Fungus from the intestinal mucosa can affect lung health. With this observation, we were able to show for the first time how a single member of the microbiome, Candida albicans, influences the specific immune response to a large group of other microbes https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-02/uoc-fft022219.php. Human Anti-fungal Th17 Immunity and Pathology Rely on Cross-Reactivity against Candida albicans (Feb 2019).
Investigating Colonization of the Healthy Adult Gastrointestinal Tract by Fungi (2018): https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00092-18 - study shows that fungi (candida) do not colonize the gut, and instead come from diet/environment via mouth. And the conclusion I see is that it's a matter of missing microbes allowing candida to flourish in the gut. It also says "levels of Candida albicans in stool were dramatically reduced by more frequent cleaning of teeth".
That is also supported by this study from a few months ago which suggested that it's dysbiosis of the gut allowing oral bacteria to proliferate in the gut and cause problems: https://archive.fo/ubM0e
Review, 2018: The mammalian mycobiome: A complex system in a dynamic relationship with the host https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/wsbm.1438 "healthy mice are generally resistant to C. albicans colonization in the gut, but this resistance is lost upon broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment"
Review, 2018: The Mycobiome: A Neglected Component in the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6010022 - Candida albicans being found in 96.8%, 88.3%, and 80.8% of the samples of healthy subjects. But an increased presence in unhealthy people (IE: people with gut dysbiosis - so correct gut dysbiosis and you fix candida overgrowth).
"At molecular levels, S. boulardii is able to secrete enzymes, such as proteases or phosphatases, which can inactivate toxins produced by highly inflammatory intestinal pathogens such as C. difficile and E. coli [59,60]. This yeast also directly inhibits the growth and dissemination of several intestinal pathogens, such as C. albicans, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia enterocolitica ."
Fungi as Part of the Microbiota and Interactions with Intestinal Bacteria (2018): https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F82_2018_117 - https://sci-hub.tw/https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F82_2018_117 - fungal and bacterial abundance in the gut appear to be negatively correlated and disruption of the bacterial microbiota is a prerequisite for fungal overgrowth (2018 book chapter).
Similar thing happens with a common dust fungi:
Expansion of a certain species of house dust fungus (Wallemia mellicola) can occur in the intestines of mice after they are treated with antibiotics and exposed to the fungus. By contrast, mice with an intact and healthy intestinal microbiota resist this expansion. After expansion of this fungal population, the mice are more prone to develop asthma-like inflammation in their lungs when exposed to allergens. (2018): https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-09/p-gfe091318.php
"For years I suffered from Candida and avoided all mushrooms and fungi like the plague. But later realized my mistake. Once I incorporated beneficial fungi like reishi, lions maine, and cordyceps many of my digestive issues went away, and I no longer have Candida. Apparently the cure for fungal overgrowth is fungi that outcompete the bad fungi and help restore gut flora balance" https://archive.is/WrHxN#selection-2523.0-2523.379
Gut fungal dysbiosis correlates with reduced efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in Clostridium difficile infection (2018): https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06103-6
"The patient had high levels of Candida and Streptococci that have normalized after the FMT." http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=75761
83 - Fecal Microbiota Transplantation alters the GUT Mycobiome (Fungome) which Correlates with Treatment Outcome in Clostridium Difficile Infection (2018): https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(18)30559-6
So candida overgrowth is a symptom of gut dysbiosis and gut dysbiosis is fixed via FMT.
Inhibition of Candida albicans morphogenesis by chitinase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (Feb 2019): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39625-0 "we found that the closely related taxa L. rhamnosus, L. casei and L. paracasei showed stronger activity against Candida hyphae formation compared to other Lactobacillus species tested"
Bacillus Subtilis inhibits candida: https://www.israel21c.org/novel-bacterial-gel-formulated-to-treat-fungal-infections
E. faecalis inhibits candida: https://doi.org/10.1002/wsbm.1438