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=begin
#
# benchmark.rb - a performance benchmarking library
#
# $Id: benchmark.rb 15426 2008-02-10 15:29:00Z naruse $
#
# Created by Gotoken (gotoken@notwork.org).
#
# Documentation by Gotoken (original RD), Lyle Johnson (RDoc conversion), and
# Gavin Sinclair (editing).
#
=end

# == Overview
#
# The Benchmark module provides methods for benchmarking Ruby code, giving
# detailed reports on the time taken for each task.
#

# The Benchmark module provides methods to measure and report the time
# used to execute Ruby code.
#
# * Measure the time to construct the string given by the expression
# <tt>"a"*1_000_000</tt>:
#
# require 'benchmark'
#
# puts Benchmark.measure { "a"*1_000_000 }
#
# On my machine (FreeBSD 3.2 on P5, 100MHz) this generates:
#
# 1.166667 0.050000 1.216667 ( 0.571355)
#
# This report shows the user CPU time, system CPU time, the sum of
# the user and system CPU times, and the elapsed real time. The unit
# of time is seconds.
#
# * Do some experiments sequentially using the #bm method:
#
# require 'benchmark'
#
# n = 50000
# Benchmark.bm do |x|
# x.report { for i in 1..n; a = "1"; end }
# x.report { n.times do ; a = "1"; end }
# x.report { 1.upto(n) do ; a = "1"; end }
# end
#
# The result:
#
# user system total real
# 1.033333 0.016667 1.016667 ( 0.492106)
# 1.483333 0.000000 1.483333 ( 0.694605)
# 1.516667 0.000000 1.516667 ( 0.711077)
#
# * Continuing the previous example, put a label in each report:
#
# require 'benchmark'
#
# n = 50000
# Benchmark.bm(7) do |x|
# x.report("for:") { for i in 1..n; a = "1"; end }
# x.report("times:") { n.times do ; a = "1"; end }
# x.report("upto:") { 1.upto(n) do ; a = "1"; end }
# end
#
# The result:
#
# user system total real
# for: 1.050000 0.000000 1.050000 ( 0.503462)
# times: 1.533333 0.016667 1.550000 ( 0.735473)
# upto: 1.500000 0.016667 1.516667 ( 0.711239)
#
#
# * The times for some benchmarks depend on the order in which items
# are run. These differences are due to the cost of memory
# allocation and garbage collection. To avoid these discrepancies,
# the #bmbm method is provided. For example, to compare ways to
# sort an array of floats:
#
# require 'benchmark'
#
# array = (1..1000000).map { rand }
#
# Benchmark.bmbm do |x|
# x.report("sort!") { array.dup.sort! }
# x.report("sort") { array.dup.sort }
# end
#
# The result:
#
# Rehearsal -----------------------------------------
# sort! 11.928000 0.010000 11.938000 ( 12.756000)
# sort 13.048000 0.020000 13.068000 ( 13.857000)
# ------------------------------- total: 25.006000sec
#
# user system total real
# sort! 12.959000 0.010000 12.969000 ( 13.793000)
# sort 12.007000 0.000000 12.007000 ( 12.791000)
#
#
# * Report statistics of sequential experiments with unique labels,
# using the #benchmark method:
#
# require 'benchmark'
#
# n = 50000
# Benchmark.benchmark(" "*7 + CAPTION, 7, FMTSTR, ">total:", ">avg:") do |x|
# tf = x.report("for:") { for i in 1..n; a = "1"; end }
# tt = x.report("times:") { n.times do ; a = "1"; end }
# tu = x.report("upto:") { 1.upto(n) do ; a = "1"; end }
# [tf+tt+tu, (tf+tt+tu)/3]
# end
#
# The result:
#
# user system total real
# for: 1.016667 0.016667 1.033333 ( 0.485749)
# times: 1.450000 0.016667 1.466667 ( 0.681367)
# upto: 1.533333 0.000000 1.533333 ( 0.722166)
# >total: 4.000000 0.033333 4.033333 ( 1.889282)
# >avg: 1.333333 0.011111 1.344444 ( 0.629761)

module Benchmark

  BENCHMARK_VERSION = "2002-04-25" #:nodoc"

  def Benchmark::times() # :nodoc:
      Process::times()
  end


  # Invokes the block with a <tt>Benchmark::Report</tt> object, which
  # may be used to collect and report on the results of individual
  # benchmark tests. Reserves <i>label_width</i> leading spaces for
  # labels on each line. Prints _caption_ at the top of the
  # report, and uses _fmt_ to format each line.
  # If the block returns an array of
  # <tt>Benchmark::Tms</tt> objects, these will be used to format
  # additional lines of output. If _label_ parameters are
  # given, these are used to label these extra lines.
  #
  # _Note_: Other methods provide a simpler interface to this one, and are
  # suitable for nearly all benchmarking requirements. See the examples in
  # Benchmark, and the #bm and #bmbm methods.
  #
  # Example:
  #
  # require 'benchmark'
  # include Benchmark # we need the CAPTION and FMTSTR constants
  #
  # n = 50000
  # Benchmark.benchmark(" "*7 + CAPTION, 7, FMTSTR, ">total:", ">avg:") do |x|
  # tf = x.report("for:") { for i in 1..n; a = "1"; end }
  # tt = x.report("times:") { n.times do ; a = "1"; end }
  # tu = x.report("upto:") { 1.upto(n) do ; a = "1"; end }
  # [tf+tt+tu, (tf+tt+tu)/3]
  # end
  #
  # <i>Generates:</i>
  #
  # user system total real
  # for: 1.016667 0.016667 1.033333 ( 0.485749)
  # times: 1.450000 0.016667 1.466667 ( 0.681367)
  # upto: 1.533333 0.000000 1.533333 ( 0.722166)
  # >total: 4.000000 0.033333 4.033333 ( 1.889282)
  # >avg: 1.333333 0.011111 1.344444 ( 0.629761)
  #

  def benchmark(caption = "", label_width = nil, fmtstr = nil, *labels) # :yield: report
    sync = STDOUT.sync
    STDOUT.sync = true
    label_width ||= 0
    fmtstr ||= FMTSTR
    raise ArgumentError, "no block" unless iterator?
    print caption
    results = yield(Report.new(label_width, fmtstr))
    Array === results and results.grep(Tms).each {|t|
      print((labels.shift || t.label || "").ljust(label_width),
            t.format(fmtstr))
    }
    STDOUT.sync = sync
  end


  # A simple interface to the #benchmark method, #bm is generates sequential reports
  # with labels. The parameters have the same meaning as for #benchmark.
  #
  # require 'benchmark'
  #
  # n = 50000
  # Benchmark.bm(7) do |x|
  # x.report("for:") { for i in 1..n; a = "1"; end }
  # x.report("times:") { n.times do ; a = "1"; end }
  # x.report("upto:") { 1.upto(n) do ; a = "1"; end }
  # end
  #
  # <i>Generates:</i>
  #
  # user system total real
  # for: 1.050000 0.000000 1.050000 ( 0.503462)
  # times: 1.533333 0.016667 1.550000 ( 0.735473)
  # upto: 1.500000 0.016667 1.516667 ( 0.711239)
  #

  def bm(label_width = 0, *labels, &blk) # :yield: report
    benchmark(" "*label_width + CAPTION, label_width, FMTSTR, *labels, &blk)
  end


  # Sometimes benchmark results are skewed because code executed
  # earlier encounters different garbage collection overheads than
  # that run later. #bmbm attempts to minimize this effect by running
  # the tests twice, the first time as a rehearsal in order to get the
  # runtime environment stable, the second time for
  # real. <tt>GC.start</tt> is executed before the start of each of
  # the real timings; the cost of this is not included in the
  # timings. In reality, though, there's only so much that #bmbm can
  # do, and the results are not guaranteed to be isolated from garbage
  # collection and other effects.
  #
  # Because #bmbm takes two passes through the tests, it can
  # calculate the required label width.
  #
  # require 'benchmark'
  #
  # array = (1..1000000).map { rand }
  #
  # Benchmark.bmbm do |x|
  # x.report("sort!") { array.dup.sort! }
  # x.report("sort") { array.dup.sort }
  # end
  #
  # <i>Generates:</i>
  #
  # Rehearsal -----------------------------------------
  # sort! 11.928000 0.010000 11.938000 ( 12.756000)
  # sort 13.048000 0.020000 13.068000 ( 13.857000)
  # ------------------------------- total: 25.006000sec
  #
  # user system total real
  # sort! 12.959000 0.010000 12.969000 ( 13.793000)
  # sort 12.007000 0.000000 12.007000 ( 12.791000)
  #
  # #bmbm yields a Benchmark::Job object and returns an array of
  # Benchmark::Tms objects.
  #
  def bmbm(width = 0, &blk) # :yield: job
    job = Job.new(width)
    yield(job)
    width = job.width
    sync = STDOUT.sync
    STDOUT.sync = true

    # rehearsal
    print "Rehearsal "
    puts '-'*(width+CAPTION.length - "Rehearsal ".length)
    list = []
    job.list.each{|label,item|
      print(label.ljust(width))
      res = Benchmark::measure(&item)
      print res.format()
      list.push res
    }
    sum = Tms.new; list.each{|i| sum += i}
    ets = sum.format("total: %tsec")
    printf("%s %s\n\n",
           "-"*(width+CAPTION.length-ets.length-1), ets)

    # take
    print ' '*width, CAPTION
    list = []
    ary = []
    job.list.each{|label,item|
      GC::start
      print label.ljust(width)
      res = Benchmark::measure(&item)
      print res.format()
      ary.push res
      list.push [label, res]
    }

    ary
  ensure
    STDOUT.sync = sync unless sync.nil?
  end

  #
  # Returns the time used to execute the given block as a
  # Benchmark::Tms object.
  #
  def measure(label = "") # :yield:
    t0, r0 = Benchmark.times, Time.now
    yield
    t1, r1 = Benchmark.times, Time.now
    Benchmark::Tms.new(t1.utime - t0.utime,
                       t1.stime - t0.stime,
                       t1.cutime - t0.cutime,
                       t1.cstime - t0.cstime,
                       r1.to_f - r0.to_f,
                       label)
  end

  #
  # Returns the elapsed real time used to execute the given block.
  #
  def realtime(&blk) # :yield:
    r0 = Time.now
    yield
    r1 = Time.now
    r1.to_f - r0.to_f
  end



  #
  # A Job is a sequence of labelled blocks to be processed by the
  # Benchmark.bmbm method. It is of little direct interest to the user.
  #
  class Job # :nodoc:
    #
    # Returns an initialized Job instance.
    # Usually, one doesn't call this method directly, as new
    # Job objects are created by the #bmbm method.
    # _width_ is a initial value for the label offset used in formatting;
    # the #bmbm method passes its _width_ argument to this constructor.
    #
    def initialize(width)
      @width = width
      @list = []
    end

    #
    # Registers the given label and block pair in the job list.
    #
    def item(label = "", &blk) # :yield:
      raise ArgumentError, "no block" unless block_given?
      label += ' '
      w = label.length
      @width = w if @width < w
      @list.push [label, blk]
      self
    end

    alias report item

    # An array of 2-element arrays, consisting of label and block pairs.
    attr_reader :list

    # Length of the widest label in the #list, plus one.
    attr_reader :width
  end

  module_function :benchmark, :measure, :realtime, :bm, :bmbm



  #
  # This class is used by the Benchmark.benchmark and Benchmark.bm methods.
  # It is of little direct interest to the user.
  #
  class Report # :nodoc:
    #
    # Returns an initialized Report instance.
    # Usually, one doesn't call this method directly, as new
    # Report objects are created by the #benchmark and #bm methods.
    # _width_ and _fmtstr_ are the label offset and
    # format string used by Tms#format.
    #
    def initialize(width = 0, fmtstr = nil)
      @width, @fmtstr = width, fmtstr
    end

    #
    # Prints the _label_ and measured time for the block,
    # formatted by _fmt_. See Tms#format for the
    # formatting rules.
    #
    def item(label = "", *fmt, &blk) # :yield:
      print label.ljust(@width)
      res = Benchmark::measure(&blk)
      print res.format(@fmtstr, *fmt)
      res
    end

    alias report item
  end



  #
  # A data object, representing the times associated with a benchmark
  # measurement.
  #
  class Tms
    CAPTION = " user system total real\n"
    FMTSTR = "%10.6u %10.6y %10.6t %10.6r\n"

    # User CPU time
    attr_reader :utime

    # System CPU time
    attr_reader :stime

    # User CPU time of children
    attr_reader :cutime

    # System CPU time of children
    attr_reader :cstime

    # Elapsed real time
    attr_reader :real

    # Total time, that is _utime_ + _stime_ + _cutime_ + _cstime_
    attr_reader :total

    # Label
    attr_reader :label

    #
    # Returns an initialized Tms object which has
    # _u_ as the user CPU time, _s_ as the system CPU time,
    # _cu_ as the children's user CPU time, _cs_ as the children's
    # system CPU time, _real_ as the elapsed real time and _l_
    # as the label.
    #
    def initialize(u = 0.0, s = 0.0, cu = 0.0, cs = 0.0, real = 0.0, l = nil)
      @utime, @stime, @cutime, @cstime, @real, @label = u, s, cu, cs, real, l
      @total = @utime + @stime + @cutime + @cstime
    end

    #
    # Returns a new Tms object whose times are the sum of the times for this
    # Tms object, plus the time required to execute the code block (_blk_).
    #
    def add(&blk) # :yield:
      self + Benchmark::measure(&blk)
    end

    #
    # An in-place version of #add.
    #
    def add!(&blk)
      t = Benchmark::measure(&blk)
      @utime = utime + t.utime
      @stime = stime + t.stime
      @cutime = cutime + t.cutime
      @cstime = cstime + t.cstime
      @real = real + t.real
      self
    end

    #
    # Returns a new Tms object obtained by memberwise summation
    # of the individual times for this Tms object with those of the other
    # Tms object.
    # This method and #/() are useful for taking statistics.
    #
    def +(other); memberwise(:+, other) end

    #
    # Returns a new Tms object obtained by memberwise subtraction
    # of the individual times for the other Tms object from those of this
    # Tms object.
    #
    def -(other); memberwise(:-, other) end

    #
    # Returns a new Tms object obtained by memberwise multiplication
    # of the individual times for this Tms object by _x_.
    #
    def *(x); memberwise(:*, x) end

    #
    # Returns a new Tms object obtained by memberwise division
    # of the individual times for this Tms object by _x_.
    # This method and #+() are useful for taking statistics.
    #
    def /(x); memberwise(:/, x) end

    #
    # Returns the contents of this Tms object as
    # a formatted string, according to a format string
    # like that passed to Kernel.format. In addition, #format
    # accepts the following extensions:
    #
    # <tt>%u</tt>:: Replaced by the user CPU time, as reported by Tms#utime.
    # <tt>%y</tt>:: Replaced by the system CPU time, as reported by #stime (Mnemonic: y of "s*y*stem")
    # <tt>%U</tt>:: Replaced by the children's user CPU time, as reported by Tms#cutime
    # <tt>%Y</tt>:: Replaced by the children's system CPU time, as reported by Tms#cstime
    # <tt>%t</tt>:: Replaced by the total CPU time, as reported by Tms#total
    # <tt>%r</tt>:: Replaced by the elapsed real time, as reported by Tms#real
    # <tt>%n</tt>:: Replaced by the label string, as reported by Tms#label (Mnemonic: n of "*n*ame")
    #
    # If _fmtstr_ is not given, FMTSTR is used as default value, detailing the
    # user, system and real elapsed time.
    #
    def format(arg0 = nil, *args)
      fmtstr = (arg0 || FMTSTR).dup
      fmtstr.gsub!(/(%[-+\.\d]*)n/){"#{$1}s" % label}
      fmtstr.gsub!(/(%[-+\.\d]*)u/){"#{$1}f" % utime}
      fmtstr.gsub!(/(%[-+\.\d]*)y/){"#{$1}f" % stime}
      fmtstr.gsub!(/(%[-+\.\d]*)U/){"#{$1}f" % cutime}
      fmtstr.gsub!(/(%[-+\.\d]*)Y/){"#{$1}f" % cstime}
      fmtstr.gsub!(/(%[-+\.\d]*)t/){"#{$1}f" % total}
      fmtstr.gsub!(/(%[-+\.\d]*)r/){"(#{$1}f)" % real}
      arg0 ? Kernel::format(fmtstr, *args) : fmtstr
    end

    #
    # Same as #format.
    #
    def to_s
      format
    end

    #
    # Returns a new 6-element array, consisting of the
    # label, user CPU time, system CPU time, children's
    # user CPU time, children's system CPU time and elapsed
    # real time.
    #
    def to_a
      [@label, @utime, @stime, @cutime, @cstime, @real]
    end

    protected
    def memberwise(op, x)
      case x
      when Benchmark::Tms
        Benchmark::Tms.new(utime.__send__(op, x.utime),
                           stime.__send__(op, x.stime),
                           cutime.__send__(op, x.cutime),
                           cstime.__send__(op, x.cstime),
                           real.__send__(op, x.real)
                           )
      else
        Benchmark::Tms.new(utime.__send__(op, x),
                           stime.__send__(op, x),
                           cutime.__send__(op, x),
                           cstime.__send__(op, x),
                           real.__send__(op, x)
                           )
      end
    end
  end

  # The default caption string (heading above the output times).
  CAPTION = Benchmark::Tms::CAPTION

  # The default format string used to display times. See also Benchmark::Tms#format.
  FMTSTR = Benchmark::Tms::FMTSTR
end

if __FILE__ == $0
  include Benchmark

  n = ARGV[0].to_i.nonzero? || 50000
  puts %Q([#{n} times iterations of `a = "1"'])
  benchmark(" " + CAPTION, 7, FMTSTR) do |x|
    x.report("for:") {for i in 1..n; a = "1"; end} # Benchmark::measure
    x.report("times:") {n.times do ; a = "1"; end}
    x.report("upto:") {1.upto(n) do ; a = "1"; end}
  end

  benchmark do
    [
      measure{for i in 1..n; a = "1"; end}, # Benchmark::measure
      measure{n.times do ; a = "1"; end},
      measure{1.upto(n) do ; a = "1"; end}
    ]
  end
end
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