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Code and real data for "Enhancing Human Learning via Spaced Repetition Optimization", PNAS 2019
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This is a repository containing code and data for the paper:

B. Tabibian, U. Upadhyay, A. De, A. Zarezade, Bernhard Schölkopf, and M. Gomez-Rodriguez. Enhancing Human Learning via Spaced Repetition Optimization. To appear at the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 2019.

An in a nutshell description of our algorithm is available in this supporting website:


This code depends on the following packages:

  1. numpy
  2. pandas
  3. matplotlib
  4. seaborn
  5. scipy
  6. dill
  7. click

Apart from this, the instructions assume that the Duolingo dataset has been downloaded, extracted, and saved at ./data/raw/duolingo.csv.

Code structure

  • contains the memorize algorithm.
  • preprocesed_weights.csv contains estimated model parameters for the HLR model, as described in section 8 of supplementary materials.
  • observations_1k.csv contains a set of 1K user-item pairs and associated number of total/correct attempts by every user for given items. This dataset has been curated from a larger dataset released by Duolingo, available here.


The code can by executed as follows:


The code will use default parameter value (q) used in the code.

Experiments with Duolingo data


Convert to Python dict by user_id, lexeme_id and pruning it for reading it:

python ./data/raw/duolingo.csv ./data/duo_dict.dill --success_prob 0.99 --max_days 30 
python ./data/raw/duolingo.csv ./data/duolingo_reduced.csv


See the notebook plots.ipynb.

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