes": [
"Blocked Your computer has been blocked All your files are encrypted. To access your PC, you need to send to Bitcoin at the address below loading Step 1: Go to xxxxs : //wvw.coinbase.com/ siqnup Step 2: Create an account and follow the instructions Step 3: Go to the \"Buy Bitcoins\" section and then buy Bitcoin Step 4: Go to the \"Send\" section, enter the address above and the amount (0.1 Bitcoin) Step 5: Click on the button below to verify the payment, your files will be decrypted and the virus will disappear 'Check' If you try to bypass the lock, all files will be published on the Internet, as well as your login for all sites."
],
"refs": [
"https://id-ransomware.blogspot.co.il/2017/03/cryptomeister-ransomware.html"
]
},
"uuid": "4c76c845-c5eb-472c-93a1-4178f86c319b",
"value": "CryptoMeister Ransomware"
}
source-uuid, target-uuid SHALL be used to describe relationships.
source-uuid and target-uuid represent the Universally Unique
IDentifier (UUID) [RFC4122] of the value reference. source-uuid and
target-uuid MUST be preserved.
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Example use of the source-uuid, target-uuid fields in the mitre-
enterprise-attack-relationship galaxy:
{
"meta": {
"source-uuid": "222fbd21-fc4f-4b7e-9f85-0e6e3a76c33f",
"target-uuid": "2f1a9fd0-3b7c-4d77-a358-78db13adbe78"
},
"uuid": "cfc7da70-d7c5-4508-8f50-1c3107269633",
"value": "menuPass (G0045) uses EvilGrab (S0152)"
}
cfr-suspected-victims, cfr-suspected-state-sponsor, cfr-type-of-
incident and cfr-target-category MAY be used to report information
gathered from CFR's (Council on Foreign Relations) [CFR] Cyber
Operations Tracker. cfr-suspected-victims is represented as an array
containing one or more strings and SHALL be present. cfr-suspected-
state-sponsor is represented as a string and SHALL be present. cfr-
type-of-incident is represented as a string or an array and SHALL be
present. RECOMMENDED but not exhaustive list of possible values for
cfr-type-of-incident includes "Espionage", "Denial of service",
"Sabotage". cfr-target-category is represented as an array containing
one or more strings ans SHALL be present. RECOMMENDED but not
exhaustive list of possible values for cfr-target-category includes
"Private sector", "Government", "Civil society", "Military".
Example use of the cfr-suspected-victims, cfr-suspected-state-
sponsor, cfr-type-of-incident, cfr-target-category fields in the
threat-actor galaxy:
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{
"meta": {
"country": "CN",
"refs": [
"https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2015/12/the_eps_awakens.html",
"https://www.cfr.org/interactive/cyber-operations/apt-16"
],
"cfr-suspected-victims": [
"Japan",
"Taiwan"
],
"cfr-suspected-state-sponsor": "China",
"cfr-type-of-incident": "Espionage",
"cfr-target-category": [
"Private sector"
],
"attribution-confidence": 50
},
"value": "APT 16",
"uuid": "1f73e14f-b882-4032-a565-26dc653b0daf"
},
attribution-confidence MAY be used to indicate the confidence about
an attribution given by country or cfr-suspected-state-sponsor.
attribution-confidence is represented on a scale from 0 to 100, where
50 means "no information", the values under 50 mean "probably not,
almost certainly not to impossibility", the values above 50 means
"from probable, almost certain to certainty" and SHALL be present if
country or cfr-suspected-state-sponsor are present.
Impossibility no information Certainty
+
|
+-------------------+------------------>
0 50 100
3. JSON Schema
The JSON Schema [JSON-SCHEMA] below defines the overall MISP galaxy
formats. The main format is the MISP galaxy format used for the
clusters.
3.1. MISP galaxy format - galaxy
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{
"$schema": "http://json-schema.org/schema#",
"title": "Validator for misp-galaxies - Galaxies",
"id": "https://www.github.com/MISP/misp-galaxies/schema_galaxies.json",
"type": "object",
"additionalProperties": false,
"properties": {
"description": {
"type": "string"
},
"type": {
"type": "string"
},
"version": {
"type": "integer"
},
"name": {
"type": "string"
},
"icon": {
"type": "string"
},
"uuid": {
"type": "string"
},
"namespace": {
"type": "string"
},
"kill_chain_order": {
"type": "object"
}
},
"required": [
"description",
"type",
"version",
"name",
"uuid"
]
}
3.2. MISP galaxy format - clusters
{
"$schema": "http://json-schema.org/schema#",
"title": "Validator for misp-galaxies - Clusters",
"id": "https://www.github.com/MISP/misp-galaxies/schema_clusters.json",
"type": "object",
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"additionalProperties": false,
"properties": {
"description": {
"type": "string"
},
"type": {
"type": "string"
},
"version": {
"type": "integer"
},
"name": {
"type": "string"
},
"uuid": {
"type": "string"
},
"source": {
"type": "string"
},
"category": {
"type": "string
},
"values": {
"type": "array",
"uniqueItems": true,
"items": {
"type": "object",
"additionalProperties": false,
"properties": {
"description": {
"type": "string"
},
"value": {
"type": "string"
},
"uuid": {
"type": "string"
},
"related": {
"type": "array",
"additionalProperties": false,
"items": {
"type": "object"
},
"properties": {
"dest-uuid": {
"type": "string"
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},
"type": {
"type": "string"
},
"tags": {
"type": "array",
"uniqueItems": true,
"items": {
"type": "string"
}
}
}
},
"meta": {
"type": "object",
"additionalProperties": true,
"properties": {
"type": {
"type": "array",
"uniqueItems": true,
"items": {
"type": "string"
}
},
"complexity": {
"type": "string"
},
"effectiveness": {
"type": "string"
},
"country": {
"type": "string"
},
"possible_issues": {
"type": "string"
},
"colour": {
"type": "string"
},
"motive": {
"type": "string"
},
"impact": {
"type": "string"
},
"refs": {
"type": "array",
"uniqueItems": true,
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"items": {
"type": "string"
}
},
"synonyms": {
"type": "array",
"uniqueItems": true,
"items": {
"type": "string"
}
},
"status": {
"type": "string"
},
"date": {
"type": "string"
},
"encryption": {
"type": "string"
},
"extensions": {
"type": "array",
"uniqueItems": true,
"items": {
"type": "string"
}
},
"ransomnotes": {
"type": "array",
"uniqueItems": true,
"items": {
"type": "string"
}
}
}
}
},
"required": [
"value"
]
}
},
"authors": {
"type": "array",
"uniqueItems": true,
"items": {
"type": "string"
}
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}
},
"required": [
"description",
"type",
"version",
"name",
"uuid",
"values",
"authors",
"source",
"category
]
}
4. Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank all the MISP community who are supporting
the creation of open standards in threat intelligence sharing.
5. References
5.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4122, July 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4122>.
[RFC8259] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8259>.
5.2. Informative References
[CFR] CFR, "Cyber Operations Tracker - Council on Foreign
Relations", 2018,
<https://www.cfr.org/interactive/cyber-operations>.
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[JSON-SCHEMA]
"JSON Schema: A Media Type for Describing JSON Documents",
2016,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-wright-json-schema>.
[MISP-G] MISP, "MISP Galaxy - Public Repository",
<https://github.com/MISP/misp-galaxy>.
[MISP-G-DOC]
MISP, "MISP Galaxy - Documentation of the Public
Repository", <https://www.misp-project.org/galaxy.html>.
[MISP-P] MISP, "MISP Project - Malware Information Sharing Platform
and Threat Sharing", <https://github.com/MISP>.
[MISP-R] MISP, "MISP Object Relationship Types - common vocabulary
of relationships", <https://github.com/MISP/misp-
objects/tree/master/relationships>.
Authors' Addresses
Alexandre Dulaunoy
Computer Incident Response Center Luxembourg
16, bd d'Avranches
Luxembourg L-1611
Luxembourg
Phone: +352 247 88444
Email: alexandre.dulaunoy@circl.lu
Andras Iklody
Computer Incident Response Center Luxembourg
16, bd d'Avranches
Luxembourg L-1611
Luxembourg
Phone: +352 247 88444
Email: andras.iklody@circl.lu
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Deborah Servili
Computer Incident Response Center Luxembourg
16, bd d'Avranches
Luxembourg L-1611
Luxembourg
Phone: +352 247 88444
Email: deborah.servili@circl.lu
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