Summary: Bile metabolism and absorption are gut microbiome-mediated processes. Bile and bile metabolism can have major impacts on the gut microbiome and host health.
Review, 2019: Bile salt hydrolases: Gatekeepers of bile acid metabolism and host-microbiome crosstalk in the gastrointestinal tract https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007581
Review, 2018: Microbial impact on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism: current status and future prospects http://www.jlr.org/content/early/2018/11/28/jlr.R088989.full.pdf+html
Review, 2018: Nutritional Modulation of Innate Immunity: The Fat–Bile–Gut Connection https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2018.08.002
Review, 2018: Bile acids in glucose metabolism in health and disease: http://jem.rupress.org/content/early/2018/01/12/jem.20171965.long
Review, 2017: Bile acid control of metabolism and inflammation in obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A review showing how important & multifaceted bile is. Via sci-hub.
Review, 2017: Bile acids at the cross-roads of gut microbiome–host cardiometabolic interactions https://dmsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13098-017-0299-9
Review, 2017: A similar review that includes FXR - Targeting the Gut Microbiota–FXR Signaling Axis for Glycemic Control: Does a Dietary Supplement Work Magic?
Review, 2017: Bile Acids and Intestinal Microbiota in Autoimmune Cholestatic Liver Diseases. "Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome can exert profound influence on the bile acid pool and significantly alters the immunological balance of the gut-liver axis in cholestatic liver diseases."
Review, 2017: Interactions between Bacteria and Bile Salts in the Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Tracts: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2017.00163/full
FMT: Microbial bile salt hydrolases mediate the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplant in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (Feb 2019): https://gut.bmj.com/content/early/2019/02/11/gutjnl-2018-317842. Other previous studies pointing to fecal transplant success depending on changing bile acid metabolism: .
The study led by EMBL scientists focuses on a process in which certain gut bacteria turn bile acids that are part of our digestive juices into metabolites that can be carcinogenic (April 2019): https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-04-global-microbial-signatures-colorectal-cancer.html - https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-019-0406-6.
Altered bile acid profile associates with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease—An emerging role for gut microbiome (Oct 2018): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.07.217
Bile-mediated dysbiosis as a cause of carcinogenesis: Secondary bile acid‐induced dysbiosis promotes intestinal carcinogenesis (2017): http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.30643/abstract - It's not directly caused by the bile, but by the dysbiosis the bile (secondary bile acids) causes.
Gallbladder-derived surfactant protein D (delivered to the intestine via bile) regulates gut commensal bacteria for maintaining intestinal homeostasis: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/09/05/1712837114.abstract
Pharmacological Activation of PXR and CAR Down-regulates Distinct Bile Acid-metabolizing Intestinal Bacteria and Alters Bile Acid Homeostasis (2018): https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfy271
Bile acid is a significant host factor shaping the gut microbiome of diet-induced obese mice (2017): https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-017-0462-7
The gut microbiota drives the impact of bile acids and fat source in diet on mouse metabolism (2018): https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-018-0510-8
Up to 50% of cases of chronic diarrhea/IBS-D is Bile Acid Malabsorption: https://archive.is/HGfvh
Treating mice with antibiotics changes antitumor immune function in the liver due to changes in bile acid metabolism (2018): /r/HumanMicrobiome/comments/8m4fh4 - "one bacterial species, Clostridium scindens, controls metabolism of bile acids in the mouse gut—and ultimately CXCL16 expression, NKT cell accumulation, and tumor growth in the liver"
Gut microbiota bile acid metabolism controls cancer immunosurveillance (2018): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41579-018-0053-9
Bile Acids, the Microbiome, Immunity, and Liver Tumors (2018): https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMcibr1807106 Bile acids affect the expression of a chemokine ligand by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, which in turn affects the extent to which a type of natural killer cell is present in and diminishes the burden of hepatocellular carcinomas in a mouse model of the disease.