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/*
* This file is covered by the Ruby license. See COPYING for more details.
*
* Copyright (C) 2012, The MacRuby Team. All rights reserved.
* Copyright (C) 2007-2011, Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
* Copyright (C) 1993-2007 Yukihiro Matsumoto
* Copyright (C) 2000 Network Applied Communication Laboratory, Inc.
* Copyright (C) 2000 Information-technology Promotion Agency, Japan
*/

#include "macruby_internal.h"
#include "ruby/signal.h"
#include "ruby/io.h"
#include "ruby/util.h"
#include "id.h"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <signal.h>
#ifdef HAVE_STDLIB_H
#include <stdlib.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
#include <unistd.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_FCNTL_H
#include <fcntl.h>
#endif

#include <time.h>
#include <ctype.h>

#ifndef EXIT_SUCCESS
#define EXIT_SUCCESS 0
#endif
#ifndef EXIT_FAILURE
#define EXIT_FAILURE 1
#endif

struct timeval rb_time_interval(VALUE);

#ifdef HAVE_SYS_WAIT_H
# include <sys/wait.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_RESOURCE_H
# include <sys/resource.h>
#endif
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_PARAM_H
# include <sys/param.h>
#endif
#ifndef MAXPATHLEN
# define MAXPATHLEN 1024
#endif
#include "ruby/st.h"

#ifdef __EMX__
#undef HAVE_GETPGRP
#endif

#include <sys/stat.h>

#ifdef HAVE_SYS_TIMES_H
#include <sys/times.h>
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_GRP_H
#include <grp.h>
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_TIMES) || defined(_WIN32)
static VALUE rb_cProcessTms;
#endif

#ifndef WIFEXITED
#define WIFEXITED(w) (((w) & 0xff) == 0)
#endif
#ifndef WIFSIGNALED
#define WIFSIGNALED(w) (((w) & 0x7f) > 0 && (((w) & 0x7f) < 0x7f))
#endif
#ifndef WIFSTOPPED
#define WIFSTOPPED(w) (((w) & 0xff) == 0x7f)
#endif
#ifndef WEXITSTATUS
#define WEXITSTATUS(w) (((w) >> 8) & 0xff)
#endif
#ifndef WTERMSIG
#define WTERMSIG(w) ((w) & 0x7f)
#endif
#ifndef WSTOPSIG
#define WSTOPSIG WEXITSTATUS
#endif

#if defined(__APPLE__) && ( defined(__MACH__) || defined(__DARWIN__) ) && !defined(__MacOS_X__)
#define __MacOS_X__ 1
#endif

#if defined(__FreeBSD__) || defined(__NetBSD__) || defined(__OpenBSD__) || defined(__bsdi__)
#define HAVE_44BSD_SETUID 1
#define HAVE_44BSD_SETGID 1
#endif

#ifdef __NetBSD__
#undef HAVE_SETRUID
#undef HAVE_SETRGID
#endif

#ifdef BROKEN_SETREUID
#define setreuid ruby_setreuid
#endif
#ifdef BROKEN_SETREGID
#define setregid ruby_setregid
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_44BSD_SETUID) || defined(__MacOS_X__)
#if !defined(USE_SETREUID) && !defined(BROKEN_SETREUID)
#define OBSOLETE_SETREUID 1
#endif
#if !defined(USE_SETREGID) && !defined(BROKEN_SETREGID)
#define OBSOLETE_SETREGID 1
#endif
#endif

#if SIZEOF_RLIM_T == SIZEOF_INT
# define RLIM2NUM(v) UINT2NUM(v)
# define NUM2RLIM(v) NUM2UINT(v)
#elif SIZEOF_RLIM_T == SIZEOF_LONG
# define RLIM2NUM(v) ULONG2NUM(v)
# define NUM2RLIM(v) NUM2ULONG(v)
#elif SIZEOF_RLIM_T == SIZEOF_LONG_LONG
# define RLIM2NUM(v) ULL2NUM(v)
# define NUM2RLIM(v) NUM2ULL(v)
#endif

#define preserving_errno(stmts) \
do {int saved_errno = errno; stmts; errno = saved_errno;} while (0)


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.pid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the process id of this process. Not available on all
* platforms.
*
* Process.pid #=> 27415
*/

static VALUE
get_pid(VALUE rcv, SEL sel)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    return PIDT2NUM(getpid());
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.ppid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the process id of the parent of this process. Returns
* untrustworthy value on Win32/64. Not available on all platforms.
*
* puts "I am #{Process.pid}"
* Process.fork { puts "Dad is #{Process.ppid}" }
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* I am 27417
* Dad is 27417
*/

static VALUE
get_ppid(VALUE rcv, SEL sel)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    return PIDT2NUM(getppid());
}


/*********************************************************************
*
* Document-class: Process::Status
*
* <code>Process::Status</code> encapsulates the information on the
* status of a running or terminated system process. The built-in
* variable <code>$?</code> is either +nil+ or a
* <code>Process::Status</code> object.
*
* fork { exit 99 } #=> 26557
* Process.wait #=> 26557
* $?.class #=> Process::Status
* $?.to_i #=> 25344
* $? >> 8 #=> 99
* $?.stopped? #=> false
* $?.exited? #=> true
* $?.exitstatus #=> 99
*
* Posix systems record information on processes using a 16-bit
* integer. The lower bits record the process status (stopped,
* exited, signaled) and the upper bits possibly contain additional
* information (for example the program's return code in the case of
* exited processes). Pre Ruby 1.8, these bits were exposed directly
* to the Ruby program. Ruby now encapsulates these in a
* <code>Process::Status</code> object. To maximize compatibility,
* however, these objects retain a bit-oriented interface. In the
* descriptions that follow, when we talk about the integer value of
* _stat_, we're referring to this 16 bit value.
*/

VALUE rb_cProcessStatus;

static void
rb_last_status_clear(void)
{
    rb_last_status_set(0, -1);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* stat.to_i -> fixnum
* stat.to_int -> fixnum
*
* Returns the bits in _stat_ as a <code>Fixnum</code>. Poking
* around in these bits is platform dependent.
*
* fork { exit 0xab } #=> 26566
* Process.wait #=> 26566
* sprintf('%04x', $?.to_i) #=> "ab00"
*/

static VALUE
pst_to_i(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    return rb_iv_get(st, "status");
}

#define PST2INT(st) NUM2INT(pst_to_i(st, 0))

/*
* call-seq:
* stat.pid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the process ID that this status object represents.
*
* fork { exit } #=> 26569
* Process.wait #=> 26569
* $?.pid #=> 26569
*/

static VALUE
pst_pid(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    return rb_iv_get(st, "pid");
}

static void
pst_message(VALUE str, rb_pid_t pid, int status)
{
    rb_str_catf(str, "pid %ld", (long)pid);
    if (WIFSTOPPED(status)) {
int stopsig = WSTOPSIG(status);
const char *signame = ruby_signal_name(stopsig);
if (signame) {
rb_str_catf(str, " stopped SIG%s (signal %d)", signame, stopsig);
}
else {
rb_str_catf(str, " stopped signal %d", stopsig);
}
    }
    if (WIFSIGNALED(status)) {
int termsig = WTERMSIG(status);
const char *signame = ruby_signal_name(termsig);
if (signame) {
rb_str_catf(str, " SIG%s (signal %d)", signame, termsig);
}
else {
rb_str_catf(str, " signal %d", termsig);
}
    }
    if (WIFEXITED(status)) {
rb_str_catf(str, " exit %d", WEXITSTATUS(status));
    }
#ifdef WCOREDUMP
    if (WCOREDUMP(status)) {
rb_str_cat2(str, " (core dumped)");
    }
#endif
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.to_s -> string
*
* Show pid and exit status as a string.
*/

static VALUE
pst_to_s(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;
    VALUE str;

    pid = NUM2PIDT(pst_pid(st, 0));
    status = PST2INT(st);

    str = rb_str_buf_new(0);
    pst_message(str, pid, status);
    return str;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.inspect -> string
*
* Override the inspection method.
*/

static VALUE
pst_inspect(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;
    VALUE vpid, str;

    vpid = pst_pid(st, 0);
    if (NIL_P(vpid)) {
        return rb_sprintf("#<%s: uninitialized>", rb_class2name(CLASS_OF(st)));
    }
    pid = NUM2PIDT(vpid);
    status = PST2INT(st);

    str = rb_sprintf("#<%s: ", rb_class2name(CLASS_OF(st)));
    pst_message(str, pid, status);
    rb_str_cat2(str, ">");
    return str;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat == other -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if the integer value of _stat_
* equals <em>other</em>.
*/

static VALUE
pst_equal(VALUE st1, SEL sel, VALUE st2)
{
    if (st1 == st2) {
return Qtrue;
    }
    return rb_equal(pst_to_i(st1, 0), st2);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat & num -> fixnum
*
* Logical AND of the bits in _stat_ with <em>num</em>.
*
* fork { exit 0x37 }
* Process.wait
* sprintf('%04x', $?.to_i) #=> "3700"
* sprintf('%04x', $? & 0x1e00) #=> "1600"
*/

static VALUE
pst_bitand(VALUE st1, SEL sel, VALUE st2)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st1) & NUM2INT(st2);

    return INT2NUM(status);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat >> num -> fixnum
*
* Shift the bits in _stat_ right <em>num</em> places.
*
* fork { exit 99 } #=> 26563
* Process.wait #=> 26563
* $?.to_i #=> 25344
* $? >> 8 #=> 99
*/

static VALUE
pst_rshift(VALUE st1, SEL sel, VALUE st2)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st1) >> NUM2INT(st2);

    return INT2NUM(status);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.stopped? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if this process is stopped. This is only
* returned if the corresponding <code>wait</code> call had the
* <code>WUNTRACED</code> flag set.
*/

static VALUE
pst_wifstopped(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFSTOPPED(status))
return Qtrue;
    else
return Qfalse;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.stopsig -> fixnum or nil
*
* Returns the number of the signal that caused _stat_ to stop
* (or +nil+ if self is not stopped).
*/

static VALUE
pst_wstopsig(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFSTOPPED(status))
return INT2NUM(WSTOPSIG(status));
    return Qnil;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.signaled? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if _stat_ terminated because of
* an uncaught signal.
*/

static VALUE
pst_wifsignaled(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFSIGNALED(status))
return Qtrue;
    else
return Qfalse;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.termsig -> fixnum or nil
*
* Returns the number of the signal that caused _stat_ to
* terminate (or +nil+ if self was not terminated by an
* uncaught signal).
*/

static VALUE
pst_wtermsig(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFSIGNALED(status))
return INT2NUM(WTERMSIG(status));
    return Qnil;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.exited? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if _stat_ exited normally (for
* example using an <code>exit()</code> call or finishing the
* program).
*/

static VALUE
pst_wifexited(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFEXITED(status))
return Qtrue;
    else
return Qfalse;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.exitstatus -> fixnum or nil
*
* Returns the least significant eight bits of the return code of
* _stat_. Only available if <code>exited?</code> is
* +true+.
*
* fork { } #=> 26572
* Process.wait #=> 26572
* $?.exited? #=> true
* $?.exitstatus #=> 0
*
* fork { exit 99 } #=> 26573
* Process.wait #=> 26573
* $?.exited? #=> true
* $?.exitstatus #=> 99
*/

static VALUE
pst_wexitstatus(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WIFEXITED(status))
return INT2NUM(WEXITSTATUS(status));
    return Qnil;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.success? -> true, false or nil
*
* Returns +true+ if _stat_ is successful, +false+ if not.
* Returns +nil+ if <code>exited?</code> is not +true+.
*/

static VALUE
pst_success_p(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (!WIFEXITED(status))
return Qnil;
    return WEXITSTATUS(status) == EXIT_SUCCESS ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* stat.coredump? -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if _stat_ generated a coredump
* when it terminated. Not available on all platforms.
*/

static VALUE
pst_wcoredump(VALUE st, SEL sel)
{
#ifdef WCOREDUMP
    int status = PST2INT(st);

    if (WCOREDUMP(status))
return Qtrue;
    else
return Qfalse;
#else
    return Qfalse;
#endif
}

#if !defined(HAVE_WAITPID) && !defined(HAVE_WAIT4)
#define NO_WAITPID
static st_table *pid_tbl;

struct wait_data {
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;
};

static int
wait_each(rb_pid_t pid, int status, struct wait_data *data)
{
    if (data->status != -1) return ST_STOP;

    data->pid = pid;
    data->status = status;
    return ST_DELETE;
}

static int
waitall_each(rb_pid_t pid, int status, VALUE ary)
{
    rb_last_status_set(status, pid);
    rb_ary_push(ary, rb_assoc_new(PIDT2NUM(pid), rb_last_status_get()));
    return ST_DELETE;
}
#else
struct waitpid_arg {
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int *st;
    int flags;
};
#endif

static VALUE
rb_waitpid_blocking(void *data)
{
    rb_pid_t result;
#ifndef NO_WAITPID
    struct waitpid_arg *arg = data;
#endif

#if defined NO_WAITPID
    result = wait(data);
#elif defined HAVE_WAITPID
    result = waitpid(arg->pid, arg->st, arg->flags);
#else /* HAVE_WAIT4 */
    result = wait4(arg->pid, arg->st, arg->flags, NULL);
#endif
    return (VALUE)result;
}

rb_pid_t
rb_waitpid(rb_pid_t pid, int *st, int flags)
{
    rb_pid_t result;
#ifndef NO_WAITPID
    struct waitpid_arg arg;

    arg.pid = pid;
    arg.st = st;
    arg.flags = flags;
    result = rb_waitpid_blocking(&arg);
// result = (rb_pid_t)rb_thread_blocking_region(rb_waitpid_blocking, &arg,
// RB_UBF_DFL, 0);
    if (result < 0) {
#if 0
if (errno == EINTR) {
rb_thread_polling();
goto retry;
}
#endif
return (rb_pid_t)-1;
    }
#else /* NO_WAITPID */
    if (pid_tbl) {
st_data_t status, piddata = (st_data_t)pid;
if (pid == (rb_pid_t)-1) {
struct wait_data data;
data.pid = (rb_pid_t)-1;
data.status = -1;
st_foreach(pid_tbl, wait_each, (st_data_t)&data);
if (data.status != -1) {
rb_last_status_set(data.status, data.pid);
return data.pid;
}
}
else if (st_delete(pid_tbl, &piddata, &status)) {
rb_last_status_set(*st = (int)status, pid);
return pid;
}
    }

    if (flags) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "can't do waitpid with flags");
    }

    for (;;) {
result = (rb_pid_t)rb_thread_blocking_region(rb_waitpid_blocking,
st, RUBY_UBF_PROCESS, 0);
if (result < 0) {
if (errno == EINTR) {
rb_thread_schedule();
continue;
}
return (rb_pid_t)-1;
}
if (result == pid || pid == (rb_pid_t)-1) {
break;
}
if (!pid_tbl)
pid_tbl = st_init_numtable();
st_insert(pid_tbl, pid, (st_data_t)st);
if (!rb_thread_alone()) rb_thread_schedule();
    }
#endif
    if (result > 0) {
rb_last_status_set(*st, result);
    }
    return result;
}


/* [MG]:FIXME: I wasn't sure how this should be done, since ::wait()
has historically been documented as if it didn't take any arguments
despite the fact that it's just an alias for ::waitpid(). The way I
have it below is more truthful, but a little confusing.

I also took the liberty of putting in the pid values, as they're
pretty useful, and it looked as if the original 'ri' output was
supposed to contain them after "[...]depending on the value of
aPid:".

The 'ansi' and 'bs' formats of the ri output don't display the
definition list for some reason, but the plain text one does.
*/

/*
* call-seq:
* Process.wait() -> fixnum
* Process.wait(pid=-1, flags=0) -> fixnum
* Process.waitpid(pid=-1, flags=0) -> fixnum
*
* Waits for a child process to exit, returns its process id, and
* sets <code>$?</code> to a <code>Process::Status</code> object
* containing information on that process. Which child it waits on
* depends on the value of _pid_:
*
* > 0:: Waits for the child whose process ID equals _pid_.
*
* 0:: Waits for any child whose process group ID equals that of the
* calling process.
*
* -1:: Waits for any child process (the default if no _pid_ is
* given).
*
* < -1:: Waits for any child whose process group ID equals the absolute
* value of _pid_.
*
* The _flags_ argument may be a logical or of the flag values
* <code>Process::WNOHANG</code> (do not block if no child available)
* or <code>Process::WUNTRACED</code> (return stopped children that
* haven't been reported). Not all flags are available on all
* platforms, but a flag value of zero will work on all platforms.
*
* Calling this method raises a <code>SystemError</code> if there are
* no child processes. Not available on all platforms.
*
* include Process
* fork { exit 99 } #=> 27429
* wait #=> 27429
* $?.exitstatus #=> 99
*
* pid = fork { sleep 3 } #=> 27440
* Time.now #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:16 +0900
* waitpid(pid, Process::WNOHANG) #=> nil
* Time.now #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:16 +0900
* waitpid(pid, 0) #=> 27440
* Time.now #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:19 +0900
*/

static VALUE
proc_wait(VALUE rcv, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE vpid, vflags;
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int flags, status;

    rb_secure(2);
    flags = 0;
    if (argc == 0) {
pid = -1;
    }
    else {
rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &vpid, &vflags);
pid = NUM2PIDT(vpid);
if (argc == 2 && !NIL_P(vflags)) {
flags = NUM2UINT(vflags);
}
    }
    if ((pid = rb_waitpid(pid, &status, flags)) < 0)
rb_sys_fail(0);
    if (pid == 0) {
rb_last_status_clear();
return Qnil;
    }
    return PIDT2NUM(pid);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.wait2(pid=-1, flags=0) -> [pid, status]
* Process.waitpid2(pid=-1, flags=0) -> [pid, status]
*
* Waits for a child process to exit (see Process::waitpid for exact
* semantics) and returns an array containing the process id and the
* exit status (a <code>Process::Status</code> object) of that
* child. Raises a <code>SystemError</code> if there are no child
* processes.
*
* Process.fork { exit 99 } #=> 27437
* pid, status = Process.wait2
* pid #=> 27437
* status.exitstatus #=> 99
*/

static VALUE
proc_wait2(VALUE rcv, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE pid = proc_wait(rcv, 0, argc, argv);
    if (NIL_P(pid)) return Qnil;
    return rb_assoc_new(pid, rb_last_status_get());
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.waitall -> [ [pid1,status1], ...]
*
* Waits for all children, returning an array of
* _pid_/_status_ pairs (where _status_ is a
* <code>Process::Status</code> object).
*
* fork { sleep 0.2; exit 2 } #=> 27432
* fork { sleep 0.1; exit 1 } #=> 27433
* fork { exit 0 } #=> 27434
* p Process.waitall
*
* <em>produces</em>:
*
* [[27434, #<Process::Status: pid=27434,exited(0)>],
* [27433, #<Process::Status: pid=27433,exited(1)>],
* [27432, #<Process::Status: pid=27432,exited(2)>]]
*/

static VALUE
proc_waitall(VALUE rcv, SEL sel)
{
    VALUE result;
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;

    rb_secure(2);
    result = rb_ary_new();
#ifdef NO_WAITPID
    if (pid_tbl) {
st_foreach(pid_tbl, waitall_each, result);
    }
#else
    rb_last_status_clear();
#endif

    for (pid = -1;;) {
#ifdef NO_WAITPID
pid = wait(&status);
#else
pid = rb_waitpid(-1, &status, 0);
#endif
if (pid == -1) {
if (errno == ECHILD)
break;
#ifdef NO_WAITPID
if (errno == EINTR) {
rb_thread_schedule();
continue;
}
#endif
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#ifdef NO_WAITPID
rb_last_status_set(status, pid);
#endif
rb_ary_push(result, rb_assoc_new(PIDT2NUM(pid), rb_last_status_get()));
    }
    return result;
}

static VALUE
detach_process_watcher(void *arg)
{
    rb_pid_t cpid, pid = (rb_pid_t)(VALUE)arg;
    int status;

    while ((cpid = rb_waitpid(pid, &status, 0)) == 0) {
/* wait while alive */
    }
    return rb_last_status_get();
}

VALUE
rb_detach_process(rb_pid_t pid)
{
    return rb_thread_create(detach_process_watcher, (void*)(VALUE)pid);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.detach(pid) -> thread
*
* Some operating systems retain the status of terminated child
* processes until the parent collects that status (normally using
* some variant of <code>wait()</code>. If the parent never collects
* this status, the child stays around as a <em>zombie</em> process.
* <code>Process::detach</code> prevents this by setting up a
* separate Ruby thread whose sole job is to reap the status of the
* process _pid_ when it terminates. Use <code>detach</code>
* only when you do not intent to explicitly wait for the child to
* terminate.
*
* The waiting thread returns the exit status of the detached process
* when it terminates, so you can use <code>Thread#join</code> to
* know the result. If specified _pid_ is not a valid child process
* ID, the thread returns +nil+ immediately.
*
* The waiting thread has <code>pid</code> method which returns the pid.
*
* In this first example, we don't reap the first child process, so
* it appears as a zombie in the process status display.
*
* p1 = fork { sleep 0.1 }
* p2 = fork { sleep 0.2 }
* Process.waitpid(p2)
* sleep 2
* system("ps -ho pid,state -p #{p1}")
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* 27389 Z
*
* In the next example, <code>Process::detach</code> is used to reap
* the child automatically.
*
* p1 = fork { sleep 0.1 }
* p2 = fork { sleep 0.2 }
* Process.detach(p1)
* Process.waitpid(p2)
* sleep 2
* system("ps -ho pid,state -p #{p1}")
*
* <em>(produces no output)</em>
*/

static VALUE
proc_detach(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE pid)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    return rb_detach_process(NUM2PIDT(pid));
}

#ifndef HAVE_STRING_H
char *strtok();
#endif

#if 1
#define before_exec()
#define after_exec()
#else
void rb_thread_stop_timer_thread(void);
void rb_thread_start_timer_thread(void);
void rb_thread_reset_timer_thread(void);

#define before_exec() \
(rb_enable_interrupt(), rb_thread_stop_timer_thread())
#define after_exec() \
(rb_thread_start_timer_thread(), rb_disable_interrupt())
#endif
#define before_fork() before_exec()
#define after_fork() after_exec()

#include "dln.h"

static void
security(const char *str)
{
    if (rb_env_path_tainted()) {
if (rb_safe_level() > 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure PATH - %s", str);
}
    }
}

static int
proc_exec_v(char **argv, const char *prog)
{
    char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];

    if (!prog)
prog = argv[0];
    prog = dln_find_exe_r(prog, 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
    if (!prog) {
errno = ENOENT;
return -1;
    }

#if defined(__EMX__) || defined(OS2)
    {
#define COMMAND "cmd.exe"
char *extension;

if ((extension = strrchr(prog, '.')) != NULL && STRCASECMP(extension, ".bat") == 0) {
char **new_argv;
char *p;
int n;

for (n = 0; argv[n]; n++)
/* no-op */;
new_argv = ALLOCA_N(char*, n + 2);
for (; n > 0; n--)
new_argv[n + 1] = argv[n];
new_argv[1] = strcpy(ALLOCA_N(char, strlen(argv[0]) + 1), argv[0]);
for (p = new_argv[1]; *p != '\0'; p++)
if (*p == '/')
*p = '\\';
new_argv[0] = COMMAND;
argv = new_argv;
prog = dln_find_exe_r(argv[0], 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
if (!prog) {
errno = ENOENT;
return -1;
}
}
    }
#endif /* __EMX__ */
    before_exec();
    execv(prog, argv);
    preserving_errno(after_exec());
    return -1;
}

int
rb_proc_exec_n(int argc, VALUE *argv, const char *prog)
{
    char **args;
    int i;

    args = ALLOCA_N(char*, argc+1);
    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
args[i] = (char *)RSTRING_PTR(argv[i]);
    }
    args[i] = 0;
    if (args[0]) {
return proc_exec_v(args, prog);
    }
    return -1;
}

int
rb_proc_exec(const char *str)
{
#ifndef _WIN32
    const char *s = str;
    char *ss, *t;
    char **argv, **a;
#endif

    while (*str && ISSPACE(*str))
str++;

#ifdef _WIN32
    before_exec();
    rb_w32_spawn(P_OVERLAY, (char *)str, 0);
    after_exec();
#else
    for (s=str; *s; s++) {
if (ISSPACE(*s)) {
const char *p, *nl = NULL;
for (p = s; ISSPACE(*p); p++) {
if (*p == '\n') nl = p;
}
if (!*p) break;
if (nl) s = nl;
}
if (*s != ' ' && !ISALPHA(*s) && strchr("*?{}[]<>()~&|\\$;'`\"\n",*s)) {
#if defined(__CYGWIN32__) || defined(__EMX__)
char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];
char *shell = dln_find_exe_r("sh", 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
int status = -1;
before_exec();
if (shell)
execl(shell, "sh", "-c", str, (char *) NULL);
else
status = system(str);
after_exec();
if (status != -1)
exit(status);
#else
before_exec();
execl("/bin/sh", "sh", "-c", str, (char *)NULL);
preserving_errno(after_exec());
#endif
return -1;
}
    }
    a = argv = ALLOCA_N(char*, (s-str)/2+2);
    ss = ALLOCA_N(char, s-str+1);
    memcpy(ss, str, s-str);
    ss[s-str] = '\0';
    if ((*a++ = strtok(ss, " \t")) != 0) {
while ((t = strtok(NULL, " \t")) != 0) {
*a++ = t;
}
*a = NULL;
    }
    if (argv[0]) {
return proc_exec_v(argv, 0);
    }
    errno = ENOENT;
#endif /* _WIN32 */
    return -1;
}

#if defined(_WIN32)
#define HAVE_SPAWNV 1
#endif

#if !defined(HAVE_FORK) && defined(HAVE_SPAWNV)
#if defined(_WIN32)
#define proc_spawn_v(argv, prog) rb_w32_aspawn(P_NOWAIT, prog, argv)
#else
static rb_pid_t
proc_spawn_v(char **argv, char *prog)
{
    char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];
    rb_pid_t status;

    if (!prog)
prog = argv[0];
    security(prog);
    prog = dln_find_exe_r(prog, 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
    if (!prog)
return -1;

    before_exec();
    status = spawnv(P_WAIT, prog, argv);
    rb_last_status_set(status == -1 ? 127 : status, 0);
    after_exec();
    return status;
}
#endif

static rb_pid_t
proc_spawn_n(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE prog)
{
    char **args;
    int i;

    args = ALLOCA_N(char*, argc + 1);
    for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
args[i] = RSTRING_PTR(argv[i]);
    }
    args[i] = (char*) 0;
    if (args[0])
return proc_spawn_v(args, prog ? RSTRING_PTR(prog) : 0);
    return -1;
}

#if defined(_WIN32)
#define proc_spawn(str) rb_w32_spawn(P_NOWAIT, str, 0)
#else
static rb_pid_t
proc_spawn(char *str)
{
    char fbuf[MAXPATHLEN];
    char *s, *t;
    char **argv, **a;
    rb_pid_t status;

    for (s = str; *s; s++) {
if (*s != ' ' && !ISALPHA(*s) && strchr("*?{}[]<>()~&|\\$;'`\"\n",*s)) {
char *shell = dln_find_exe_r("sh", 0, fbuf, sizeof(fbuf));
before_exec();
status = shell?spawnl(P_WAIT,shell,"sh","-c",str,(char*)NULL):system(str);
rb_last_status_set(status == -1 ? 127 : status, 0);
after_exec();
return status;
}
    }
    a = argv = ALLOCA_N(char*, (s - str) / 2 + 2);
    s = ALLOCA_N(char, s - str + 1);
    strcpy(s, str);
    if (*a++ = strtok(s, " \t")) {
while (t = strtok(NULL, " \t"))
*a++ = t;
*a = NULL;
    }
    return argv[0] ? proc_spawn_v(argv, 0) : -1;
}
#endif
#endif

static VALUE
hide_obj(VALUE obj)
{
#if !WITH_OBJC
    RBASIC(obj)->klass = 0;
#endif
    return obj;
}

enum {
    EXEC_OPTION_PGROUP,
    EXEC_OPTION_RLIMIT,
    EXEC_OPTION_UNSETENV_OTHERS,
    EXEC_OPTION_ENV,
    EXEC_OPTION_CHDIR,
    EXEC_OPTION_UMASK,
    EXEC_OPTION_DUP2,
    EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE,
    EXEC_OPTION_OPEN,
    EXEC_OPTION_DUP2_CHILD,
    EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE_OTHERS
};

static VALUE
check_exec_redirect_fd(VALUE v)
{
    VALUE tmp;
    int fd;
    if (FIXNUM_P(v)) {
        fd = FIX2INT(v);
    }
    else if (SYMBOL_P(v)) {
        ID id = SYM2ID(v);
        if (id == rb_intern("in"))
            fd = 0;
        else if (id == rb_intern("out"))
            fd = 1;
        else if (id == rb_intern("err"))
            fd = 2;
        else
            goto wrong;
    }
    else if (!NIL_P(tmp = rb_check_convert_type(v, T_FILE, "IO", "to_io"))) {
        rb_io_t *fptr;
        GetOpenFile(tmp, fptr);
#if 0
if (fptr->tied_io_for_writing)
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "duplex IO redirection");
#endif
        fd = fptr->fd;
    }
    else {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec redirect");
    }
    if (fd < 0) {
      wrong:
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative file descriptor");
    }
    return INT2FIX(fd);
}

static void
check_exec_redirect(VALUE key, VALUE val, VALUE options)
{
    int index;
    VALUE ary, param;
    VALUE path, flags, perm;
    ID id;

    switch (TYPE(val)) {
      case T_SYMBOL:
        id = SYM2ID(val);
        if (id == rb_intern("close")) {
            index = EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE;
            param = Qnil;
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("in")) {
            index = EXEC_OPTION_DUP2;
            param = INT2FIX(0);
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("out")) {
            index = EXEC_OPTION_DUP2;
            param = INT2FIX(1);
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("err")) {
            index = EXEC_OPTION_DUP2;
            param = INT2FIX(2);
        }
        else {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec redirect symbol: %s",
                                   rb_id2name(id));
        }
        break;

      case T_FILE:
        val = check_exec_redirect_fd(val);
        /* fall through */
      case T_FIXNUM:
        index = EXEC_OPTION_DUP2;
        param = val;
        break;

      case T_ARRAY:
        path = rb_ary_entry(val, 0);
        if (RARRAY_LEN(val) == 2 && SYMBOL_P(path) &&
            SYM2ID(path) == rb_intern("child")) {
            index = EXEC_OPTION_DUP2_CHILD;
            param = check_exec_redirect_fd(rb_ary_entry(val, 1));
        }
        else {
            index = EXEC_OPTION_OPEN;
            FilePathValue(path);
            flags = rb_ary_entry(val, 1);
            if (NIL_P(flags))
                flags = INT2NUM(O_RDONLY);
            else if (TYPE(flags) == T_STRING)
                flags = INT2NUM(rb_io_modestr_oflags(StringValueCStr(flags)));
            else
                flags = rb_to_int(flags);
            perm = rb_ary_entry(val, 2);
            perm = NIL_P(perm) ? INT2FIX(0644) : rb_to_int(perm);
            param = hide_obj(rb_ary_new3(3, hide_obj(rb_str_dup(path)),
                                            flags, perm));
        }
        break;

      case T_STRING:
        index = EXEC_OPTION_OPEN;
        path = val;
        FilePathValue(path);
        if (TYPE(key) == T_FILE)
            key = check_exec_redirect_fd(key);
        if (FIXNUM_P(key) && (FIX2INT(key) == 1 || FIX2INT(key) == 2))
            flags = INT2NUM(O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TRUNC);
        else
            flags = INT2NUM(O_RDONLY);
        perm = INT2FIX(0644);
        param = hide_obj(rb_ary_new3(3, hide_obj(rb_str_dup(path)),
                                        flags, perm));
        break;

      default:
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec redirect action");
    }

    ary = rb_ary_entry(options, index);
    if (NIL_P(ary)) {
        ary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
        rb_ary_store(options, index, ary);
    }
    if (TYPE(key) != T_ARRAY) {
        VALUE fd = check_exec_redirect_fd(key);
        rb_ary_push(ary, hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(fd, param)));
    }
    else {
        int i, n=0;
        for (i = 0 ; i < RARRAY_LEN(key); i++) {
            VALUE v = RARRAY_AT(key, i);
            VALUE fd = check_exec_redirect_fd(v);
            rb_ary_push(ary, hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(fd, param)));
            n++;
        }
    }
}

#ifdef RLIM2NUM
static int rlimit_type_by_lname(const char *name);
#endif

int
rb_exec_arg_addopt(struct rb_exec_arg *e, VALUE key, VALUE val)
{
    VALUE options = e->options;
    ID id;
#ifdef RLIM2NUM
    int rtype;
#endif

    rb_secure(2);

    switch (TYPE(key)) {
      case T_SYMBOL:
        id = SYM2ID(key);
#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
        if (id == rb_intern("pgroup")) {
            if (!NIL_P(rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_PGROUP))) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "pgroup option specified twice");
            }
            if (!RTEST(val))
                val = Qfalse;
            else if (val == Qtrue)
                val = INT2FIX(0);
            else {
                pid_t pgroup = NUM2PIDT(val);
                if (pgroup < 0) {
                    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative process group ID : %ld", (long)pgroup);
                }
                val = PIDT2NUM(pgroup);
            }
            rb_ary_store(options, EXEC_OPTION_PGROUP, val);
        }
        else
#endif
#ifdef RLIM2NUM
        if (strncmp("rlimit_", rb_id2name(id), 7) == 0 &&
            (rtype = rlimit_type_by_lname(rb_id2name(id)+7)) != -1) {
            VALUE ary = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_RLIMIT);
            VALUE tmp, softlim, hardlim;
            if (NIL_P(ary)) {
                ary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
                rb_ary_store(options, EXEC_OPTION_RLIMIT, ary);
            }
            tmp = rb_check_array_type(val);
            if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
                if (RARRAY_LEN(tmp) == 1)
                    softlim = hardlim = rb_to_int(rb_ary_entry(tmp, 0));
                else if (RARRAY_LEN(tmp) == 2) {
                    softlim = rb_to_int(rb_ary_entry(tmp, 0));
                    hardlim = rb_to_int(rb_ary_entry(tmp, 1));
                }
                else {
                    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec rlimit option");
                }
            }
            else {
                softlim = hardlim = rb_to_int(val);
            }
            tmp = hide_obj(rb_ary_new3(3, INT2NUM(rtype), softlim, hardlim));
            rb_ary_push(ary, tmp);
        }
        else
#endif
        if (id == rb_intern("unsetenv_others")) {
            if (!NIL_P(rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_UNSETENV_OTHERS))) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "unsetenv_others option specified twice");
            }
            val = RTEST(val) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
            rb_ary_store(options, EXEC_OPTION_UNSETENV_OTHERS, val);
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("chdir")) {
            if (!NIL_P(rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_CHDIR))) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "chdir option specified twice");
            }
            FilePathValue(val);
            rb_ary_store(options, EXEC_OPTION_CHDIR,
                                  hide_obj(rb_str_dup(val)));
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("umask")) {
            mode_t cmask = NUM2LONG(val);
            if (!NIL_P(rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_UMASK))) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "umask option specified twice");
            }
            rb_ary_store(options, EXEC_OPTION_UMASK, LONG2NUM(cmask));
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("close_others")) {
            if (!NIL_P(rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE_OTHERS))) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "close_others option specified twice");
            }
            val = RTEST(val) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
            rb_ary_store(options, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE_OTHERS, val);
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("in")) {
            key = INT2FIX(0);
            goto redirect;
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("out")) {
            key = INT2FIX(1);
            goto redirect;
        }
        else if (id == rb_intern("err")) {
            key = INT2FIX(2);
            goto redirect;
        }
        else {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec option symbol: %s",
                                   rb_id2name(id));
        }
        break;

      case T_FIXNUM:
      case T_FILE:
      case T_ARRAY:
redirect:
        check_exec_redirect(key, val, options);
        break;

      default:
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong exec option");
    }

    return ST_CONTINUE;
}

static int
check_exec_options_i(st_data_t st_key, st_data_t st_val, st_data_t arg)
{
    VALUE key = (VALUE)st_key;
    VALUE val = (VALUE)st_val;
    struct rb_exec_arg *e = (struct rb_exec_arg *)arg;
    return rb_exec_arg_addopt(e, key, val);
}

static VALUE
check_exec_fds(VALUE options)
{
    VALUE h = rb_hash_new();
    VALUE ary;
    int index, i;
    int maxhint = -1;

    for (index = EXEC_OPTION_DUP2; index <= EXEC_OPTION_DUP2_CHILD; index++) {
        ary = rb_ary_entry(options, index);
        if (NIL_P(ary))
            continue;
        for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
            VALUE elt = RARRAY_AT(ary, i);
            int fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 0));
            if (RTEST(rb_hash_lookup(h, INT2FIX(fd)))) {
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "fd %d specified twice", fd);
            }
            if (index == EXEC_OPTION_OPEN || index == EXEC_OPTION_DUP2)
                rb_hash_aset(h, INT2FIX(fd), Qtrue);
            else if (index == EXEC_OPTION_DUP2_CHILD)
                rb_hash_aset(h, INT2FIX(fd), RARRAY_PTR(elt)[1]);
            else /* index == EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE */
                rb_hash_aset(h, INT2FIX(fd), INT2FIX(-1));
            if (maxhint < fd)
                maxhint = fd;
            if (index == EXEC_OPTION_DUP2 || index == EXEC_OPTION_DUP2_CHILD) {
                fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 1));
                if (maxhint < fd)
                    maxhint = fd;
            }
        }
    }

    ary = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_DUP2_CHILD);
    if (!NIL_P(ary)) {
        for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
            VALUE elt = RARRAY_PTR(ary)[i];
            int newfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 0));
            int oldfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 1));
            int lastfd = oldfd;
            VALUE val = rb_hash_lookup(h, INT2FIX(lastfd));
            long depth = 0;
            while (FIXNUM_P(val) && 0 <= FIX2INT(val)) {
                lastfd = FIX2INT(val);
                val = rb_hash_lookup(h, val);
                if (RARRAY_LEN(ary) < depth)
                    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "cyclic child fd redirection from %d", oldfd);
                depth++;
            }
            if (val != Qtrue)
                rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "child fd %d is not redirected", oldfd);
            if (oldfd != lastfd) {
                VALUE val2;
                rb_ary_store(elt, 1, INT2FIX(lastfd));
                rb_hash_aset(h, INT2FIX(newfd), INT2FIX(lastfd));
                val = INT2FIX(oldfd);
                while (FIXNUM_P(val2 = rb_hash_lookup(h, val))) {
                    rb_hash_aset(h, val, INT2FIX(lastfd));
                    val = val2;
                }
            }
        }
    }

    if (rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE_OTHERS) != Qfalse) {
        rb_ary_store(options, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE_OTHERS, INT2FIX(maxhint));
    }
    return h;
}

static void
rb_check_exec_options(VALUE opthash, struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
    if (RHASH_EMPTY_P(opthash))
        return;
    rb_hash_foreach(opthash, check_exec_options_i, (VALUE)e);
}

static int
check_exec_env_i(st_data_t st_key, st_data_t st_val, st_data_t arg)
{
    VALUE key = (VALUE)st_key;
    VALUE val = (VALUE)st_val;
    VALUE env = (VALUE)arg;
    char *k;

    k = StringValueCStr(key);
    if (strchr(k, '='))
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "environment name contains a equal : %s", k);

    if (!NIL_P(val))
        StringValueCStr(val);

    rb_ary_push(env, hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(key, val)));

    return ST_CONTINUE;
}

static VALUE
rb_check_exec_env(VALUE hash)
{
    VALUE env;

    env = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
    rb_hash_foreach(hash, check_exec_env_i, env);

    return env;
}

static VALUE
rb_check_argv(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE tmp, prog;
    int i;
    const char *name = 0;

    if (argc == 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong number of arguments");
    }

    prog = 0;
    tmp = rb_check_array_type(argv[0]);
    if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
if (RARRAY_LEN(tmp) != 2) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong first argument");
}
prog = RARRAY_AT(tmp, 0);
argv[0] = RARRAY_AT(tmp, 1);
SafeStringValue(prog);
StringValueCStr(prog);
prog = rb_str_new4(prog);
name = RSTRING_PTR(prog);
    }
    for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
SafeStringValue(argv[i]);
argv[i] = rb_str_new4(argv[i]);
StringValueCStr(argv[i]);
    }
    security(name ? name : RSTRING_PTR(argv[0]));
    return prog;
}

static VALUE
rb_exec_getargs(int *argc_p, VALUE **argv_p, int accept_shell, VALUE *env_ret, VALUE *opthash_ret, struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
    VALUE hash, prog;

    if (0 < *argc_p) {
        hash = rb_check_convert_type((*argv_p)[*argc_p-1], T_HASH, "Hash", "to_hash");
        if (!NIL_P(hash)) {
            *opthash_ret = hash;
            (*argc_p)--;
        }
    }

    if (0 < *argc_p) {
        hash = rb_check_convert_type((*argv_p)[0], T_HASH, "Hash", "to_hash");
        if (!NIL_P(hash)) {
            *env_ret = hash;
            (*argc_p)--;
            (*argv_p)++;
        }
    }
    prog = rb_check_argv(*argc_p, *argv_p);
    if (!prog) {
        prog = (*argv_p)[0];
        if (accept_shell && *argc_p == 1) {
            *argc_p = 0;
            *argv_p = 0;
        }
    }
    return prog;
}

static void
rb_exec_fillarg(VALUE prog, int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE env, VALUE opthash, struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
    VALUE options;
    MEMZERO(e, struct rb_exec_arg, 1);
    options = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
    e->options = options;

    if (!NIL_P(opthash)) {
        rb_check_exec_options(opthash, e);
    }
    if (!NIL_P(env)) {
        env = rb_check_exec_env(env);
        rb_ary_store(options, EXEC_OPTION_ENV, env);
    }

    e->argc = argc;
    e->argv = argv;
    e->prog = prog ? RSTRING_PTR(prog) : 0;
}

VALUE
rb_exec_arg_init(int argc, VALUE *argv, int accept_shell, struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
    VALUE prog;
    VALUE env = Qnil, opthash = Qnil;
    prog = rb_exec_getargs(&argc, &argv, accept_shell, &env, &opthash, e);
    rb_exec_fillarg(prog, argc, argv, env, opthash, e);
    return prog;
}

void
rb_exec_arg_fixup(struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
    e->redirect_fds = check_exec_fds(e->options);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* exec([env,] command... [,options])
*
* Replaces the current process by running the given external _command_.
* _command..._ is one of following forms.
*
* commandline : command line string which is passed to the standard shell
* cmdname, arg1, ... : command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
* [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ... : command name, argv[0] and zero or more arguments (no shell)
*
* If single string is given as the command,
* it is taken as a command line that is subject to shell expansion before being executed.
*
* The standard shell means always <code>"/bin/sh"</code> on Unix-like systems,
* <code>ENV["RUBYSHELL"]</code> or <code>ENV["COMSPEC"]</code> on Windows NT series, and
* similar.
*
* If two or more +string+ given,
* the first is taken as a command name and
* the rest are passed as parameters to command with no shell expansion.
*
* If a two-element array at the beginning of the command,
* the first element is the command to be executed,
* and the second argument is used as the <code>argv[0]</code> value,
* which may show up in process listings.
*
* In order to execute the command, one of the <code>exec(2)</code>
* system calls is used, so the running command may inherit some of the environment
* of the original program (including open file descriptors).
* This behavior is modified by env and options.
* See <code>spawn</code> for details.
*
* Raises SystemCallError if the command couldn't execute (typically
* <code>Errno::ENOENT</code> when it was not found).
*
* exec "echo *" # echoes list of files in current directory
* # never get here
*
*
* exec "echo", "*" # echoes an asterisk
* # never get here
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_exec(VALUE rcv, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    struct rb_exec_arg earg;
#define CHILD_ERRMSG_BUFLEN 80
    char errmsg[CHILD_ERRMSG_BUFLEN] = { '\0' };

    rb_exec_arg_init(argc, argv, TRUE, &earg);
    if (NIL_P(rb_ary_entry(earg.options, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE_OTHERS)))
        rb_exec_arg_addopt(&earg, ID2SYM(rb_intern("close_others")), Qfalse);
    rb_exec_arg_fixup(&earg);

    rb_exec_err(&earg, errmsg, sizeof(errmsg));
    if (errmsg[0])
        rb_sys_fail(errmsg);
    rb_sys_fail(earg.prog);
    return Qnil; /* dummy */
}

#define ERRMSG(str) do { if (errmsg && 0 < errmsg_buflen) strlcpy(errmsg, (str), errmsg_buflen); } while (0)

/*#define DEBUG_REDIRECT*/
#if defined(DEBUG_REDIRECT)

#include <stdarg.h>

static void
ttyprintf(const char *fmt, ...)
{
    va_list ap;
    FILE *tty;
    int save = errno;
#ifdef _WIN32
    tty = fopen("con", "w");
#else
    tty = fopen("/dev/tty", "w");
#endif
    if (!tty)
        return;

    va_start(ap, fmt);
    vfprintf(tty, fmt, ap);
    va_end(ap);
    fclose(tty);
    errno = save;
}

static int
redirect_dup(int oldfd)
{
    int ret;
    ret = dup(oldfd);
    ttyprintf("dup(%d) => %d\n", oldfd, ret);
    return ret;
}

static int
redirect_dup2(int oldfd, int newfd)
{
    int ret;
    ret = dup2(oldfd, newfd);
    ttyprintf("dup2(%d, %d)\n", oldfd, newfd);
    return ret;
}

static int
redirect_close(int fd)
{
    int ret;
    ret = close(fd);
    ttyprintf("close(%d)\n", fd);
    return ret;
}

static int
redirect_open(const char *pathname, int flags, mode_t perm)
{
    int ret;
    ret = open(pathname, flags, perm);
    ttyprintf("open(\"%s\", 0x%x, 0%o) => %d\n", pathname, flags, perm, ret);
    return ret;
}

#else
#define redirect_dup(oldfd) dup(oldfd)
#define redirect_dup2(oldfd, newfd) dup2(oldfd, newfd)
#define redirect_close(fd) close(fd)
#define redirect_open(pathname, flags, perm) open(pathname, flags, perm)
#endif

static int
save_redirect_fd(int fd, VALUE save, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    if (!NIL_P(save)) {
        VALUE newary;
        int save_fd = redirect_dup(fd);
        if (save_fd == -1) {
            if (errno == EBADF)
                return 0;
            ERRMSG("dup");
            return -1;
        }
        newary = rb_ary_entry(save, EXEC_OPTION_DUP2);
        if (NIL_P(newary)) {
            newary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
            rb_ary_store(save, EXEC_OPTION_DUP2, newary);
        }
        rb_ary_push(newary,
                    hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(INT2FIX(fd), INT2FIX(save_fd))));

        newary = rb_ary_entry(save, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE);
        if (NIL_P(newary)) {
            newary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
            rb_ary_store(save, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE, newary);
        }
        rb_ary_push(newary, hide_obj(rb_assoc_new(INT2FIX(save_fd), Qnil)));
    }

    return 0;
}

static VALUE
save_env_i(VALUE i, VALUE ary, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    rb_ary_push(ary, hide_obj(rb_ary_dup(argv[0])));
    return Qnil;
}

static void
save_env(VALUE save)
{
    if (!NIL_P(save) && NIL_P(rb_ary_entry(save, EXEC_OPTION_ENV))) {
        VALUE env = rb_const_get(rb_cObject, rb_intern("ENV"));
        if (RTEST(env)) {
            VALUE ary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
            rb_objc_block_call(env, selEach, 0, 0, save_env_i, (VALUE)ary);
            rb_ary_store(save, EXEC_OPTION_ENV, ary);
        }
        rb_ary_store(save, EXEC_OPTION_UNSETENV_OTHERS, Qtrue);
    }
}

static int
intcmp(const void *a, const void *b)
{
    return *(int*)a - *(int*)b;
}

static int
intrcmp(const void *a, const void *b)
{
    return *(int*)b - *(int*)a;
}

static int
run_exec_dup2(VALUE ary, VALUE save, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    long n, i;
    int ret;
    int extra_fd = -1;
    struct fd_pair {
        int oldfd;
        int newfd;
        long older_index;
        long num_newer;
    } *pairs = 0;

    n = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    pairs = (struct fd_pair *)malloc(sizeof(struct fd_pair) * n);
    if (pairs == NULL) {
        ERRMSG("malloc");
        return -1;
    }

    /* initialize oldfd and newfd: O(n) */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_AT(ary, i);
        pairs[i].oldfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 1));
        pairs[i].newfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 0)); /* unique */
        pairs[i].older_index = -1;
    }

    /* sort the table by oldfd: O(n log n) */
    if (!RTEST(save))
        qsort(pairs, n, sizeof(struct fd_pair), intcmp);
    else
        qsort(pairs, n, sizeof(struct fd_pair), intrcmp);

    /* initialize older_index and num_newer: O(n log n) */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        int newfd = pairs[i].newfd;
        struct fd_pair key, *found;
        key.oldfd = newfd;
        found = bsearch(&key, pairs, n, sizeof(struct fd_pair), intcmp);
        pairs[i].num_newer = 0;
        if (found) {
            while (pairs < found && (found-1)->oldfd == newfd)
                found--;
            while (found < pairs+n && found->oldfd == newfd) {
                pairs[i].num_newer++;
                found->older_index = i;
                found++;
            }
        }
    }

    /* non-cyclic redirection: O(n) */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        long j = i;
        while (j != -1 && pairs[j].oldfd != -1 && pairs[j].num_newer == 0) {
            if (save_redirect_fd(pairs[j].newfd, save, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0)
                goto fail;
            ret = redirect_dup2(pairs[j].oldfd, pairs[j].newfd);
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("dup2");
                goto fail;
            }
            pairs[j].oldfd = -1;
            j = pairs[j].older_index;
            if (j != -1)
                pairs[j].num_newer--;
        }
    }

    /* cyclic redirection: O(n) */
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        long j;
        if (pairs[i].oldfd == -1)
            continue;
        if (pairs[i].oldfd == pairs[i].newfd) { /* self cycle */
#ifdef F_GETFD
            int fd = pairs[i].oldfd;
            ret = fcntl(fd, F_GETFD);
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("fcntl(F_GETFD)");
                goto fail;
            }
            if (ret & FD_CLOEXEC) {
                ret &= ~FD_CLOEXEC;
                ret = fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, ret);
                if (ret == -1) {
                    ERRMSG("fcntl(F_SETFD)");
                    goto fail;
                }
            }
#endif
            pairs[i].oldfd = -1;
            continue;
        }
        if (extra_fd == -1) {
            extra_fd = redirect_dup(pairs[i].oldfd);
            if (extra_fd == -1) {
                ERRMSG("dup");
                goto fail;
            }
        }
        else {
            ret = redirect_dup2(pairs[i].oldfd, extra_fd);
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("dup2");
                goto fail;
            }
        }
        pairs[i].oldfd = extra_fd;
        j = pairs[i].older_index;
        pairs[i].older_index = -1;
        while (j != -1) {
            ret = redirect_dup2(pairs[j].oldfd, pairs[j].newfd);
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("dup2");
                goto fail;
            }
            pairs[j].oldfd = -1;
            j = pairs[j].older_index;
        }
    }
    if (extra_fd != -1) {
        ret = redirect_close(extra_fd);
        if (ret == -1) {
            ERRMSG("close");
            goto fail;
        }
    }

    return 0;

fail:
    if (pairs)
        xfree(pairs);
    return -1;
}

static int
run_exec_close(VALUE ary, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    int i, ret;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_AT(ary, i);
        int fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 0));
        ret = redirect_close(fd);
        if (ret == -1) {
            ERRMSG("close");
            return -1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

static int
run_exec_open(VALUE ary, VALUE save, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    int i, ret;

    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary);) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_AT(ary, i);;
        int fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 0));
        VALUE param = RARRAY_AT(elt, 1);
        const char *path = RSTRING_PTR(RARRAY_AT(param, 0));
        int flags = NUM2INT(RARRAY_AT(param, 1));
        int perm = NUM2INT(RARRAY_AT(param, 2));
        int need_close = 1;
        int fd2 = redirect_open(path, flags, perm);
        if (fd2 == -1) {
            ERRMSG("open");
            return -1;
        }
        while (i < RARRAY_LEN(ary) &&
               (elt = RARRAY_AT(ary, i), RARRAY_AT(elt, 1) == param)) {
            fd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 0));
            if (fd == fd2) {
                need_close = 0;
            }
            else {
                if (save_redirect_fd(fd, save, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0)
                    return -1;
                ret = redirect_dup2(fd2, fd);
                if (ret == -1) {
                    ERRMSG("dup2");
                    return -1;
                }
            }
            i++;
        }
        if (need_close) {
            ret = redirect_close(fd2);
            if (ret == -1) {
                ERRMSG("close");
                return -1;
            }
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

static int
run_exec_dup2_child(VALUE ary, VALUE save, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    int i, ret;
    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_AT(ary, i);
        int newfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 0));
        int oldfd = FIX2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 1));

        if (save_redirect_fd(newfd, save, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0)
            return -1;
        ret = redirect_dup2(oldfd, newfd);
        if (ret == -1) {
            ERRMSG("dup2");
            return -1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
static int
run_exec_pgroup(VALUE obj, VALUE save, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    /*
* If FD_CLOEXEC is available, rb_fork waits the child's execve.
* So setpgid is done in the child when rb_fork is returned in the parent.
* No race condition, even without setpgid from the parent.
* (Is there an environment which has setpgid but FD_CLOEXEC?)
*/
    int ret;
    pid_t pgroup;
    if (!NIL_P(save)) {
        /* maybe meaningless with no fork environment... */
        rb_ary_store(save, EXEC_OPTION_PGROUP, PIDT2NUM(getpgrp()));
    }
    pgroup = NUM2PIDT(obj);
    if (pgroup == 0) {
        pgroup = getpid();
    }
    ret = setpgid(getpid(), pgroup);
    if (ret == -1) ERRMSG("setpgid");
    return ret;
}
#endif

#ifdef RLIM2NUM
static int
run_exec_rlimit(VALUE ary, VALUE save, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
        VALUE elt = RARRAY_AT(ary, i);
        int rtype = NUM2INT(RARRAY_AT(elt, 0));
        struct rlimit rlim;
        if (!NIL_P(save)) {
            if (getrlimit(rtype, &rlim) == -1) {
                ERRMSG("getrlimit");
                return -1;
            }
            VALUE tmp = hide_obj(rb_ary_new3(3, RARRAY_AT(elt, 0),
                                             RLIM2NUM(rlim.rlim_cur),
                                             RLIM2NUM(rlim.rlim_max)));
            VALUE newary = rb_ary_entry(save, EXEC_OPTION_RLIMIT);
            if (NIL_P(newary)) {
                newary = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
                rb_ary_store(save, EXEC_OPTION_RLIMIT, newary);
            }
            rb_ary_push(newary, tmp);
        }
        rlim.rlim_cur = NUM2RLIM(RARRAY_AT(elt, 1));
        rlim.rlim_max = NUM2RLIM(RARRAY_AT(elt, 2));
        if (setrlimit(rtype, &rlim) == -1) {
            ERRMSG("setrlimit");
            return -1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
#endif

int
rb_run_exec_options_err(const struct rb_exec_arg *e, struct rb_exec_arg *s, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    VALUE options = e->options;
    VALUE soptions = Qnil;
    VALUE obj;

    if (!RTEST(options))
        return 0;

    if (s) {
        s->argc = 0;
        s->argv = NULL;
        s->prog = NULL;
        s->options = soptions = hide_obj(rb_ary_new());
        s->redirect_fds = Qnil;
    }

#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_PGROUP);
    if (RTEST(obj)) {
        if (run_exec_pgroup(obj, soptions, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1)
            return -1;
    }
#endif

#ifdef RLIM2NUM
    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_RLIMIT);
    if (!NIL_P(obj)) {
        if (run_exec_rlimit(obj, soptions, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1)
            return -1;
    }
#endif

    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_UNSETENV_OTHERS);
    if (RTEST(obj)) {
        save_env(soptions);
        rb_env_clear();
    }

    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_ENV);
    if (!NIL_P(obj)) {
        int i;
        save_env(soptions);
        for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(obj); i++) {
            VALUE pair = RARRAY_AT(obj, i);
            VALUE key = RARRAY_AT(pair, 0);
            VALUE val = RARRAY_AT(pair, 1);
            if (NIL_P(val))
                ruby_setenv(StringValueCStr(key), 0);
            else
                ruby_setenv(StringValueCStr(key), StringValueCStr(val));
        }
    }

    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_CHDIR);
    if (!NIL_P(obj)) {
        if (!NIL_P(soptions)) {
            VALUE cwd = ruby_getcwd();
            rb_ary_store(soptions, EXEC_OPTION_CHDIR,
                         hide_obj(cwd));
        }
        if (chdir(RSTRING_PTR(obj)) == -1) {
            ERRMSG("chdir");
            return -1;
        }
    }

    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_UMASK);
    if (!NIL_P(obj)) {
        mode_t mask = NUM2LONG(obj);
        mode_t oldmask = umask(mask); /* never fail */
        if (!NIL_P(soptions))
            rb_ary_store(soptions, EXEC_OPTION_UMASK, LONG2NUM(oldmask));
    }

    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_DUP2);
    if (!NIL_P(obj)) {
        if (run_exec_dup2(obj, soptions, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1)
            return -1;
    }

    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE);
    if (!NIL_P(obj)) {
        if (!NIL_P(soptions))
            rb_warn("cannot close fd before spawn");
        else {
            if (run_exec_close(obj, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1)
                return -1;
        }
    }

#ifdef HAVE_FORK
    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE_OTHERS);
    if (obj != Qfalse) {
rb_close_before_exec(3, FIX2INT(obj), e->redirect_fds);
    }
#endif

    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_OPEN);
    if (!NIL_P(obj)) {
        if (run_exec_open(obj, soptions, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1)
            return -1;
    }

    obj = rb_ary_entry(options, EXEC_OPTION_DUP2_CHILD);
    if (!NIL_P(obj)) {
        if (run_exec_dup2_child(obj, soptions, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) == -1)
            return -1;
    }

    return 0;
}

int
rb_run_exec_options(const struct rb_exec_arg *e, struct rb_exec_arg *s)
{
    return rb_run_exec_options_err(e, s, NULL, 0);
}

int
rb_exec_err(const struct rb_exec_arg *e, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    int argc = e->argc;
    VALUE *argv = e->argv;
    const char *prog = e->prog;

    if (rb_run_exec_options_err(e, NULL, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0) {
        return -1;
    }

    if (argc == 0) {
rb_proc_exec(prog);
    }
    else {
rb_proc_exec_n(argc, argv, prog);
    }
    return -1;
}

int
rb_exec(const struct rb_exec_arg *e)
{
#if !defined FD_CLOEXEC && !defined HAVE_SPAWNV
    char errmsg[80] = { '\0' };
    int ret = rb_exec_err(e, errmsg, sizeof(errmsg));
    preserving_errno(
if (errmsg[0]) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", errmsg);
}
else {
fprintf(stderr, "%s:%d: command not found: %s\n",
rb_sourcefile(), rb_sourceline(), e->prog);
}
    );
    return ret;
#else
    return rb_exec_err(e, NULL, 0);
#endif
}

#ifdef HAVE_FORK
static int
rb_exec_atfork(void* arg, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    //rb_thread_atfork_before_exec();
    return rb_exec_err(arg, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
}
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_FORK
#ifdef FD_CLOEXEC
#if SIZEOF_INT == SIZEOF_LONG
#define proc_syswait (VALUE (*)(VALUE))rb_syswait
#else
#if 0 // not used
static VALUE
proc_syswait(VALUE pid)
{
rb_syswait((int)pid);
return Qnil;
}
#endif
#endif
#endif

#if 0 // not used
static int
move_fds_to_avoid_crash(int *fdp, int n, VALUE fds)
{
    long min = 0;
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        int ret;
        while (RTEST(rb_hash_lookup(fds, INT2FIX(fdp[i])))) {
            if (min <= fdp[i])
                min = fdp[i]+1;
            while (RTEST(rb_hash_lookup(fds, INT2FIX(min))))
                min++;
            ret = fcntl(fdp[i], F_DUPFD, min);
            if (ret == -1)
                return -1;
            close(fdp[i]);
            fdp[i] = ret;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
#endif

#if 0 // not used
static int
pipe_nocrash(int filedes[2], VALUE fds)
{
    int ret;
    ret = pipe(filedes);
    if (ret == -1)
        return -1;
    if (RTEST(fds)) {
        int save = errno;
        if (move_fds_to_avoid_crash(filedes, 2, fds) == -1) {
            close(filedes[0]);
            close(filedes[1]);
            return -1;
        }
        errno = save;
    }
    return ret;
}
#endif

/*
* Forks child process, and returns the process ID in the parent
* process.
*
* If +status+ is given, protects from any exceptions and sets the
* jump status to it.
*
* In the child process, just returns 0 if +chfunc+ is +NULL+.
* Otherwise +chfunc+ will be called with +charg+, and then the child
* process exits with +EXIT_SUCCESS+ when it returned zero.
*
* In the case of the function is called and returns non-zero value,
* the child process exits with non-+EXIT_SUCCESS+ value (normally
* 127). And, on the platforms where +FD_CLOEXEC+ is available,
* +errno+ is propagated to the parent process, and this function
* returns -1 in the parent process. On the other platforms, just
* returns pid.
*
* If fds is not Qnil, internal pipe for the errno propagation is
* arranged to avoid conflicts of the hash keys in +fds+.
*
* +chfunc+ must not raise any exceptions.
*/
rb_pid_t
rb_fork_err(int *status, int (*chfunc)(void*, char *, size_t), void *charg, VALUE fds,
        char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int err, state = 0;
#ifdef FD_CLOEXEC
    int ep[2];
#endif

#define prefork() ( \
rb_io_flush(rb_stdout, 0), \
rb_io_flush(rb_stderr, 0) \
)
    prefork();

#ifdef FD_CLOEXEC
    if (chfunc) {
if (pipe(ep)) return -1;
if (fcntl(ep[1], F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC)) {
preserving_errno((close(ep[0]), close(ep[1])));
return -1;
}
    }
#endif
    before_fork();
    for (; (pid = fork()) < 0; prefork()) {
after_fork();
switch (errno) {
case EAGAIN:
#if defined(EWOULDBLOCK) && EWOULDBLOCK != EAGAIN
case EWOULDBLOCK:
#endif
if (!status && !chfunc) {
rb_thread_sleep(1);
continue;
}
else {
rb_protect((VALUE (*)())rb_thread_sleep, 1, &state);
if (status) *status = state;
if (!state) continue;
}
default:
#ifdef FD_CLOEXEC
if (chfunc) {
preserving_errno((close(ep[0]), close(ep[1])));
}
#endif
//if (state && !status) rb_jump_tag(state);
return -1;
}
    }
    if (!pid) {
if (chfunc) {
#ifdef FD_CLOEXEC
close(ep[0]);
#endif
if (!(*chfunc)(charg, errmsg, errmsg_buflen)) _exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
#ifdef FD_CLOEXEC
err = errno;
(void)write(ep[1], &err, sizeof(err));
            if (errmsg && 0 < errmsg_buflen) {
                errmsg[errmsg_buflen-1] = '\0';
                (void)write(ep[1], errmsg, strlen(errmsg));
            }
#endif
#if EXIT_SUCCESS == 127
_exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
#else
_exit(127);
#endif
}
    }
    after_fork();
#ifdef FD_CLOEXEC
    if (pid && chfunc) {
ssize_t size;
close(ep[1]);
if ((size = read(ep[0], &err, sizeof(err))) < 0) {
err = errno;
}
        if (size == sizeof(err) &&
            errmsg && 0 < errmsg_buflen) {
            ssize_t ret;
            ret = read(ep[0], errmsg, errmsg_buflen-1);
            if (0 <= ret) {
                errmsg[ret] = '\0';
            }
        }
close(ep[0]);
if (size) {
if (status) {
rb_protect((VALUE (*)(VALUE))rb_syswait, (VALUE)pid, status);
}
else {
rb_syswait(pid);
}
errno = err;
return -1;
}
    }
#endif
    return pid;
}

struct chfunc_wrapper_t {
    int (*chfunc)(void*);
    void *arg;
};

static int
chfunc_wrapper(void *arg_, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    struct chfunc_wrapper_t *arg = arg_;
    return arg->chfunc(arg->arg);
}

rb_pid_t
rb_fork(int *status, int (*chfunc)(void*), void *charg, VALUE fds)
{
    if (chfunc) {
        struct chfunc_wrapper_t warg;
        warg.chfunc = chfunc;
        warg.arg = charg;
        return rb_fork_err(status, chfunc_wrapper, &warg, fds, NULL, 0);
    }
    else {
        return rb_fork_err(status, NULL, NULL, fds, NULL, 0);
    }

}

#endif

#if 0
/*
* call-seq:
* Kernel.fork [{ block }] -> fixnum or nil
* Process.fork [{ block }] -> fixnum or nil
*
* Creates a subprocess. If a block is specified, that block is run
* in the subprocess, and the subprocess terminates with a status of
* zero. Otherwise, the +fork+ call returns twice, once in
* the parent, returning the process ID of the child, and once in
* the child, returning _nil_. The child process can exit using
* <code>Kernel.exit!</code> to avoid running any
* <code>at_exit</code> functions. The parent process should
* use <code>Process.wait</code> to collect the termination statuses
* of its children or use <code>Process.detach</code> to register
* disinterest in their status; otherwise, the operating system
* may accumulate zombie processes.
*
* The thread calling fork is the only thread in the created child process.
* fork doesn't copy other threads.
*
* If fork is not usable, Process.respond_to?(:fork) returns false.
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_fork(VALUE obj, SEL sel)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;

    rb_secure(2);

    switch (pid = rb_fork(0, 0, 0, Qnil)) {
      case 0:
//rb_thread_atfork();
if (rb_block_given_p()) {
int status;

rb_protect(rb_yield, Qundef, &status);
ruby_stop(status);
}
return Qnil;

      case -1:
rb_sys_fail("fork(2)");
return Qnil;

      default:
return PIDT2NUM(pid);
    }
}
#else
#define rb_f_fork rb_f_notimplement
#endif

/*
* call-seq:
* Process.exit!(status=false)
*
* Exits the process immediately. No exit handlers are
* run. <em>status</em> is returned to the underlying system as the
* exit status.
*
* Process.exit!(true)
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_exit_bang(VALUE obj, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE status;
    int istatus;

    rb_secure(4);
    if (argc > 0 && rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &status) == 1) {
switch (status) {
case Qtrue:
istatus = EXIT_SUCCESS;
break;
case Qfalse:
istatus = EXIT_FAILURE;
break;
default:
istatus = NUM2INT(status);
break;
}
    }
    else {
istatus = EXIT_FAILURE;
    }
    _exit(istatus);

    return Qnil; /* not reached */
}

void
rb_exit(int status)
{
#if 0 // XXX should we call pthread_exit()
if (GET_THREAD()->tag) {
VALUE args[2];

args[0] = INT2NUM(status);
args[1] = rb_str_new2("exit");
rb_exc_raise(rb_class_new_instance(2, args, rb_eSystemExit));
}
#endif
    ruby_finalize();
    exit(status);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* exit(status=true)
* Kernel::exit(status=true)
* Process::exit(status=true)
*
* Initiates the termination of the Ruby script by raising the
* <code>SystemExit</code> exception. This exception may be caught. The
* optional parameter is used to return a status code to the invoking
* environment.
* +true+ and +FALSE+ of _status_ means success and failure
* respectively. The interpretation of other integer values are
* system dependent.
*
* begin
* exit
* puts "never get here"
* rescue SystemExit
* puts "rescued a SystemExit exception"
* end
* puts "after begin block"
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* rescued a SystemExit exception
* after begin block
*
* Just prior to termination, Ruby executes any <code>at_exit</code> functions
* (see Kernel::at_exit) and runs any object finalizers (see
* ObjectSpace::define_finalizer).
*
* at_exit { puts "at_exit function" }
* ObjectSpace.define_finalizer("string", proc { puts "in finalizer" })
* exit
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* at_exit function
* in finalizer
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_exit(VALUE obj, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE status;
    int istatus;

    rb_secure(4);
    if (argc > 0 && rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &status) == 1) {
switch (status) {
case Qtrue:
istatus = EXIT_SUCCESS;
break;
case Qfalse:
istatus = EXIT_FAILURE;
break;
default:
istatus = NUM2INT(status);
#if EXIT_SUCCESS != 0
if (istatus == 0)
istatus = EXIT_SUCCESS;
#endif
break;
}
    }
    else {
istatus = EXIT_SUCCESS;
    }
    rb_exit(istatus);
    return Qnil; /* not reached */
}


/*
* call-seq:
* abort
* Kernel::abort([msg])
* Process::abort([msg])
*
* Terminate execution immediately, effectively by calling
* <code>Kernel.exit(false)</code>. If _msg_ is given, it is written
* to STDERR prior to terminating.
*/

VALUE rb_io_puts(VALUE out, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv);

static VALUE
rb_f_abort(VALUE obj, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    extern void ruby_error_print(void);

    rb_secure(4);
    if (argc == 0) {
#if 0 // XXX
if (!NIL_P(GET_THREAD()->errinfo)) {
ruby_error_print();
}
#endif
rb_exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    else {
VALUE args[2];

rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "1", &args[1]);
StringValue(argv[0]);
rb_io_puts(rb_stderr, 0, argc, argv);
args[0] = INT2NUM(EXIT_FAILURE);
rb_exc_raise(rb_class_new_instance(2, args, rb_eSystemExit));
    }
    return Qnil; /* not reached */
}


#if defined(POSIX_SIGNAL)
# define signal(a,b) posix_signal(a,b)
#endif

void
rb_syswait(rb_pid_t pid)
{
    static int overriding;
#ifdef SIGHUP
    RETSIGTYPE (*hfunc)(int) = 0;
#endif
#ifdef SIGQUIT
    RETSIGTYPE (*qfunc)(int) = 0;
#endif
    RETSIGTYPE (*ifunc)(int) = 0;
    int status;
    int i, hooked = FALSE;

    if (!overriding) {
#ifdef SIGHUP
hfunc = signal(SIGHUP, SIG_IGN);
#endif
#ifdef SIGQUIT
qfunc = signal(SIGQUIT, SIG_IGN);
#endif
ifunc = signal(SIGINT, SIG_IGN);
overriding = TRUE;
hooked = TRUE;
    }

    do {
i = rb_waitpid(pid, &status, 0);
    } while (i == -1 && errno == EINTR);

    if (hooked) {
#ifdef SIGHUP
signal(SIGHUP, hfunc);
#endif
#ifdef SIGQUIT
signal(SIGQUIT, qfunc);
#endif
signal(SIGINT, ifunc);
overriding = FALSE;
    }
}

static VALUE
rb_exec_arg_prepare(struct rb_exec_arg *earg, int argc, VALUE *argv, int default_close_others)
{
    VALUE prog = rb_exec_arg_init(argc, argv, TRUE, earg);
    if (NIL_P(rb_ary_entry(earg->options, EXEC_OPTION_CLOSE_OTHERS))) {
        VALUE v = default_close_others ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
        rb_exec_arg_addopt(earg, ID2SYM(rb_intern("close_others")), v);
    }
    rb_exec_arg_fixup(earg);
    return prog;
}

static rb_pid_t
rb_spawn_process(struct rb_exec_arg *earg, VALUE prog, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
#if defined HAVE_FORK || !defined HAVE_SPAWNV
    int status;
#endif
#if !defined HAVE_FORK
    struct rb_exec_arg sarg;
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
#endif

#if defined HAVE_FORK
    pid = rb_fork_err(&status, rb_exec_atfork, earg, earg->redirect_fds, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
#else
    if (rb_run_exec_options_err(earg, &sarg, errmsg, errmsg_buflen) < 0) {
        return -1;
    }

    argc = earg->argc;
    argv = earg->argv;
    if (prog && argc) argv[0] = prog;
# if defined HAVE_SPAWNV
    if (!argc) {
pid = proc_spawn(RSTRING_PTR(prog));
    }
    else {
pid = proc_spawn_n(argc, argv, prog);
    }
# if defined(_WIN32)
    if (pid == -1)
rb_last_status_set(0x7f << 8, 0);
# endif
# else
    if (argc) prog = rb_ary_join(rb_ary_new4(argc, argv), rb_str_new2(" "));
    status = system(StringValuePtr(prog));
    rb_last_status_set((status & 0xff) << 8, 0);
# endif

    rb_run_exec_options_err(&sarg, NULL, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
#endif
    return pid;
}

static rb_pid_t
rb_spawn_internal(int argc, VALUE *argv, int default_close_others,
                  char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    struct rb_exec_arg earg;
    VALUE prog = rb_exec_arg_prepare(&earg, argc, argv, default_close_others);
    return rb_spawn_process(&earg, prog, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
}

rb_pid_t
rb_spawn_err(int argc, VALUE *argv, char *errmsg, size_t errmsg_buflen)
{
    return rb_spawn_internal(argc, argv, TRUE, errmsg, errmsg_buflen);
}

rb_pid_t
rb_spawn(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    return rb_spawn_internal(argc, argv, TRUE, NULL, 0);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* system([env,] command... [,options]) -> true, false or nil
*
* Executes _command..._ in a subshell.
* _command..._ is one of following forms.
*
* commandline : command line string which is passed to the standard shell
* cmdname, arg1, ... : command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
* [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ... : command name, argv[0] and zero or more arguments (no shell)
*
* system returns +true+ if the command gives zero exit status,
* +false+ for non zero exit status.
* Returns +nil+ if command execution fails.
* An error status is available in <code>$?</code>.
* The arguments are processed in the same way as
* for <code>Kernel.spawn</code>.
*
* The hash arguments, env and options, are same as
* <code>exec</code> and <code>spawn</code>.
* See <code>Kernel.spawn</code> for details.
*
* system("echo *")
* system("echo", "*")
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* config.h main.rb
* *
*
* See <code>Kernel.exec</code> for the standard shell.
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_system(VALUE obj, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int status;

#if defined(SIGCLD) && !defined(SIGCHLD)
# define SIGCHLD SIGCLD
#endif

#ifdef SIGCHLD
    RETSIGTYPE (*chfunc)(int);

    chfunc = signal(SIGCHLD, SIG_DFL);
#endif
    pid = rb_spawn_internal(argc, argv, FALSE, NULL, 0);
#if defined(HAVE_FORK) || defined(HAVE_SPAWNV)
    if (pid > 0) {
rb_syswait(pid);
    }
#endif
#ifdef SIGCHLD
    signal(SIGCHLD, chfunc);
#endif
    if (pid < 0) {
return Qnil;
    }
    status = PST2INT(rb_last_status_get());
    if (status == EXIT_SUCCESS) return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* spawn([env,] command... [,options]) -> pid
* Process.spawn([env,] command... [,options]) -> pid
*
* spawn executes specified command and return its pid.
*
* This method doesn't wait for end of the command.
* The parent process should
* use <code>Process.wait</code> to collect
* the termination status of its child or
* use <code>Process.detach</code> to register
* disinterest in their status;
* otherwise, the operating system may accumulate zombie processes.
*
* spawn has bunch of options to specify process attributes:
*
* env: hash
* name => val : set the environment variable
* name => nil : unset the environment variable
* command...:
* commandline : command line string which is passed to the standard shell
* cmdname, arg1, ... : command name and one or more arguments (no shell)
* [cmdname, argv0], arg1, ... : command name, argv[0] and zero or more arguments (no shell)
* options: hash
* clearing environment variables:
* :unsetenv_others => true : clear environment variables except specified by env
* :unsetenv_others => false : don't clear (default)
* process group:
* :pgroup => true or 0 : make a new process group
* :pgroup => pgid : join to specified process group
* :pgroup => nil : don't change the process group (default)
* resource limit: resourcename is core, cpu, data, etc. See Process.setrlimit.
* :rlimit_resourcename => limit
* :rlimit_resourcename => [cur_limit, max_limit]
* current directory:
* :chdir => str
* umask:
* :umask => int
* redirection:
* key:
* FD : single file descriptor in child process
* [FD, FD, ...] : multiple file descriptor in child process
* value:
* FD : redirect to the file descriptor in parent process
* string : redirect to file with open(string, "r" or "w")
* [string] : redirect to file with open(string, File::RDONLY)
* [string, open_mode] : redirect to file with open(string, open_mode, 0644)
* [string, open_mode, perm] : redirect to file with open(string, open_mode, perm)
* [:child, FD] : redirect to the redirected file descriptor
* :close : close the file descriptor in child process
* FD is one of follows
* :in : the file descriptor 0 which is the standard input
* :out : the file descriptor 1 which is the standard output
* :err : the file descriptor 2 which is the standard error
* integer : the file descriptor of specified the integer
* io : the file descriptor specified as io.fileno
* file descriptor inheritance: close non-redirected non-standard fds (3, 4, 5, ...) or not
* :close_others => false : inherit fds (default for system and exec)
* :close_others => true : don't inherit (default for spawn and IO.popen)
*
* If a hash is given as +env+, the environment is
* updated by +env+ before <code>exec(2)</code> in the child process.
* If a pair in +env+ has nil as the value, the variable is deleted.
*
* # set FOO as BAR and unset BAZ.
* pid = spawn({"FOO"=>"BAR", "BAZ"=>nil}, command)
*
* If a hash is given as +options+,
* it specifies
* process group,
* resource limit,
* current directory,
* umask and
* redirects for the child process.
* Also, it can be specified to clear environment variables.
*
* The <code>:unsetenv_others</code> key in +options+ specifies
* to clear environment variables, other than specified by +env+.
*
* pid = spawn(command, :unsetenv_others=>true) # no environment variable
* pid = spawn({"FOO"=>"BAR"}, command, :unsetenv_others=>true) # FOO only
*
* The <code>:pgroup</code> key in +options+ specifies a process group.
* The corresponding value should be true, zero or positive integer.
* true and zero means the process should be a process leader of a new
* process group.
* Other values specifies a process group to be belongs.
*
* pid = spawn(command, :pgroup=>true) # process leader
* pid = spawn(command, :pgroup=>10) # belongs to the process group 10
*
* The <code>:rlimit_</code><em>foo</em> key specifies a resource limit.
* <em>foo</em> should be one of resource types such as <code>core</code>.
* The corresponding value should be an integer or an array which have one or
* two integers: same as cur_limit and max_limit arguments for
* Process.setrlimit.
*
* cur, max = Process.getrlimit(:CORE)
* pid = spawn(command, :rlimit_core=>[0,max]) # disable core temporary.
* pid = spawn(command, :rlimit_core=>max) # enable core dump
* pid = spawn(command, :rlimit_core=>0) # never dump core.
*
* The <code>:chdir</code> key in +options+ specifies the current directory.
*
* pid = spawn(command, :chdir=>"/var/tmp")
*
* The <code>:umask</code> key in +options+ specifies the umask.
*
* pid = spawn(command, :umask=>077)
*
* The :in, :out, :err, a fixnum, an IO and an array key specifies a redirection.
* The redirection maps a file descriptor in the child process.
*
* For example, stderr can be merged into stdout as follows:
*
* pid = spawn(command, :err=>:out)
* pid = spawn(command, 2=>1)
* pid = spawn(command, STDERR=>:out)
* pid = spawn(command, STDERR=>STDOUT)
*
* The hash keys specifies a file descriptor
* in the child process started by <code>spawn</code>.
* :err, 2 and STDERR specifies the standard error stream (stderr).
*
* The hash values specifies a file descriptor
* in the parent process which invokes <code>spawn</code>.
* :out, 1 and STDOUT specifies the standard output stream (stdout).
*
* In the above example,
* the standard output in the child process is not specified.
* So it is inherited from the parent process.
*
* The standard input stream (stdin) can be specified by :in, 0 and STDIN.
*
* A filename can be specified as a hash value.
*
* pid = spawn(command, :in=>"/dev/null") # read mode
* pid = spawn(command, :out=>"/dev/null") # write mode
* pid = spawn(command, :err=>"log") # write mode
* pid = spawn(command, 3=>"/dev/null") # read mode
*
* For stdout and stderr,
* it is opened in write mode.
* Otherwise read mode is used.
*
* For specifying flags and permission of file creation explicitly,
* an array is used instead.
*
* pid = spawn(command, :in=>["file"]) # read mode is assumed
* pid = spawn(command, :in=>["file", "r"])
* pid = spawn(command, :out=>["log", "w"]) # 0644 assumed
* pid = spawn(command, :out=>["log", "w", 0600])
* pid = spawn(command, :out=>["log", File::WRONLY|File::EXCL|File::CREAT, 0600])
*
* The array specifies a filename, flags and permission.
* The flags can be a string or an integer.
* If the flags is omitted or nil, File::RDONLY is assumed.
* The permission should be an integer.
* If the permission is omitted or nil, 0644 is assumed.
*
* If an array of IOs and integers are specified as a hash key,
* all the elements are redirected.
*
* # stdout and stderr is redirected to log file.
* # The file "log" is opened just once.
* pid = spawn(command, [:out, :err]=>["log", "w"])
*
* Another way to merge multiple file descriptors is [:child, fd].
* \[:child, fd] means the file descriptor in the child process.
* This is different from fd.
* For example, :err=>:out means redirecting child stderr to parent stdout.
* But :err=>[:child, :out] means redirecting child stderr to child stdout.
* They differs if stdout is redirected in the child process as follows.
*
* # stdout and stderr is redirected to log file.
* # The file "log" is opened just once.
* pid = spawn(command, :out=>["log", "w"], :err=>[:child, :out])
*
* \[:child, :out] can be used to merge stderr into stdout in IO.popen.
* In this case, IO.popen redirects stdout to a pipe in the child process
* and [:child, :out] refers the redirected stdout.
*
* io = IO.popen(["sh", "-c", "echo out; echo err >&2", :err=>[:child, :out]])
* p io.read #=> "out\nerr\n"
*
* spawn closes all non-standard unspecified descriptors by default.
* The "standard" descriptors are 0, 1 and 2.
* This behavior is specified by :close_others option.
* :close_others doesn't affect the standard descriptors which are
* closed only if :close is specified explicitly.
*
* pid = spawn(command, :close_others=>true) # close 3,4,5,... (default)
* pid = spawn(command, :close_others=>false) # don't close 3,4,5,...
*
* :close_others is true by default for spawn and IO.popen.
*
* So IO.pipe and spawn can be used as IO.popen.
*
* # similar to r = IO.popen(command)
* r, w = IO.pipe
* pid = spawn(command, :out=>w) # r, w is closed in the child process.
* w.close
*
* :close is specified as a hash value to close a fd individually.
*
* f = open(foo)
* system(command, f=>:close) # don't inherit f.
*
* If a file descriptor need to be inherited,
* io=>io can be used.
*
* # valgrind has --log-fd option for log destination.
* # log_w=>log_w indicates log_w.fileno inherits to child process.
* log_r, log_w = IO.pipe
* pid = spawn("valgrind", "--log-fd=#{log_w.fileno}", "echo", "a", log_w=>log_w)
* log_w.close
* p log_r.read
*
* It is also possible to exchange file descriptors.
*
* pid = spawn(command, :out=>:err, :err=>:out)
*
* The hash keys specify file descriptors in the child process.
* The hash values specifies file descriptors in the parent process.
* So the above specifies exchanging stdout and stderr.
* Internally, +spawn+ uses an extra file descriptor to resolve such cyclic
* file descriptor mapping.
*
* See <code>Kernel.exec</code> for the standard shell.
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_spawn(VALUE obj, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    char errmsg[CHILD_ERRMSG_BUFLEN] = { '\0' };
    struct rb_exec_arg earg;

    pid = rb_spawn_process(&earg, rb_exec_arg_prepare(&earg, argc, argv, TRUE), errmsg, sizeof(errmsg));
    if (pid == -1) {
const char *prog = errmsg;
if (!prog[0] && !(prog = earg.prog) && earg.argc) {
prog = RSTRING_PTR(earg.argv[0]);
}
rb_sys_fail(prog);
    }
#if defined(HAVE_FORK) || defined(HAVE_SPAWNV)
    return PIDT2NUM(pid);
#else
    return Qnil;
#endif
}

/*
* call-seq:
* sleep([duration]) -> fixnum
*
* Suspends the current thread for _duration_ seconds (which may be any number,
* including a +Float+ with fractional seconds). Returns the actual number of
* seconds slept (rounded), which may be less than that asked for if another
* thread calls <code>Thread#run</code>. Called without an argument, sleep()
* will sleep forever.
*
* Time.new #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:19 +0900
* sleep 1.2 #=> 1
* Time.new #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:20 +0900
* sleep 1.9 #=> 2
* Time.new #=> 2008-03-08 19:56:22 +0900
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_sleep(VALUE recv, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    time_t beg, end;

    beg = time(0);
    if (argc == 0) {
rb_thread_sleep_forever();
    }
    else if (argc == 1) {
rb_thread_wait_for(rb_time_interval(argv[0]));
    }
    else {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong number of arguments (%d for 0..1)", argc);
    }

    end = time(0) - beg;

    return INT2FIX(end);
}


#if (defined(HAVE_GETPGRP) && defined(GETPGRP_VOID)) || defined(HAVE_GETPGID)
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.getpgrp -> integer
*
* Returns the process group ID for this process. Not available on
* all platforms.
*
* Process.getpgid(0) #=> 25527
* Process.getpgrp #=> 25527
*/

static VALUE
proc_getpgrp(VALUE rcv, SEL sel)
{
    rb_pid_t pgrp;

    rb_secure(2);
#if defined(HAVE_GETPGRP) && defined(GETPGRP_VOID)
    pgrp = getpgrp();
    if (pgrp < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(pgrp);
#else /* defined(HAVE_GETPGID) */
    pgrp = getpgid(0);
    if (pgrp < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(pgrp);
#endif
}
#else
#define proc_getpgrp rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined(HAVE_SETPGID) || (defined(HAVE_SETPGRP) && defined(SETPGRP_VOID))
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.setpgrp -> 0
*
* Equivalent to <code>setpgid(0,0)</code>. Not available on all
* platforms.
*/

static VALUE
proc_setpgrp(VALUE rcv, SEL sel)
{
    rb_secure(2);
  /* check for posix setpgid() first; this matches the posix */
  /* getpgrp() above. It appears that configure will set SETPGRP_VOID */
  /* even though setpgrp(0,0) would be preferred. The posix call avoids */
  /* this confusion. */
#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
    if (setpgid(0,0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined(HAVE_SETPGRP) && defined(SETPGRP_VOID)
    if (setpgrp() < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#endif
    return INT2FIX(0);
}
#else
#define proc_setpgrp rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined(HAVE_GETPGID)
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.getpgid(pid) -> integer
*
* Returns the process group ID for the given process id. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
* Process.getpgid(Process.ppid()) #=> 25527
*/

static VALUE
proc_getpgid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE pid)
{
    rb_pid_t i;

    rb_secure(2);
    i = getpgid(NUM2PIDT(pid));
    if (i < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(i);
}
#else
#define proc_getpgid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#ifdef HAVE_SETPGID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.setpgid(pid, integer) -> 0
*
* Sets the process group ID of _pid_ (0 indicates this
* process) to <em>integer</em>. Not available on all platforms.
*/

static VALUE
proc_setpgid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE pid, VALUE pgrp)
{
    rb_pid_t ipid, ipgrp;

    rb_secure(2);
    ipid = NUM2PIDT(pid);
    ipgrp = NUM2PIDT(pgrp);

    if (setpgid(ipid, ipgrp) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return INT2FIX(0);
}
#else
#define proc_setpgid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined(HAVE_SETSID) || (defined(HAVE_SETPGRP) && defined(TIOCNOTTY))
#if !defined(HAVE_SETSID)
static rb_pid_t ruby_setsid(void);
#define setsid() ruby_setsid()
#endif
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.setsid -> fixnum
*
* Establishes this process as a new session and process group
* leader, with no controlling tty. Returns the session id. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
* Process.setsid #=> 27422
*/

static VALUE
proc_setsid(VALUE rcv, SEL sel)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;

    rb_secure(2);
    pid = setsid();
    if (pid < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return PIDT2NUM(pid);
}

#if !defined(HAVE_SETSID)
#define HAVE_SETSID 1
static rb_pid_t
ruby_setsid(void)
{
    rb_pid_t pid;
    int ret;

    pid = getpid();
#if defined(SETPGRP_VOID)
    ret = setpgrp();
    /* If `pid_t setpgrp(void)' is equivalent to setsid(),
`ret' will be the same value as `pid', and following open() will fail.
In Linux, `int setpgrp(void)' is equivalent to setpgid(0, 0). */
#else
    ret = setpgrp(0, pid);
#endif
    if (ret == -1) return -1;

    if ((fd = open("/dev/tty", O_RDWR)) >= 0) {
ioctl(fd, TIOCNOTTY, NULL);
close(fd);
    }
    return pid;
}
#endif
#else
#define proc_setsid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#ifdef HAVE_GETPRIORITY
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.getpriority(kind, integer) -> fixnum
*
* Gets the scheduling priority for specified process, process group,
* or user. <em>kind</em> indicates the kind of entity to find: one
* of <code>Process::PRIO_PGRP</code>,
* <code>Process::PRIO_USER</code>, or
* <code>Process::PRIO_PROCESS</code>. _integer_ is an id
* indicating the particular process, process group, or user (an id
* of 0 means _current_). Lower priorities are more favorable
* for scheduling. Not available on all platforms.
*
* Process.getpriority(Process::PRIO_USER, 0) #=> 19
* Process.getpriority(Process::PRIO_PROCESS, 0) #=> 19
*/

static VALUE
proc_getpriority(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE which, VALUE who)
{
    int prio, iwhich, iwho;

    rb_secure(2);
    iwhich = NUM2INT(which);
    iwho = NUM2INT(who);

    errno = 0;
    prio = getpriority(iwhich, iwho);
    if (errno) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return INT2FIX(prio);
}
#else
#define proc_getpriority rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#ifdef HAVE_GETPRIORITY
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.setpriority(kind, integer, priority) -> 0
*
* See <code>Process#getpriority</code>.
*
* Process.setpriority(Process::PRIO_USER, 0, 19) #=> 0
* Process.setpriority(Process::PRIO_PROCESS, 0, 19) #=> 0
* Process.getpriority(Process::PRIO_USER, 0) #=> 19
* Process.getpriority(Process::PRIO_PROCESS, 0) #=> 19
*/

static VALUE
proc_setpriority(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE which, VALUE who, VALUE prio)
{
    int iwhich, iwho, iprio;

    rb_secure(2);
    iwhich = NUM2INT(which);
    iwho = NUM2INT(who);
    iprio = NUM2INT(prio);

    if (setpriority(iwhich, iwho, iprio) < 0)
rb_sys_fail(0);
    return INT2FIX(0);
}
#else
#define proc_setpriority rb_f_notimplement
#endif

#if defined(RLIM2NUM)
static int
rlimit_resource_name2int(const char *name, int casetype)
{
    size_t len = strlen(name);
    if (16 < len) return -1;
    if (casetype == 1) {
        size_t i;
        char *name2 = ALLOCA_N(char, len+1);
        for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
            if (!ISLOWER(name[i]))
                return -1;
            name2[i] = TOUPPER(name[i]);
        }
        name2[len] = '\0';
        name = name2;
    }

    switch (*name) {
      case 'A':
#ifdef RLIMIT_AS
        if (strcmp(name, "AS") == 0) return RLIMIT_AS;
#endif
        break;

      case 'C':
#ifdef RLIMIT_CORE
        if (strcmp(name, "CORE") == 0) return RLIMIT_CORE;
#endif
#ifdef RLIMIT_CPU
        if (strcmp(name, "CPU") == 0) return RLIMIT_CPU;
#endif
        break;

      case 'D':
#ifdef RLIMIT_DATA
        if (strcmp(name, "DATA") == 0) return RLIMIT_DATA;
#endif
        break;

      case 'F':
#ifdef RLIMIT_FSIZE
        if (strcmp(name, "FSIZE") == 0) return RLIMIT_FSIZE;
#endif
        break;

      case 'M':
#ifdef RLIMIT_MEMLOCK
        if (strcmp(name, "MEMLOCK") == 0) return RLIMIT_MEMLOCK;
#endif
        break;

      case 'N':
#ifdef RLIMIT_NOFILE
        if (strcmp(name, "NOFILE") == 0) return RLIMIT_NOFILE;
#endif
#ifdef RLIMIT_NPROC
        if (strcmp(name, "NPROC") == 0) return RLIMIT_NPROC;
#endif
        break;

      case 'R':
#ifdef RLIMIT_RSS
        if (strcmp(name, "RSS") == 0) return RLIMIT_RSS;
#endif
        break;

      case 'S':
#ifdef RLIMIT_STACK
        if (strcmp(name, "STACK") == 0) return RLIMIT_STACK;
#endif
#ifdef RLIMIT_SBSIZE
        if (strcmp(name, "SBSIZE") == 0) return RLIMIT_SBSIZE;
#endif
        break;
    }
    return -1;
}

static int
rlimit_type_by_hname(const char *name)
{
    return rlimit_resource_name2int(name, 0);
}

static int
rlimit_type_by_lname(const char *name)
{
    return rlimit_resource_name2int(name, 1);
}

static int
rlimit_resource_type(VALUE rtype)
{
    const char *name;
    VALUE v;
    int r;

    switch (TYPE(rtype)) {
      case T_SYMBOL:
        name = rb_sym2name(rtype);
        break;

      default:
        v = rb_check_string_type(rtype);
        if (!NIL_P(v)) {
            rtype = v;
      case T_STRING:
            name = StringValueCStr(rtype);
            break;
        }
        /* fall through */

      case T_FIXNUM:
      case T_BIGNUM:
        return NUM2INT(rtype);
    }

    r = rlimit_type_by_hname(name);
    if (r != -1)
        return r;

    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid resource name: %s", name);
}

static rlim_t
rlimit_resource_value(VALUE rval)
{
    const char *name;
    VALUE v;

    switch (TYPE(rval)) {
      case T_SYMBOL:
        name = rb_id2name(SYM2ID(rval));
        break;

      default:
        v = rb_check_string_type(rval);
        if (!NIL_P(v)) {
            rval = v;
      case T_STRING:
            name = StringValueCStr(rval);
            break;
        }
        /* fall through */

      case T_FIXNUM:
      case T_BIGNUM:
        return NUM2RLIM(rval);
    }

#ifdef RLIM_INFINITY
    if (strcmp(name, "INFINITY") == 0) return RLIM_INFINITY;
#endif
#ifdef RLIM_SAVED_MAX
    if (strcmp(name, "SAVED_MAX") == 0) return RLIM_SAVED_MAX;
#endif
#ifdef RLIM_SAVED_CUR
    if (strcmp(name, "SAVED_CUR") == 0) return RLIM_SAVED_CUR;
#endif
    rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "invalid resource value: %s", name);
}
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_GETRLIMIT) && defined(RLIM2NUM)
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.getrlimit(resource) -> [cur_limit, max_limit]
*
* Gets the resource limit of the process.
* _cur_limit_ means current (soft) limit and
* _max_limit_ means maximum (hard) limit.
*
* _resource_ indicates the kind of resource to limit.
* It is specified as a symbol such as <code>:CORE</code>,
* a string such as <code>"CORE"</code> or
* a constant such as <code>Process::RLIMIT_CORE</code>.
* See Process.setrlimit for details.
*
* _cur_limit_ and _max_limit_ may be <code>Process::RLIM_INFINITY</code>,
* <code>Process::RLIM_SAVED_MAX</code> or
* <code>Process::RLIM_SAVED_CUR</code>.
* See Process.setrlimit and the system getrlimit(2) manual for details.
*/

static VALUE
proc_getrlimit(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE resource)
{
    struct rlimit rlim;

    rb_secure(2);

    if (getrlimit(rlimit_resource_type(resource), &rlim) < 0) {
rb_sys_fail("getrlimit");
    }
    return rb_assoc_new(RLIM2NUM(rlim.rlim_cur), RLIM2NUM(rlim.rlim_max));
}
#else
#define proc_getrlimit rb_f_notimplement
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_SETRLIMIT) && defined(NUM2RLIM)
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.setrlimit(resource, cur_limit, max_limit) -> nil
* Process.setrlimit(resource, cur_limit) -> nil
*
* Sets the resource limit of the process.
* _cur_limit_ means current (soft) limit and
* _max_limit_ means maximum (hard) limit.
*
* If _max_limit_ is not given, _cur_limit_ is used.
*
* _resource_ indicates the kind of resource to limit.
* It should be a symbol such as <code>:CORE</code>,
* a string such as <code>"CORE"</code> or
* a constant such as <code>Process::RLIMIT_CORE</code>.
* The available resources are OS dependent.
* Ruby may support following resources.
*
* [CORE] core size (bytes) (SUSv3)
* [CPU] CPU time (seconds) (SUSv3)
* [DATA] data segment (bytes) (SUSv3)
* [FSIZE] file size (bytes) (SUSv3)
* [NOFILE] file descriptors (number) (SUSv3)
* [STACK] stack size (bytes) (SUSv3)
* [AS] total available memory (bytes) (SUSv3, NetBSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD but 4.4BSD-Lite)
* [MEMLOCK] total size for mlock(2) (bytes) (4.4BSD, GNU/Linux)
* [NPROC] number of processes for the user (number) (4.4BSD, GNU/Linux)
* [RSS] resident memory size (bytes) (4.2BSD, GNU/Linux)
* [SBSIZE] all socket buffers (bytes) (NetBSD, FreeBSD)
*
* _cur_limit_ and _max_limit_ may be
* <code>:INFINITY</code>, <code>"INFINITY"</code> or
* <code>Process::RLIM_INFINITY</code>,
* which means that the resource is not limited.
* They may be <code>Process::RLIM_SAVED_MAX</code>,
* <code>Process::RLIM_SAVED_CUR</code> and
* corresponding symbols and strings too.
* See system setrlimit(2) manual for details.
*
* The following example raise the soft limit of core size to
* the hard limit to try to make core dump possible.
*
* Process.setrlimit(:CORE, Process.getrlimit(:CORE)[1])
*
*/

static VALUE
proc_setrlimit(VALUE obj, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE resource, rlim_cur, rlim_max;
    struct rlimit rlim;

    rb_secure(2);

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "21", &resource, &rlim_cur, &rlim_max);
    if (rlim_max == Qnil)
        rlim_max = rlim_cur;

    rlim.rlim_cur = rlimit_resource_value(rlim_cur);
    rlim.rlim_max = rlimit_resource_value(rlim_max);

    if (setrlimit(rlimit_resource_type(resource), &rlim) < 0) {
rb_sys_fail("setrlimit");
    }
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define proc_setrlimit rb_f_notimplement
#endif

static int under_uid_switch = 0;
static void
check_uid_switch(void)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    if (under_uid_switch) {
rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "can't handle UID while evaluating block given to Process::UID.switch method");
    }
}

static int under_gid_switch = 0;
static void
check_gid_switch(void)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    if (under_gid_switch) {
rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "can't handle GID while evaluating block given to Process::UID.switch method");
    }
}


/*********************************************************************
* Document-class: Process::Sys
*
* The <code>Process::Sys</code> module contains UID and GID
* functions which provide direct bindings to the system calls of the
* same names instead of the more-portable versions of the same
* functionality found in the <code>Process</code>,
* <code>Process::UID</code>, and <code>Process::GID</code> modules.
*/


#if defined HAVE_SETUID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setuid(integer) -> nil
*
* Set the user ID of the current process to _integer_. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setuid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    check_uid_switch();
    if (setuid(NUM2UIDT(id)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setuid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined HAVE_SETRUID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setruid(integer) -> nil
*
* Set the real user ID of the calling process to _integer_.
* Not available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setruid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    check_uid_switch();
    if (setruid(NUM2UIDT(id)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setruid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined HAVE_SETEUID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.seteuid(integer) -> nil
*
* Set the effective user ID of the calling process to
* _integer_. Not available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_seteuid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    check_uid_switch();
    if (seteuid(NUM2UIDT(id)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_seteuid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined HAVE_SETREUID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setreuid(rid, eid) -> nil
*
* Sets the (integer) real and/or effective user IDs of the current
* process to _rid_ and _eid_, respectively. A value of
* <code>-1</code> for either means to leave that ID unchanged. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setreuid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE rid, VALUE eid)
{
    check_uid_switch();
    if (setreuid(NUM2UIDT(rid),NUM2UIDT(eid)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setreuid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined HAVE_SETRESUID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setresuid(rid, eid, sid) -> nil
*
* Sets the (integer) real, effective, and saved user IDs of the
* current process to _rid_, _eid_, and _sid_ respectively. A
* value of <code>-1</code> for any value means to
* leave that ID unchanged. Not available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setresuid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE rid, VALUE eid, VALUE sid)
{
    check_uid_switch();
    if (setresuid(NUM2UIDT(rid),NUM2UIDT(eid),NUM2UIDT(sid)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setresuid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.uid -> fixnum
* Process::UID.rid -> fixnum
* Process::Sys.getuid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the (real) user ID of this process.
*
* Process.uid #=> 501
*/

static VALUE
proc_getuid(VALUE obj, SEL sel)
{
    rb_uid_t uid = getuid();
    return UIDT2NUM(uid);
}


#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID) || defined(HAVE_SETREUID) || defined(HAVE_SETRUID) || defined(HAVE_SETUID)
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.uid= integer -> numeric
*
* Sets the (integer) user ID for this process. Not available on all
* platforms.
*/

static VALUE
proc_setuid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    rb_uid_t uid;

    check_uid_switch();

    uid = NUM2UIDT(id);
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID)
    if (setresuid(uid, -1, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETREUID
    if (setreuid(uid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETRUID
    if (setruid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETUID
    {
if (geteuid() == uid) {
if (setuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
}
else {
rb_notimplement();
}
    }
#endif
    return id;
}
#else
#define proc_setuid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


/********************************************************************
*
* Document-class: Process::UID
*
* The <code>Process::UID</code> module contains a collection of
* module functions which can be used to portably get, set, and
* switch the current process's real, effective, and saved user IDs.
*
*/

static rb_uid_t SAVED_USER_ID = -1;

#ifdef BROKEN_SETREUID
int
setreuid(rb_uid_t ruid, rb_uid_t euid)
{
    if (ruid != -1 && ruid != getuid()) {
if (euid == -1) euid = geteuid();
if (setuid(ruid) < 0) return -1;
    }
    if (euid != -1 && euid != geteuid()) {
if (seteuid(euid) < 0) return -1;
    }
    return 0;
}
#endif

/*
* call-seq:
* Process::UID.change_privilege(integer) -> fixnum
*
* Change the current process's real and effective user ID to that
* specified by _integer_. Returns the new user ID. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
* [Process.uid, Process.euid] #=> [0, 0]
* Process::UID.change_privilege(31) #=> 31
* [Process.uid, Process.euid] #=> [31, 31]
*/

static VALUE
p_uid_change_privilege(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    rb_uid_t uid;

    check_uid_switch();

    uid = NUM2UIDT(id);

    if (geteuid() == 0) { /* root-user */
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID)
if (setresuid(uid, uid, uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
#elif defined(HAVE_SETUID)
if (setuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
#elif defined(HAVE_SETREUID) && !defined(OBSOLETE_SETREUID)
if (getuid() == uid) {
if (SAVED_USER_ID == uid) {
if (setreuid(-1, uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
if (uid == 0) { /* (r,e,s) == (root, root, x) */
if (setreuid(-1, SAVED_USER_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setreuid(SAVED_USER_ID, 0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = 0; /* (r,e,s) == (x, root, root) */
if (setreuid(uid, uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
} else {
if (setreuid(0, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = 0;
if (setreuid(uid, uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
}
}
} else {
if (setreuid(uid, uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
}
#elif defined(HAVE_SETRUID) && defined(HAVE_SETEUID)
if (getuid() == uid) {
if (SAVED_USER_ID == uid) {
if (seteuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
if (uid == 0) {
if (setruid(SAVED_USER_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = 0;
if (setruid(0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
if (setruid(0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = 0;
if (seteuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setruid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
}
}
} else {
if (seteuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setruid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
}
#else
rb_notimplement();
#endif
    } else { /* unprivileged user */
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID)
if (setresuid((getuid() == uid)? -1: uid,
(geteuid() == uid)? -1: uid,
(SAVED_USER_ID == uid)? -1: uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
#elif defined(HAVE_SETREUID) && !defined(OBSOLETE_SETREUID)
if (SAVED_USER_ID == uid) {
if (setreuid((getuid() == uid)? -1: uid,
(geteuid() == uid)? -1: uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else if (getuid() != uid) {
if (setreuid(uid, (geteuid() == uid)? -1: uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
} else if (/* getuid() == uid && */ geteuid() != uid) {
if (setreuid(geteuid(), uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
if (setreuid(uid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else { /* getuid() == uid && geteuid() == uid */
if (setreuid(-1, SAVED_USER_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setreuid(SAVED_USER_ID, uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
if (setreuid(uid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#elif defined(HAVE_SETRUID) && defined(HAVE_SETEUID)
if (SAVED_USER_ID == uid) {
if (geteuid() != uid && seteuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (getuid() != uid && setruid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else if (/* SAVED_USER_ID != uid && */ geteuid() == uid) {
if (getuid() != uid) {
if (setruid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
} else {
if (setruid(SAVED_USER_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
if (setruid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
}
} else if (/* geteuid() != uid && */ getuid() == uid) {
if (seteuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setruid(SAVED_USER_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
if (setruid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
errno = EPERM;
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#elif defined HAVE_44BSD_SETUID
if (getuid() == uid) {
/* (r,e,s)==(uid,?,?) ==> (uid,uid,uid) */
if (setuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = uid;
} else {
errno = EPERM;
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#elif defined HAVE_SETEUID
if (getuid() == uid && SAVED_USER_ID == uid) {
if (seteuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
errno = EPERM;
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#elif defined HAVE_SETUID
if (getuid() == uid && SAVED_USER_ID == uid) {
if (setuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
errno = EPERM;
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#else
rb_notimplement();
#endif
    }
    return id;
}



#if defined HAVE_SETGID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setgid(integer) -> nil
*
* Set the group ID of the current process to _integer_. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setgid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    check_gid_switch();
    if (setgid(NUM2GIDT(id)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setgid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined HAVE_SETRGID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setrgid(integer) -> nil
*
* Set the real group ID of the calling process to _integer_.
* Not available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setrgid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    check_gid_switch();
    if (setrgid(NUM2GIDT(id)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setrgid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined HAVE_SETEGID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setegid(integer) -> nil
*
* Set the effective group ID of the calling process to
* _integer_. Not available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setegid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    check_gid_switch();
    if (setegid(NUM2GIDT(id)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setegid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined HAVE_SETREGID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setregid(rid, eid) -> nil
*
* Sets the (integer) real and/or effective group IDs of the current
* process to <em>rid</em> and <em>eid</em>, respectively. A value of
* <code>-1</code> for either means to leave that ID unchanged. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setregid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE rid, VALUE eid)
{
    check_gid_switch();
    if (setregid(NUM2GIDT(rid),NUM2GIDT(eid)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setregid rb_f_notimplement
#endif

#if defined HAVE_SETRESGID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.setresgid(rid, eid, sid) -> nil
*
* Sets the (integer) real, effective, and saved user IDs of the
* current process to <em>rid</em>, <em>eid</em>, and <em>sid</em>
* respectively. A value of <code>-1</code> for any value means to
* leave that ID unchanged. Not available on all platforms.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_setresgid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE rid, VALUE eid, VALUE sid)
{
    check_gid_switch();
    if (setresgid(NUM2GIDT(rid),NUM2GIDT(eid),NUM2GIDT(sid)) != 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    return Qnil;
}
#else
#define p_sys_setresgid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#if defined HAVE_ISSETUGID
/*
* call-seq:
* Process::Sys.issetugid -> true or false
*
* Returns +true+ if the process was created as a result
* of an execve(2) system call which had either of the setuid or
* setgid bits set (and extra privileges were given as a result) or
* if it has changed any of its real, effective or saved user or
* group IDs since it began execution.
*
*/

static VALUE
p_sys_issetugid(VALUE obj, SEL sel)
{
    rb_secure(2);
    if (issetugid()) {
return Qtrue;
    } else {
return Qfalse;
    }
}
#else
#define p_sys_issetugid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.gid -> fixnum
* Process::GID.rid -> fixnum
* Process::Sys.getgid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the (real) group ID for this process.
*
* Process.gid #=> 500
*/

static VALUE
proc_getgid(VALUE obj, SEL sel)
{
    rb_gid_t gid = getgid();
    return GIDT2NUM(gid);
}


#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID) || defined(HAVE_SETREGID) || defined(HAVE_SETRGID) || defined(HAVE_SETGID)
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.gid= fixnum -> fixnum
*
* Sets the group ID for this process.
*/

static VALUE
proc_setgid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    rb_gid_t gid;

    check_gid_switch();

    gid = NUM2GIDT(id);
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID)
    if (setresgid(gid, -1, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETREGID
    if (setregid(gid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETRGID
    if (setrgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETGID
    {
if (getegid() == gid) {
if (setgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
}
else {
rb_notimplement();
}
    }
#endif
    return GIDT2NUM(gid);
}
#else
#define proc_setgid rb_f_notimplement
#endif


static int maxgroups = NGROUPS_MAX;


#ifdef HAVE_GETGROUPS
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.groups -> array
*
* Get an <code>Array</code> of the gids of groups in the
* supplemental group access list for this process.
*
* Process.groups #=> [27, 6, 10, 11]
*
*/

static VALUE
proc_getgroups(VALUE obj, SEL sel)
{
    VALUE ary;
    int i, ngroups;
    rb_gid_t *groups;

    groups = ALLOCA_N(rb_gid_t, maxgroups);

    ngroups = getgroups(maxgroups, groups);
    if (ngroups == -1)
rb_sys_fail(0);

    ary = rb_ary_new();
    for (i = 0; i < ngroups; i++)
rb_ary_push(ary, GIDT2NUM(groups[i]));

    return ary;
}
#else
#define proc_getgroups rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#ifdef HAVE_SETGROUPS
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.groups= array -> array
*
* Set the supplemental group access list to the given
* <code>Array</code> of group IDs.
*
* Process.groups #=> [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 20, 26, 27]
* Process.groups = [27, 6, 10, 11] #=> [27, 6, 10, 11]
* Process.groups #=> [27, 6, 10, 11]
*
*/

static VALUE
proc_setgroups(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE ary)
{
    size_t ngroups, i;
    rb_gid_t *groups;
    struct group *gr;

    Check_Type(ary, T_ARRAY);

    ngroups = RARRAY_LEN(ary);
    if (ngroups > (size_t)maxgroups)
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "too many groups, %u max", maxgroups);

    groups = ALLOCA_N(rb_gid_t, ngroups);

    for (i = 0; i < ngroups && i < (size_t)RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
VALUE g = RARRAY_AT(ary, i);

if (FIXNUM_P(g)) {
groups[i] = NUM2GIDT(g);
}
else {
VALUE tmp = rb_check_string_type(g);

if (NIL_P(tmp)) {
groups[i] = NUM2GIDT(g);
}
else {
gr = getgrnam(RSTRING_PTR(tmp));
if (gr == NULL)
rb_raise(rb_eArgError,
"can't find group for %s", RSTRING_PTR(tmp));
groups[i] = gr->gr_gid;
}
}
    }

    if (setgroups((int)ngroups, groups) == -1) /* ngroups <= maxgroups */
rb_sys_fail(0);

    return proc_getgroups(obj, 0);
}
#else
#define proc_setgroups rb_f_notimplement
#endif


#ifdef HAVE_INITGROUPS
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.initgroups(username, gid) -> array
*
* Initializes the supplemental group access list by reading the
* system group database and using all groups of which the given user
* is a member. The group with the specified <em>gid</em> is also
* added to the list. Returns the resulting <code>Array</code> of the
* gids of all the groups in the supplementary group access list. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
* Process.groups #=> [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 20, 26, 27]
* Process.initgroups( "mgranger", 30 ) #=> [30, 6, 10, 11]
* Process.groups #=> [30, 6, 10, 11]
*
*/

static VALUE
proc_initgroups(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE uname, VALUE base_grp)
{
    if (initgroups(StringValuePtr(uname), NUM2GIDT(base_grp)) != 0) {
rb_sys_fail(0);
    }
    return proc_getgroups(obj, 0);
}
#else
#define proc_initgroups rb_f_notimplement
#endif


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.maxgroups -> fixnum
*
* Returns the maximum number of gids allowed in the supplemental
* group access list.
*
* Process.maxgroups #=> 32
*/

static VALUE
proc_getmaxgroups(VALUE obj, SEL sel)
{
    return INT2FIX(maxgroups);
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.maxgroups= fixnum -> fixnum
*
* Sets the maximum number of gids allowed in the supplemental group
* access list.
*/

static VALUE
proc_setmaxgroups(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE val)
{
    int ngroups = FIX2UINT(val);

    if (ngroups > 4096)
ngroups = 4096;

    maxgroups = ngroups;

    return INT2FIX(maxgroups);
}

#if defined(HAVE_DAEMON) || (defined(HAVE_FORK) && defined(HAVE_SETSID))
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.daemon() -> 0
* Process.daemon(nochdir=nil,noclose=nil) -> 0
*
* Detach the process from controlling terminal and run in
* the background as system daemon. Unless the argument
* nochdir is true (i.e. non false), it changes the current
* working directory to the root ("/"). Unless the argument
* noclose is true, daemon() will redirect standard input,
* standard output and standard error to /dev/null.
* Return zero on success, or raise one of Errno::*.
*/

static VALUE
proc_daemon(VALUE rcv, SEL sel, int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE nochdir, noclose;
    int n;

    rb_secure(2);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &nochdir, &noclose);

#if defined(HAVE_DAEMON)
    prefork();
    before_fork();
    n = daemon(RTEST(nochdir), RTEST(noclose));
    after_fork();
    if (n < 0) rb_sys_fail("daemon");
    return INT2FIX(n);
#elif defined(HAVE_FORK)
    switch (rb_fork(0, 0, 0, Qnil)) {
      case -1:
rb_sys_fail("daemon");
      case 0:
break;
      default:
_exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
    }

    proc_setsid(0, 0);

    /* must not be process-leader */
    switch (rb_fork(0, 0, 0, Qnil)) {
      case -1:
rb_sys_fail("daemon");
      case 0:
break;
      default:
_exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
    }

    if (!RTEST(nochdir))
(void)chdir("/");

    if (!RTEST(noclose) && (n = open("/dev/null", O_RDWR, 0)) != -1) {
(void)dup2(n, 0);
(void)dup2(n, 1);
(void)dup2(n, 2);
if (n > 2)
(void)close (n);
    }
    return INT2FIX(0);
#endif
}
#else
#define proc_daemon rb_f_notimplement
#endif

/********************************************************************
*
* Document-class: Process::GID
*
* The <code>Process::GID</code> module contains a collection of
* module functions which can be used to portably get, set, and
* switch the current process's real, effective, and saved group IDs.
*
*/

static rb_gid_t SAVED_GROUP_ID = -1;

#ifdef BROKEN_SETREGID
int
setregid(rb_gid_t rgid, rb_gid_t egid)
{
    if (rgid != -1 && rgid != getgid()) {
if (egid == -1) egid = getegid();
if (setgid(rgid) < 0) return -1;
    }
    if (egid != -1 && egid != getegid()) {
if (setegid(egid) < 0) return -1;
    }
    return 0;
}
#endif

/*
* call-seq:
* Process::GID.change_privilege(integer) -> fixnum
*
* Change the current process's real and effective group ID to that
* specified by _integer_. Returns the new group ID. Not
* available on all platforms.
*
* [Process.gid, Process.egid] #=> [0, 0]
* Process::GID.change_privilege(33) #=> 33
* [Process.gid, Process.egid] #=> [33, 33]
*/

static VALUE
p_gid_change_privilege(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    rb_gid_t gid;

    check_gid_switch();

    gid = NUM2GIDT(id);

    if (geteuid() == 0) { /* root-user */
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID)
if (setresgid(gid, gid, gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
#elif defined HAVE_SETGID
if (setgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
#elif defined(HAVE_SETREGID) && !defined(OBSOLETE_SETREGID)
if (getgid() == gid) {
if (SAVED_GROUP_ID == gid) {
if (setregid(-1, gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
if (gid == 0) { /* (r,e,s) == (root, y, x) */
if (setregid(-1, SAVED_GROUP_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setregid(SAVED_GROUP_ID, 0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = 0; /* (r,e,s) == (x, root, root) */
if (setregid(gid, gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
} else { /* (r,e,s) == (z, y, x) */
if (setregid(0, 0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = 0;
if (setregid(gid, gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
}
}
} else {
if (setregid(gid, gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
}
#elif defined(HAVE_SETRGID) && defined (HAVE_SETEGID)
if (getgid() == gid) {
if (SAVED_GROUP_ID == gid) {
if (setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
if (gid == 0) {
if (setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setrgid(SAVED_GROUP_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = 0;
if (setrgid(0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
if (setrgid(0) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = 0;
if (setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setrgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
}
}
} else {
if (setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setrgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
}
#else
rb_notimplement();
#endif
    } else { /* unprivileged user */
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID)
if (setresgid((getgid() == gid)? -1: gid,
(getegid() == gid)? -1: gid,
(SAVED_GROUP_ID == gid)? -1: gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
#elif defined(HAVE_SETREGID) && !defined(OBSOLETE_SETREGID)
if (SAVED_GROUP_ID == gid) {
if (setregid((getgid() == gid)? -1: gid,
(getegid() == gid)? -1: gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else if (getgid() != gid) {
if (setregid(gid, (getegid() == gid)? -1: gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
} else if (/* getgid() == gid && */ getegid() != gid) {
if (setregid(getegid(), gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
if (setregid(gid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else { /* getgid() == gid && getegid() == gid */
if (setregid(-1, SAVED_GROUP_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setregid(SAVED_GROUP_ID, gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
if (setregid(gid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#elif defined(HAVE_SETRGID) && defined(HAVE_SETEGID)
if (SAVED_GROUP_ID == gid) {
if (getegid() != gid && setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (getgid() != gid && setrgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else if (/* SAVED_GROUP_ID != gid && */ getegid() == gid) {
if (getgid() != gid) {
if (setrgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
} else {
if (setrgid(SAVED_GROUP_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
if (setrgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
}
} else if (/* getegid() != gid && */ getgid() == gid) {
if (setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setrgid(SAVED_GROUP_ID) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
if (setrgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
errno = EPERM;
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#elif defined HAVE_44BSD_SETGID
if (getgid() == gid) {
/* (r,e,s)==(gid,?,?) ==> (gid,gid,gid) */
if (setgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = gid;
} else {
errno = EPERM;
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#elif defined HAVE_SETEGID
if (getgid() == gid && SAVED_GROUP_ID == gid) {
if (setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
errno = EPERM;
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#elif defined HAVE_SETGID
if (getgid() == gid && SAVED_GROUP_ID == gid) {
if (setgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
} else {
errno = EPERM;
rb_sys_fail(0);
}
#else
rb_notimplement();
#endif
    }
    return id;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.euid -> fixnum
* Process::UID.eid -> fixnum
* Process::Sys.geteuid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the effective user ID for this process.
*
* Process.euid #=> 501
*/

static VALUE
proc_geteuid(VALUE obj, SEL sel)
{
    rb_uid_t euid = geteuid();
    return UIDT2NUM(euid);
}

#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID) || defined(HAVE_SETREUID) || defined(HAVE_SETEUID) || defined(HAVE_SETUID) || defined(_POSIX_SAVED_IDS)
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.euid= integer
*
* Sets the effective user ID for this process. Not available on all
* platforms.
*/

static VALUE
proc_seteuid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE euid)
{
    rb_uid_t uid;

    check_uid_switch();

    uid = NUM2UIDT(euid);
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID)
    if (setresuid(-1, uid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETREUID
    if (setreuid(-1, uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETEUID
    if (seteuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETUID
    if (uid == getuid()) {
if (setuid(uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    }
    else {
rb_notimplement();
    }
#else
    rb_notimplement();
#endif
    return euid;
}
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID) || defined(HAVE_SETREUID) || defined(HAVE_SETEUID) || defined(HAVE_SETUID)
#define proc_seteuid_m proc_seteuid
#else
#define proc_seteuid_m rb_f_notimplement
#endif

static rb_uid_t
rb_seteuid_core(rb_uid_t euid)
{
    rb_uid_t uid;

    check_uid_switch();

    uid = getuid();

#if defined(HAVE_SETRESUID)
    if (uid != euid) {
if (setresuid(-1,euid,euid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = euid;
    } else {
if (setresuid(-1,euid,-1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    }
#elif defined(HAVE_SETREUID) && !defined(OBSOLETE_SETREUID)
    if (setreuid(-1, euid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    if (uid != euid) {
if (setreuid(euid,uid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setreuid(uid,euid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_USER_ID = euid;
    }
#elif defined HAVE_SETEUID
    if (seteuid(euid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETUID
    if (geteuid() == 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    if (setuid(euid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#else
    rb_notimplement();
#endif
    return euid;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process::UID.grant_privilege(integer) -> fixnum
* Process::UID.eid= integer -> fixnum
*
* Set the effective user ID, and if possible, the saved user ID of
* the process to the given _integer_. Returns the new
* effective user ID. Not available on all platforms.
*
* [Process.uid, Process.euid] #=> [0, 0]
* Process::UID.grant_privilege(31) #=> 31
* [Process.uid, Process.euid] #=> [0, 31]
*/

static VALUE
p_uid_grant_privilege(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE id)
{
    rb_seteuid_core(NUM2UIDT(id));
    return id;
}


/*
* call-seq:
* Process.egid -> fixnum
* Process::GID.eid -> fixnum
* Process::Sys.geteid -> fixnum
*
* Returns the effective group ID for this process. Not available on
* all platforms.
*
* Process.egid #=> 500
*/

static VALUE
proc_getegid(VALUE obj, SEL sel)
{
    rb_gid_t egid = getegid();

    return GIDT2NUM(egid);
}

#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID) || defined(HAVE_SETREGID) || defined(HAVE_SETEGID) || defined(HAVE_SETGID) || defined(_POSIX_SAVED_IDS)
/*
* call-seq:
* Process.egid = fixnum -> fixnum
*
* Sets the effective group ID for this process. Not available on all
* platforms.
*/

static VALUE
proc_setegid(VALUE obj, SEL sel, VALUE egid)
{
    rb_gid_t gid;

    check_gid_switch();

    gid = NUM2GIDT(egid);
#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID)
    if (setresgid(-1, gid, -1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETREGID
    if (setregid(-1, gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETEGID
    if (setegid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETGID
    if (gid == getgid()) {
if (setgid(gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    }
    else {
rb_notimplement();
    }
#else
    rb_notimplement();
#endif
    return egid;
}
#endif

#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID) || defined(HAVE_SETREGID) || defined(HAVE_SETEGID) || defined(HAVE_SETGID)
#define proc_setegid_m proc_setegid
#else
#define proc_setegid_m rb_f_notimplement
#endif

static rb_gid_t
rb_setegid_core(rb_gid_t egid)
{
    rb_gid_t gid;

    check_gid_switch();

    gid = getgid();

#if defined(HAVE_SETRESGID)
    if (gid != egid) {
if (setresgid(-1,egid,egid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = egid;
    } else {
if (setresgid(-1,egid,-1) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    }
#elif defined(HAVE_SETREGID) && !defined(OBSOLETE_SETREGID)
    if (setregid(-1, egid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
    if (gid != egid) {
if (setregid(egid,gid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
if (setregid(gid,egid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
SAVED_GROUP_ID = egid;
    }
#elif defined HAVE_SETEGID
    if (setegid(egid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#elif defined HAVE_SETGID
    if (geteuid() == 0 /* root user */) rb_sys_fail(0);
    if (setgid(egid) < 0) rb_sys_fail(0);
#else
    rb_notimplement();
#endif
    return egid;
}