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/**********************************************************************

vm_eval.c -

$Author: nobu $
created at: Sat May 24 16:02:32 JST 2008

Copyright (C) 1993-2007 Yukihiro Matsumoto
Copyright (C) 2000 Network Applied Communication Laboratory, Inc.
Copyright (C) 2000 Information-technology Promotion Agency, Japan

**********************************************************************/

#include "ruby/ruby.h"
#include "ruby/node.h"
#include "ruby/st.h"

#include "vm_method.c"

static inline VALUE method_missing(VALUE obj, ID id, int argc, const VALUE *argv, int call_status);
static inline VALUE rb_vm_set_finish_env(rb_thread_t * th);
static inline VALUE vm_yield_with_cref(rb_thread_t *th, int argc, const VALUE *argv, const NODE *cref);
static inline VALUE vm_yield(rb_thread_t *th, int argc, const VALUE *argv);
static inline VALUE vm_backtrace(rb_thread_t *th, int lev);
static NODE *vm_cref_push(rb_thread_t *th, VALUE klass, int noex);
static VALUE vm_eval_body(rb_thread_t *th);
static void vm_set_eval_stack(rb_thread_t * th, VALUE iseqval, const NODE *cref);

static inline VALUE
vm_call0(rb_thread_t * th, VALUE klass, VALUE recv, VALUE id, ID oid,
int argc, const VALUE *argv, const NODE *body, int nosuper)
{
    VALUE val;
    rb_block_t *blockptr = 0;

    if (0) printf("id: %s, nd: %s, argc: %d, passed: %p\n",
rb_id2name(id), ruby_node_name(nd_type(body)),
argc, th->passed_block);

    if (th->passed_block) {
blockptr = th->passed_block;
th->passed_block = 0;
    }
    switch (nd_type(body)) {
      case RUBY_VM_METHOD_NODE:{
rb_control_frame_t *reg_cfp;
VALUE iseqval = (VALUE)body->nd_body;
int i;

rb_vm_set_finish_env(th);
reg_cfp = th->cfp;

CHECK_STACK_OVERFLOW(reg_cfp, argc + 1);

*reg_cfp->sp++ = recv;
for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
*reg_cfp->sp++ = argv[i];
}

vm_setup_method(th, reg_cfp, argc, blockptr, 0, iseqval, recv, klass);
val = vm_eval_body(th);
break;
      }
      case NODE_CFUNC: {
EXEC_EVENT_HOOK(th, RUBY_EVENT_C_CALL, recv, id, klass);
{
rb_control_frame_t *reg_cfp = th->cfp;
rb_control_frame_t *cfp =
vm_push_frame(th, 0, FRAME_MAGIC_CFUNC,
recv, (VALUE)blockptr, 0, reg_cfp->sp, 0, 1);

cfp->method_id = id;
cfp->method_class = klass;

val = call_cfunc(body->nd_cfnc, recv, body->nd_argc, argc, argv);

if (reg_cfp != th->cfp + 1) {
SDR2(reg_cfp);
SDR2(th->cfp-5);
rb_bug("cfp consistency error - call0");
th->cfp = reg_cfp;
}
vm_pop_frame(th);
}
EXEC_EVENT_HOOK(th, RUBY_EVENT_C_RETURN, recv, id, klass);
break;
      }
      case NODE_ATTRSET:{
if (argc != 1) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong number of arguments (%d for 1)", argc);
}
val = rb_ivar_set(recv, body->nd_vid, argv[0]);
break;
      }
      case NODE_IVAR: {
if (argc != 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong number of arguments (%d for 0)",
argc);
}
val = rb_attr_get(recv, body->nd_vid);
break;
      }
      case NODE_BMETHOD:{
val = vm_call_bmethod(th, id, body->nd_cval,
recv, klass, argc, (VALUE *)argv, blockptr);
break;
      }
      default:
rb_bug("unsupported: vm_call0(%s)", ruby_node_name(nd_type(body)));
    }
    RUBY_VM_CHECK_INTS();
    return val;
}

VALUE
rb_vm_call(rb_thread_t * th, VALUE klass, VALUE recv, VALUE id, ID oid,
int argc, const VALUE *argv, const NODE *body, int nosuper)
{
    return vm_call0(th, klass, recv, id, oid, argc, argv, body, nosuper);
}

static inline VALUE
vm_call_super(rb_thread_t * const th, const int argc, const VALUE * const argv)
{
    VALUE recv = th->cfp->self;
    VALUE klass;
    ID id;
    NODE *body;
    rb_control_frame_t *cfp = th->cfp;

    if (!cfp->iseq) {
klass = cfp->method_class;
klass = RCLASS_SUPER(klass);

if (klass == 0) {
klass = vm_search_normal_superclass(cfp->method_class, recv, cfp->method_id);
}

id = cfp->method_id;
    }
    else {
rb_bug("vm_call_super: should not be reached");
    }

#if WITH_OBJC
    SEL sel;
    IMP imp;

    if (argc == 0) {
const char *id_str;
size_t id_str_len;

id_str = rb_id2name(id);
id_str_len = strlen(id_str);
if (id_str[id_str_len - 1] == ':') {
char buf[100];
strncpy(buf, id_str, sizeof buf);
buf[MIN(sizeof buf, id_str_len - 1)] = '\0';
id = rb_intern(buf);
}
    }

    body = rb_objc_method_node(klass, id, &imp, &sel);
    if (body != NULL) {
body = body->nd_body;
return vm_call0(th, klass, recv, id, id, argc, argv, body, CALL_SUPER);
    }
    else if (imp != NULL) {
struct rb_objc_method_sig sig;
Method m;

m = class_getInstanceMethod((Class)klass, sel);
assert(m != NULL);
sig.argc = method_getNumberOfArguments(m);
sig.types = method_getTypeEncoding(m);
return rb_objc_call2(recv, klass, sel, imp, &sig, NULL, argc, (VALUE *)argv);
    }
    else {
dp(recv);
dp(klass);
dpi(id);
rb_bug("vm_call_super: not found");
    }
#else
    body = rb_method_node(klass, id); /* this returns NODE_METHOD */

    if (body) {
body = body->nd_body;
    }
    else {
dp(recv);
dp(klass);
dpi(id);
rb_bug("vm_call_super: not found");
    }

    return vm_call0(th, klass, recv, id, id, argc, argv, body, CALL_SUPER);
#endif
}

VALUE
rb_call_super(int argc, const VALUE *argv)
{
    PASS_PASSED_BLOCK();
    return vm_call_super(GET_THREAD(), argc, argv);
}

static inline void
stack_check(void)
{
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();

    if (!rb_thread_raised_p(th, RAISED_STACKOVERFLOW) && ruby_stack_check()) {
rb_thread_raised_set(th, RAISED_STACKOVERFLOW);
rb_exc_raise(sysstack_error);
    }
}

static inline VALUE
rb_call0(VALUE klass, VALUE recv, ID mid, int argc, const VALUE *argv,
int scope, VALUE self)
{
    NODE *body, *method;
    int noex;
    ID id = mid;
#if !WITH_OBJC
    struct cache_entry *ent;
#endif
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();

    if (!klass) {
rb_raise(rb_eNotImpError,
"method `%s' called on terminated object (%p)",
rb_id2name(mid), (void *)recv);
    }

#if WITH_OBJC
    IMP imp;
    SEL sel;

    if (argc > 0 && mid != ID_ALLOCATOR) {
const char *mid_str;
char buf[100];
size_t len;

mid_str = rb_id2name(mid);
len = strlen(mid_str);
if (mid_str[len - 1] != ':') {
snprintf(buf, sizeof buf, "%s:", mid_str);
mid = rb_intern(buf);
}
    }

    method = rb_objc_method_node(klass, mid, &imp, &sel);

    if (imp != NULL && method == NULL)
return rb_objc_call(recv, sel, argc, (VALUE *)argv);

    DLOG("RCALL", "%c[<%s %p> %s] node=%p", class_isMetaClass((Class)klass) ? '+' : '-', class_getName((Class)klass), (void *)recv, (char *)sel, method);
    
    if (method == NULL) {
int missing_scope = scope == 2 ? NOEX_VCALL : scope == 3 ? NOEX_SUPER : 0;
return method_missing(recv, mid, argc, argv, missing_scope);
    }
    else {
noex = method->nd_noex;
klass = method->nd_clss;
body = method->nd_body;
    }
#else
    /* is it in the method cache? */
    ent = cache + EXPR1(klass, mid);

    if (ent->mid == mid && ent->klass == klass) {
if (!ent->method) {
return method_missing(recv, mid, argc, argv,
scope == 2 ? NOEX_VCALL : 0);
}
id = ent->mid0;
noex = ent->method->nd_noex;
klass = ent->method->nd_clss;
body = ent->method->nd_body;
    }
    else if ((method = rb_get_method_body(klass, id, &id)) != 0) {
noex = method->nd_noex;
klass = method->nd_clss;
body = method->nd_body;
    }
    else {
if (scope == 3) {
return method_missing(recv, mid, argc, argv, NOEX_SUPER);
}
return method_missing(recv, mid, argc, argv,
scope == 2 ? NOEX_VCALL : 0);
    }
#endif
    
    if (mid != missing) {
/* receiver specified form for private method */
if (UNLIKELY(noex)) {
if (((noex & NOEX_MASK) & NOEX_PRIVATE) && scope == 0) {
return method_missing(recv, mid, argc, argv, NOEX_PRIVATE);
}

/* self must be kind of a specified form for protected method */
if (((noex & NOEX_MASK) & NOEX_PROTECTED) && scope == 0) {
VALUE defined_class = klass;

if (TYPE(defined_class) == T_ICLASS) {
defined_class = RBASIC(defined_class)->klass;
}

if (self == Qundef) {
self = th->cfp->self;
}
if (!rb_obj_is_kind_of(self, rb_class_real(defined_class))) {
return method_missing(recv, mid, argc, argv, NOEX_PROTECTED);
}
}

if (NOEX_SAFE(noex) > th->safe_level) {
rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "calling insecure method: %s", rb_id2name(mid));
}
}
    }

    stack_check();
    return vm_call0(th, klass, recv, mid, id, argc, argv, body, noex & NOEX_NOSUPER);
}

static inline VALUE
rb_call(VALUE klass, VALUE recv, ID mid, int argc, const VALUE *argv, int scope)
{
    return rb_call0(klass, recv, mid, argc, argv, scope, Qundef);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* obj.method_missing(symbol [, *args] ) => result
*
* Invoked by Ruby when <i>obj</i> is sent a message it cannot handle.
* <i>symbol</i> is the symbol for the method called, and <i>args</i>
* are any arguments that were passed to it. By default, the interpreter
* raises an error when this method is called. However, it is possible
* to override the method to provide more dynamic behavior.
* If it is decided that a particular method should not be handled, then
* <i>super</i> should be called, so that ancestors can pick up the
* missing method.
* The example below creates
* a class <code>Roman</code>, which responds to methods with names
* consisting of roman numerals, returning the corresponding integer
* values.
*
* class Roman
* def romanToInt(str)
* # ...
* end
* def method_missing(methId)
* str = methId.id2name
* romanToInt(str)
* end
* end
*
* r = Roman.new
* r.iv #=> 4
* r.xxiii #=> 23
* r.mm #=> 2000
*/

static VALUE
rb_method_missing(int argc, const VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    ID id;
    VALUE exc = rb_eNoMethodError;
    const char *format = 0;
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    int last_call_status = th->method_missing_reason;
    if (argc == 0 || !SYMBOL_P(argv[0])) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "no id given");
    }

    stack_check();

    id = SYM2ID(argv[0]);

    if (last_call_status & NOEX_PRIVATE) {
format = "private method `%s' called for %s";
    }
    else if (last_call_status & NOEX_PROTECTED) {
format = "protected method `%s' called for %s";
    }
    else if (last_call_status & NOEX_VCALL) {
format = "undefined local variable or method `%s' for %s";
exc = rb_eNameError;
    }
    else if (last_call_status & NOEX_SUPER) {
format = "super: no superclass method `%s' for %s";
    }
    if (!format) {
format = "undefined method `%s' for %s";
    }

    {
int n = 0;
VALUE args[3];
args[n++] = rb_funcall(rb_const_get(exc, rb_intern("message")), '!',
3, rb_str_new2(format), obj, argv[0]);
args[n++] = argv[0];
if (exc == rb_eNoMethodError) {
args[n++] = rb_ary_new4(argc - 1, argv + 1);
}
exc = rb_class_new_instance(n, args, exc);

th->cfp = RUBY_VM_PREVIOUS_CONTROL_FRAME(th->cfp);
rb_exc_raise(exc);
    }

    return Qnil; /* not reached */
}

static inline VALUE
method_missing(VALUE obj, ID id, int argc, const VALUE *argv, int call_status)
{
    VALUE *nargv;
    GET_THREAD()->method_missing_reason = call_status;

    if (id == missing) {
rb_method_missing(argc, argv, obj);
    }
    else if (id == ID_ALLOCATOR) {
rb_raise(rb_eTypeError, "allocator undefined for %s",
rb_class2name(obj));
    }

    nargv = ALLOCA_N(VALUE, argc + 1);
    nargv[0] = ID2SYM(id);
    MEMCPY(nargv + 1, argv, VALUE, argc);

    return rb_funcall2(obj, missing, argc + 1, nargv);
}

VALUE
rb_apply(VALUE recv, ID mid, VALUE args)
{
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;

    argc = RARRAY_LEN(args); /* Assigns LONG, but argc is INT */
    argv = ALLOCA_N(VALUE, argc);
    MEMCPY(argv, RARRAY_PTR(args), VALUE, argc);
    return rb_call(CLASS_OF(recv), recv, mid, argc, argv, CALL_FCALL);
}

VALUE
rb_funcall(VALUE recv, ID mid, int n, ...)
{
    VALUE *argv;
    va_list ar;
    va_init_list(ar, n);

    if (n > 0) {
long i;

argv = ALLOCA_N(VALUE, n);

for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
argv[i] = va_arg(ar, VALUE);
}
va_end(ar);
    }
    else {
argv = 0;
    }
    return rb_call(CLASS_OF(recv), recv, mid, n, argv, CALL_FCALL);
}

VALUE
rb_funcall2(VALUE recv, ID mid, int argc, const VALUE *argv)
{
    return rb_call(CLASS_OF(recv), recv, mid, argc, argv, CALL_FCALL);
}

VALUE
rb_funcall3(VALUE recv, ID mid, int argc, const VALUE *argv)
{
    return rb_call(CLASS_OF(recv), recv, mid, argc, argv, CALL_PUBLIC);
}

static VALUE
send_internal(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE recv, int scope)
{
    VALUE vid;
    VALUE self = RUBY_VM_PREVIOUS_CONTROL_FRAME(GET_THREAD()->cfp)->self;

    if (argc == 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "no method name given");
    }

    vid = *argv++; argc--;
    PASS_PASSED_BLOCK();
    return rb_call0(CLASS_OF(recv), recv, rb_to_id(vid), argc, argv, scope, self);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* obj.send(symbol [, args...]) => obj
* obj.__send__(symbol [, args...]) => obj
*
* Invokes the method identified by _symbol_, passing it any
* arguments specified. You can use <code>__send__</code> if the name
* +send+ clashes with an existing method in _obj_.
*
* class Klass
* def hello(*args)
* "Hello " + args.join(' ')
* end
* end
* k = Klass.new
* k.send :hello, "gentle", "readers" #=> "Hello gentle readers"
*/

VALUE
rb_f_send(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE recv)
{
    return send_internal(argc, argv, recv, NOEX_NOSUPER | NOEX_PRIVATE);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* obj.public_send(symbol [, args...]) => obj
*
* Invokes the method identified by _symbol_, passing it any
* arguments specified. Unlike send, public_send calls public
* methods only.
*
* 1.public_send(:puts, "hello") # causes NoMethodError
*/

VALUE
rb_f_public_send(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE recv)
{
    return send_internal(argc, argv, recv, NOEX_PUBLIC);
}

/* yield */

static inline VALUE
rb_yield_0(int argc, const VALUE * argv)
{
    return vm_yield(GET_THREAD(), argc, argv);
}

VALUE
rb_yield(VALUE val)
{
    if (val == Qundef) {
return rb_yield_0(0, 0);
    }
    else {
return rb_yield_0(1, &val);
    }
}

VALUE
rb_yield_values(int n, ...)
{
    if (n == 0) {
return rb_yield_0(0, 0);
    }
    else {
int i;
VALUE *argv;
va_list args;
argv = ALLOCA_N(VALUE, n);

va_init_list(args, n);
for (i=0; i<n; i++) {
argv[i] = va_arg(args, VALUE);
}
va_end(args);

return rb_yield_0(n, argv);
    }
}

VALUE
rb_yield_values2(int argc, const VALUE *argv)
{
    return rb_yield_0(argc, argv);
}

VALUE
rb_yield_splat(VALUE values)
{
    VALUE tmp = rb_check_array_type(values);
    volatile VALUE v;
    if (NIL_P(tmp)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "not an array");
    }
    v = rb_yield_0(RARRAY_LEN(tmp), RARRAY_PTR(tmp));
    return v;
}

static VALUE
loop_i(void)
{
    for (;;) {
rb_yield_0(0, 0);
    }
    return Qnil;
}

/*
* call-seq:
* loop {|| block }
*
* Repeatedly executes the block.
*
* loop do
* print "Input: "
* line = gets
* break if !line or line =~ /^qQ/
* # ...
* end
*
* StopIteration raised in the block breaks the loop.
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_loop(void)
{
    rb_rescue2(loop_i, (VALUE)0, 0, 0, rb_eStopIteration, (VALUE)0);
    return Qnil; /* dummy */
}

VALUE
rb_iterate(VALUE (* it_proc) (VALUE), VALUE data1,
VALUE (* bl_proc) (ANYARGS), VALUE data2)
{
    int state;
    volatile VALUE retval = Qnil;
    NODE *node = NEW_IFUNC(bl_proc, data2);
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    rb_control_frame_t *cfp = th->cfp;

    TH_PUSH_TAG(th);
    state = TH_EXEC_TAG();
    if (state == 0) {
      iter_retry:
{
rb_block_t *blockptr = RUBY_VM_GET_BLOCK_PTR_IN_CFP(th->cfp);
GC_WB(&blockptr->iseq, (void *)node);
blockptr->proc = 0;
th->passed_block = blockptr;
}
retval = (*it_proc) (data1);
    }
    else {
VALUE err = th->errinfo;
if (state == TAG_BREAK) {
VALUE *escape_dfp = GET_THROWOBJ_CATCH_POINT(err);
VALUE *cdfp = cfp->dfp;

if (cdfp == escape_dfp) {
state = 0;
th->state = 0;
th->errinfo = Qnil;
th->cfp = cfp;
}
else{
/* SDR(); printf("%p, %p\n", cdfp, escape_dfp); */
}
}
else if (state == TAG_RETRY) {
VALUE *escape_dfp = GET_THROWOBJ_CATCH_POINT(err);
VALUE *cdfp = cfp->dfp;

if (cdfp == escape_dfp) {
state = 0;
th->state = 0;
th->errinfo = Qnil;
th->cfp = cfp;
goto iter_retry;
}
}
    }
    TH_POP_TAG();

    switch (state) {
      case 0:
break;
      default:
TH_JUMP_TAG(th, state);
    }
    return retval;
}

struct iter_method_arg {
    VALUE obj;
    ID mid;
    int argc;
    VALUE *argv;
};

static VALUE
iterate_method(VALUE obj)
{
    const struct iter_method_arg * arg =
      (struct iter_method_arg *) obj;

    return rb_call(CLASS_OF(arg->obj), arg->obj, arg->mid,
arg->argc, arg->argv, CALL_FCALL);
}

VALUE
rb_block_call(VALUE obj, ID mid, int argc, VALUE * argv,
VALUE (*bl_proc) (ANYARGS), VALUE data2)
{
    struct iter_method_arg arg;

    arg.obj = obj;
    arg.mid = mid;
    arg.argc = argc;
    arg.argv = argv;
    return rb_iterate(iterate_method, (VALUE)&arg, bl_proc, data2);
}

VALUE
rb_each(VALUE obj)
{
    return rb_call(CLASS_OF(obj), obj, idEach, 0, 0, CALL_FCALL);
}

static VALUE
eval_string_with_cref(VALUE self, VALUE src, VALUE scope, NODE *cref, const char *file, int line)
{
    int state;
    VALUE result = Qundef;
    VALUE envval;
    rb_binding_t *bind = 0;
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    rb_env_t *env = NULL;
    rb_block_t block;

    if (file == 0) {
file = rb_sourcefile();
line = rb_sourceline();
    }

    PUSH_TAG();
    if ((state = EXEC_TAG()) == 0) {
rb_iseq_t *iseq;
volatile VALUE iseqval;

if (scope != Qnil) {
if (rb_obj_is_kind_of(scope, rb_cBinding)) {
GetBindingPtr(scope, bind);
envval = bind->env;
}
else {
rb_raise(rb_eTypeError,
"wrong argument type %s (expected Binding)",
rb_obj_classname(scope));
}
GetEnvPtr(envval, env);
th->base_block = &env->block;
}
else {
rb_control_frame_t *cfp = vm_get_ruby_level_cfp(th, th->cfp);
block = *RUBY_VM_GET_BLOCK_PTR_IN_CFP(cfp);
th->base_block = &block;
th->base_block->self = self;
th->base_block->iseq = cfp->iseq; /* TODO */
}

/* make eval iseq */
th->parse_in_eval++;
iseqval = rb_iseq_compile(src, rb_str_new2(file), INT2FIX(line));
th->parse_in_eval--;

vm_set_eval_stack(th, iseqval, cref);
th->base_block = 0;

if (0) { /* for debug */
extern VALUE ruby_iseq_disasm(VALUE);
printf("%s\n", RSTRING_PTR(ruby_iseq_disasm(iseqval)));
}

/* save new env */
GetISeqPtr(iseqval, iseq);
if (bind && iseq->local_size > 0) {
bind->env = vm_make_env_object(th, th->cfp);
}

/* kick */
CHECK_STACK_OVERFLOW(th->cfp, iseq->stack_max);
result = vm_eval_body(th);
    }
    POP_TAG();

    if (state) {
if (state == TAG_RAISE) {
VALUE errinfo = th->errinfo;
if (strcmp(file, "(eval)") == 0) {
VALUE mesg, errat, bt2;
extern VALUE rb_get_backtrace(VALUE info);

errat = rb_get_backtrace(errinfo);
mesg = rb_attr_get(errinfo, rb_intern("mesg"));
if (!NIL_P(errat) && TYPE(errat) == T_ARRAY &&
(bt2 = vm_backtrace(th, -2), RARRAY_LEN(bt2) > 0)) {
if (!NIL_P(mesg) && TYPE(mesg) == T_STRING && !RSTRING_LEN(mesg)) {
rb_str_update(mesg, 0, 0, rb_str_new2(": "));
rb_str_update(mesg, 0, 0, RARRAY_AT(errat, 0));
}
rb_ary_store(errat, 0, RARRAY_AT(bt2, 0));
}
}
rb_exc_raise(errinfo);
}
JUMP_TAG(state);
    }
    return result;
}

static VALUE
eval_string(VALUE self, VALUE src, VALUE scope, const char *file, int line)
{
    return eval_string_with_cref(self, src, scope, 0, file, line);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* eval(string [, binding [, filename [,lineno]]]) => obj
*
* Evaluates the Ruby expression(s) in <em>string</em>. If
* <em>binding</em> is given, the evaluation is performed in its
* context. The binding may be a <code>Binding</code> object or a
* <code>Proc</code> object. If the optional <em>filename</em> and
* <em>lineno</em> parameters are present, they will be used when
* reporting syntax errors.
*
* def getBinding(str)
* return binding
* end
* str = "hello"
* eval "str + ' Fred'" #=> "hello Fred"
* eval "str + ' Fred'", getBinding("bye") #=> "bye Fred"
*/

VALUE
rb_f_eval(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE src, scope, vfile, vline;
    const char *file = "(eval)";
    int line = 1;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "13", &src, &scope, &vfile, &vline);
    if (rb_safe_level() >= 4) {
StringValue(src);
if (!NIL_P(scope) && !OBJ_TAINTED(scope)) {
rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError,
"Insecure: can't modify trusted binding");
}
    }
    else {
SafeStringValue(src);
    }
    if (argc >= 3) {
StringValue(vfile);
    }
    if (argc >= 4) {
line = NUM2INT(vline);
    }

    if (!NIL_P(vfile))
file = RSTRING_PTR(vfile);
    return eval_string(self, src, scope, file, line);
}

VALUE
rb_eval_string(const char *str)
{
    return eval_string(rb_vm_top_self(), rb_str_new2(str), Qnil, "(eval)", 1);
}

VALUE
rb_eval_string_protect(const char *str, int *state)
{
    return rb_protect((VALUE (*)(VALUE))rb_eval_string, (VALUE)str, state);
}

VALUE
rb_eval_string_wrap(const char *str, int *state)
{
    int status;
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    VALUE self = th->top_self;
    VALUE wrapper = th->top_wrapper;
    VALUE val;

    th->top_wrapper = rb_module_new();
    th->top_self = rb_obj_clone(rb_vm_top_self());
    rb_extend_object(th->top_self, th->top_wrapper);

    val = rb_eval_string_protect(str, &status);

    th->top_self = self;
    th->top_wrapper = wrapper;

    if (state) {
*state = status;
    }
    else if (status) {
JUMP_TAG(status);
    }
    return val;
}

VALUE
rb_eval_cmd(VALUE cmd, VALUE arg, int level)
{
    int state;
    VALUE val = Qnil; /* OK */
    volatile int safe = rb_safe_level();

    if (OBJ_TAINTED(cmd)) {
level = 4;
    }

    if (TYPE(cmd) != T_STRING) {
PUSH_TAG();
rb_set_safe_level_force(level);
if ((state = EXEC_TAG()) == 0) {
val = rb_funcall2(cmd, rb_intern("call"), RARRAY_LEN(arg),
RARRAY_PTR(arg));
}
POP_TAG();

rb_set_safe_level_force(safe);

if (state)
JUMP_TAG(state);
return val;
    }

    PUSH_TAG();
    if ((state = EXEC_TAG()) == 0) {
val = eval_string(rb_vm_top_self(), cmd, Qnil, 0, 0);
    }
    POP_TAG();

    rb_set_safe_level_force(safe);
    if (state) vm_jump_tag_but_local_jump(state, val);
    return val;
}

/* block eval under the class/module context */

static VALUE
yield_under(VALUE under, VALUE self, VALUE values)
{
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    rb_block_t block, *blockptr;
    NODE *cref = vm_cref_push(th, under, NOEX_PUBLIC);

    if ((blockptr = GC_GUARDED_PTR_REF(th->cfp->lfp[0])) != 0) {
block = *blockptr;
block.self = self;
th->cfp->lfp[0] = GC_GUARDED_PTR(&block);
    }

    if (values == Qundef) {
return vm_yield_with_cref(th, 0, 0, cref);
    }
    else {
return vm_yield_with_cref(th, RARRAY_LEN(values), RARRAY_PTR(values), cref);
    }
}

/* string eval under the class/module context */
static VALUE
eval_under(VALUE under, VALUE self, VALUE src, const char *file, int line)
{
    NODE *cref = vm_cref_push(GET_THREAD(), under, NOEX_PUBLIC);

    if (rb_safe_level() >= 4) {
StringValue(src);
    }
    else {
SafeStringValue(src);
    }

    return eval_string_with_cref(self, src, Qnil, cref, file, line);
}

static VALUE
specific_eval(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass, VALUE self)
{
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
if (argc > 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "wrong number of arguments (%d for 0)", argc);
}
return yield_under(klass, self, Qundef);
    }
    else {
const char *file = "(eval)";
int line = 1;

if (argc == 0) {
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "block not supplied");
}
else {
if (rb_safe_level() >= 4) {
StringValue(argv[0]);
}
else {
SafeStringValue(argv[0]);
}
if (argc > 3) {
const char *name = rb_id2name(rb_frame_callee());
rb_raise(rb_eArgError,
"wrong number of arguments: %s(src) or %s{..}",
name, name);
}
if (argc > 2)
line = NUM2INT(argv[2]);
if (argc > 1) {
file = StringValuePtr(argv[1]);
}
}
return eval_under(klass, self, argv[0], file, line);
    }
}

/*
* call-seq:
* obj.instance_eval(string [, filename [, lineno]] ) => obj
* obj.instance_eval {| | block } => obj
*
* Evaluates a string containing Ruby source code, or the given block,
* within the context of the receiver (_obj_). In order to set the
* context, the variable +self+ is set to _obj_ while
* the code is executing, giving the code access to _obj_'s
* instance variables. In the version of <code>instance_eval</code>
* that takes a +String+, the optional second and third
* parameters supply a filename and starting line number that are used
* when reporting compilation errors.
*
* class KlassWithSecret
* def initialize
* @secret = 99
* end
* end
* k = KlassWithSecret.new
* k.instance_eval { @secret } #=> 99
*/

VALUE
rb_obj_instance_eval(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE klass;

    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(self)) {
klass = Qnil;
    }
    else {
klass = rb_singleton_class(self);
    }
    return specific_eval(argc, argv, klass, self);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* obj.instance_exec(arg...) {|var...| block } => obj
*
* Executes the given block within the context of the receiver
* (_obj_). In order to set the context, the variable +self+ is set
* to _obj_ while the code is executing, giving the code access to
* _obj_'s instance variables. Arguments are passed as block parameters.
*
* class KlassWithSecret
* def initialize
* @secret = 99
* end
* end
* k = KlassWithSecret.new
* k.instance_exec(5) {|x| @secret+x } #=> 104
*/

VALUE
rb_obj_instance_exec(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    VALUE klass;

    if (SPECIAL_CONST_P(self)) {
klass = Qnil;
    }
    else {
klass = rb_singleton_class(self);
    }
    return yield_under(klass, self, rb_ary_new4(argc, argv));
}

/*
* call-seq:
* mod.class_eval(string [, filename [, lineno]]) => obj
* mod.module_eval {|| block } => obj
*
* Evaluates the string or block in the context of _mod_. This can
* be used to add methods to a class. <code>module_eval</code> returns
* the result of evaluating its argument. The optional _filename_
* and _lineno_ parameters set the text for error messages.
*
* class Thing
* end
* a = %q{def hello() "Hello there!" end}
* Thing.module_eval(a)
* puts Thing.new.hello()
* Thing.module_eval("invalid code", "dummy", 123)
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* Hello there!
* dummy:123:in `module_eval': undefined local variable
* or method `code' for Thing:Class
*/

VALUE
rb_mod_module_eval(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE mod)
{
    return specific_eval(argc, argv, mod, mod);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* mod.module_exec(arg...) {|var...| block } => obj
* mod.class_exec(arg...) {|var...| block } => obj
*
* Evaluates the given block in the context of the class/module.
* The method defined in the block will belong to the receiver.
*
* class Thing
* end
* Thing.class_exec{
* def hello() "Hello there!" end
* }
* puts Thing.new.hello()
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* Hello there!
*/

VALUE
rb_mod_module_exec(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE mod)
{
    return yield_under(mod, mod, rb_ary_new4(argc, argv));
}

NORETURN(static VALUE rb_f_throw _((int, VALUE *)));

/*
* call-seq:
* throw(symbol [, obj])
*
* Transfers control to the end of the active +catch+ block
* waiting for _symbol_. Raises +NameError+ if there
* is no +catch+ block for the symbol. The optional second
* parameter supplies a return value for the +catch+ block,
* which otherwise defaults to +nil+. For examples, see
* <code>Kernel::catch</code>.
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_throw(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE tag, value;
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    struct rb_vm_tag *tt = th->tag;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &tag, &value);
    while (tt) {
if (tt->tag == tag) {
tt->retval = value;
break;
}
tt = tt->prev;
    }
    if (!tt) {
VALUE desc = rb_inspect(tag);
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "uncaught throw %s", RSTRING_PTR(desc));
    }
    rb_trap_restore_mask();
    GC_WB(&th->errinfo, NEW_THROW_OBJECT(tag, 0, TAG_THROW));

    JUMP_TAG(TAG_THROW);
#ifndef __GNUC__
    return Qnil; /* not reached */
#endif
}

void
rb_throw(const char *tag, VALUE val)
{
    VALUE argv[2];

    argv[0] = ID2SYM(rb_intern(tag));
    argv[1] = val;
    rb_f_throw(2, argv);
}

void
rb_throw_obj(VALUE tag, VALUE val)
{
    VALUE argv[2];

    argv[0] = tag;
    argv[1] = val;
    rb_f_throw(2, argv);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* catch(symbol) {| | block } > obj
*
* +catch+ executes its block. If a +throw+ is
* executed, Ruby searches up its stack for a +catch+ block
* with a tag corresponding to the +throw+'s
* _symbol_. If found, that block is terminated, and
* +catch+ returns the value given to +throw+. If
* +throw+ is not called, the block terminates normally, and
* the value of +catch+ is the value of the last expression
* evaluated. +catch+ expressions may be nested, and the
* +throw+ call need not be in lexical scope.
*
* def routine(n)
* puts n
* throw :done if n <= 0
* routine(n-1)
* end
*
*
* catch(:done) { routine(3) }
*
* <em>produces:</em>
*
* 3
* 2
* 1
* 0
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_catch(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE tag;
    int state;
    VALUE val = Qnil; /* OK */
    rb_thread_t *th = GET_THREAD();
    rb_control_frame_t *saved_cfp = th->cfp;

    if (argc == 0) {
tag = rb_obj_alloc(rb_cObject);
    }
    else {
rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &tag);
    }
    PUSH_TAG();

    th->tag->tag = tag;

    if ((state = EXEC_TAG()) == 0) {
val = rb_yield_0(1, &tag);
    }
    else if (state == TAG_THROW && RNODE(th->errinfo)->u1.value == tag) {
th->cfp = saved_cfp;
val = th->tag->retval;
th->errinfo = Qnil;
state = 0;
    }
    POP_TAG();
    if (state)
JUMP_TAG(state);

    return val;
}

static VALUE
catch_null_i(VALUE dmy)
{
    return rb_funcall(Qnil, rb_intern("catch"), 0, 0);
}

static VALUE
catch_i(VALUE tag)
{
    return rb_funcall(Qnil, rb_intern("catch"), 1, tag);
}

VALUE
rb_catch(const char *tag, VALUE (*func)(), VALUE data)
{
    if (!tag) {
return rb_iterate(catch_null_i, 0, func, data);
    }
    return rb_iterate(catch_i, ID2SYM(rb_intern(tag)), func, data);
}

VALUE
rb_catch_obj(VALUE tag, VALUE (*func)(), VALUE data)
{
    return rb_iterate((VALUE (*)_((VALUE)))catch_i, tag, func, data);
}

/*
* call-seq:
* caller(start=1) => array
*
* Returns the current execution stack---an array containing strings in
* the form ``<em>file:line</em>'' or ``<em>file:line: in
* `method'</em>''. The optional _start_ parameter
* determines the number of initial stack entries to omit from the
* result.
*
* def a(skip)
* caller(skip)
* end
* def b(skip)
* a(skip)
* end
* def c(skip)
* b(skip)
* end
* c(0) #=> ["prog:2:in `a'", "prog:5:in `b'", "prog:8:in `c'", "prog:10"]
* c(1) #=> ["prog:5:in `b'", "prog:8:in `c'", "prog:11"]
* c(2) #=> ["prog:8:in `c'", "prog:12"]
* c(3) #=> ["prog:13"]
*/

static VALUE
rb_f_caller(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE level;
    int lev;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "01", &level);

    if (NIL_P(level))
lev = 1;
    else
lev = NUM2INT(level);
    if (lev < 0)
rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative level (%d)", lev);

    return vm_backtrace(GET_THREAD(), lev);
}

void
rb_backtrace(void)
{
    long i;
    VALUE ary;

    ary = vm_backtrace(GET_THREAD(), -1);
    for (i = 0; i < RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
printf("\tfrom %s\n", RSTRING_PTR(RARRAY_AT(ary, i)));
    }
}

VALUE
rb_make_backtrace(void)
{
    return vm_backtrace(GET_THREAD(), -1);
}

void
Init_vm_eval(void)
{
    rb_define_global_function("catch", rb_f_catch, -1);
    rb_define_global_function("throw", rb_f_throw, -1);

    rb_define_global_function("loop", rb_f_loop, 0);

    rb_define_method(rb_cNSObject, "instance_eval", rb_obj_instance_eval, -1);
    rb_define_method(rb_cNSObject, "instance_exec", rb_obj_instance_exec, -1);
    rb_define_private_method(rb_cNSObject, "method_missing", rb_method_missing, -1);
    rb_define_method(rb_cNSObject, "__send__", rb_f_send, -1);

    rb_define_method(rb_cBasicObject, "instance_eval", rb_obj_instance_eval, -1);
    rb_define_method(rb_cBasicObject, "instance_exec", rb_obj_instance_exec, -1);
    rb_define_private_method(rb_cBasicObject, "method_missing", rb_method_missing, -1);
    rb_define_method(rb_cBasicObject, "__send__", rb_f_send, -1);

    rb_define_method(rb_mKernel, "send", rb_f_send, -1);
    rb_define_method(rb_mKernel, "public_send", rb_f_public_send, -1);

    rb_define_method(rb_cModule, "module_exec", rb_mod_module_exec, -1);
    rb_define_method(rb_cModule, "class_exec", rb_mod_module_exec, -1);

    rb_define_global_function("caller", rb_f_caller, -1);
}

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