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# = Secure random number generator interface.
#
# This library is an interface for secure random number generator which is
# suitable for generating session key in HTTP cookies, etc.
#
# It supports following secure random number generators.
#
# * openssl
# * /dev/urandom
# * Win32
#
# == Example
#
# # random hexadecimal string.
# p SecureRandom.hex(10) #=> "52750b30ffbc7de3b362"
# p SecureRandom.hex(10) #=> "92b15d6c8dc4beb5f559"
# p SecureRandom.hex(11) #=> "6aca1b5c58e4863e6b81b8"
# p SecureRandom.hex(12) #=> "94b2fff3e7fd9b9c391a2306"
# p SecureRandom.hex(13) #=> "39b290146bea6ce975c37cfc23"
# ...
#
# # random base64 string.
# p SecureRandom.base64(10) #=> "EcmTPZwWRAozdA=="
# p SecureRandom.base64(10) #=> "9b0nsevdwNuM/w=="
# p SecureRandom.base64(10) #=> "KO1nIU+p9DKxGg=="
# p SecureRandom.base64(11) #=> "l7XEiFja+8EKEtY="
# p SecureRandom.base64(12) #=> "7kJSM/MzBJI+75j8"
# p SecureRandom.base64(13) #=> "vKLJ0tXBHqQOuIcSIg=="
# ...
#
# # random binary string.
# p SecureRandom.random_bytes(10) #=> "\016\t{\370g\310pbr\301"
# p SecureRandom.random_bytes(10) #=> "\323U\030TO\234\357\020\a\337"
# ...
begin
require 'openssl'
rescue LoadError
end
module SecureRandom
# SecureRandom.random_bytes generates a random binary string.
#
# The argument n specifies the length of the result string.
#
# If n is not specified, 16 is assumed.
# It may be larger in future.
#
# If secure random number generator is not available,
# NotImplementedError is raised.
def self.random_bytes(n=nil)
n ||= 16
if defined? OpenSSL::Random
return OpenSSL::Random.random_bytes(n)
end
if !defined?(@has_urandom) || @has_urandom
flags = File::RDONLY
flags |= File::NONBLOCK if defined? File::NONBLOCK
flags |= File::NOCTTY if defined? File::NOCTTY
flags |= File::NOFOLLOW if defined? File::NOFOLLOW
begin
File.open("/dev/urandom", flags) {|f|
unless f.stat.chardev?
raise Errno::ENOENT
end
@has_urandom = true
ret = f.readpartial(n)
if ret.length != n
raise NotImplementedError, "Unexpected partial read from random device"
end
return ret
}
rescue Errno::ENOENT
@has_urandom = false
end
end
if !defined?(@has_win32)
begin
require 'Win32API'
crypt_acquire_context = Win32API.new("advapi32", "CryptAcquireContext", 'PPPII', 'L')
@crypt_gen_random = Win32API.new("advapi32", "CryptGenRandom", 'LIP', 'L')
hProvStr = " " * 4
prov_rsa_full = 1
crypt_verifycontext = 0xF0000000
if crypt_acquire_context.call(hProvStr, nil, nil, prov_rsa_full, crypt_verifycontext) == 0
raise SystemCallError, "CryptAcquireContext failed: #{lastWin32ErrorMessage}"
end
@hProv, = hProvStr.unpack('L')
@has_win32 = true
rescue LoadError
@has_win32 = false
end
end
if @has_win32
bytes = " " * n
if @crypt_gen_random.call(@hProv, bytes.size, bytes) == 0
raise SystemCallError, "CryptGenRandom failed: #{lastWin32ErrorMessage}"
end
return bytes
end
raise NotImplementedError, "No random device"
end
# SecureRandom.hex generates a random hex string.
#
# The argument n specifies the length of the random length.
# The length of the result string is twice of n.
#
# If n is not specified, 16 is assumed.
# It may be larger in future.
#
# If secure random number generator is not available,
# NotImplementedError is raised.
def self.hex(n=nil)
random_bytes(n).unpack("H*")[0]
end
# SecureRandom.base64 generates a random base64 string.
#
# The argument n specifies the length of the random length.
# The length of the result string is about 4/3 of n.
#
# If n is not specified, 16 is assumed.
# It may be larger in future.
#
# If secure random number generator is not available,
# NotImplementedError is raised.
def self.base64(n=nil)
[random_bytes(n)].pack("m*").delete("\n")
end
# SecureRandom.random_number generates a random number.
#
# If an positive integer is given as n,
# SecureRandom.random_number returns an integer:
# 0 <= SecureRandom.random_number(n) < n.
#
# If 0 is given or an argument is not given,
# SecureRandom.random_number returns an float:
# 0.0 <= SecureRandom.random_number() < 1.0.
def self.random_number(n=0)
if 0 < n
hex = n.to_s(16)
hex = '0' + hex if (hex.length & 1) == 1
bin = [hex].pack("H*")
mask = bin[0].ord
mask |= mask >> 1
mask |= mask >> 2
mask |= mask >> 4
begin
rnd = SecureRandom.random_bytes(bin.length)
rnd[0] = (rnd[0].ord & mask).chr
end until rnd < bin
rnd.unpack("H*")[0].hex
else
# assumption: Float::MANT_DIG <= 64
i64 = SecureRandom.random_bytes(8).unpack("Q")[0]
Math.ldexp(i64 >> (64-Float::MANT_DIG), -Float::MANT_DIG)
end
end
# Following code is based on David Garamond's GUID library for Ruby.
def self.lastWin32ErrorMessage # :nodoc:
get_last_error = Win32API.new("kernel32", "GetLastError", '', 'L')
format_message = Win32API.new("kernel32", "FormatMessageA", 'LPLLPLPPPPPPPP', 'L')
format_message_ignore_inserts = 0x00000200
format_message_from_system = 0x00001000
code = get_last_error.call
msg = "\0" * 1024
len = format_message.call(format_message_ignore_inserts + format_message_from_system, 0, code, 0, msg, 1024, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil, nil)
msg[0, len].tr("\r", '').chomp
end
end
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