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samples
tests
.gitignore
.nocopyright
BUGS
Mmakefile
README
TODO
check.m
grammar.m
lalr.m
mercury_syntax.m
moose.m
options.m
tables.m

README

Moose is a parser generator for Mercury.
It does the same sort of thing for Mercury that Yacc and Bison do for C.

Please note that Moose is relatively immature.  It works reasonably
well, but it has problems with epsilon productions, error handling
could be greatly improved, and there is room for adding quite a few
bells and whistles.  See the files BUGS and TODO for more information.



Moose input files should be given a `.moo' suffix.
Moose input files contain Mercury code plus some additional
kinds of declarations and clauses that specify a grammar.
The `moose' program takes a Moose input file and converts it into
ordinary Mercury code.

Each Moose input file should contain:

- One Moose parser declaration, of the form

	:- parse(<StartSymbol>, <TokenType>, <EndToken>, <Prefix>, <In>, <Out>).

  Here <StartSymbol> is the <Name>/<Arity> of the starting symbol for the
  grammar,
  <TokenType> is the name of the Mercury type for tokens in this grammar,
  <EndToken> is the token that signifies end-of-file,
  <Prefix> is intended to be used as a prefix to the generated predicate
  names, however this is currently unimplemented,
  <In> and <Out> are the modes to use for the parser state.

- One or more Moose rule declarations, of the form

	:- rule <Name>(<ArgumentTypes>).

  A `:- rule' declaration declares a non-terminal symbol in the grammar.
  Here <Name> is the name of the non-terminal symbol, and
  <ArgumentTypes> gives the types of the arguments (i.e. attributes)
  of that non-terminal.

- One or more Moose clauses.
  The Moose clauses specify the productions for this grammar.
  Each must be of the form

	<NonTerminal> ---> <ProductionBody>.

  Here <NonTerminal> is of the form <Name> or <Name>(<Arguments>),
  where <Name> is the name of the non-terminal symbol, and
  <Arguments> specify the arguments (i.e. attributes) for
  that non-terminal.
  <ProductionBody> must of one of the following forms:

	[<TerminalList>]
	<NonTerminal>
	<ProductionBody> , <ProductionBody>
	<ProductionBody> ; <ProductionBody>
	{ <Action> }

  [<TerminalList>] denotes a list of terminal symbols.
  Each of the terminal symbols must be an element of the token type
  specified in the `:- parse' declaration.  The list can be empty.
  <NonTerminal> denotes a non-terminal.  Each non-terminal must be
  declared with a `:- rule' declaration.
  <Production> , <Production> denotes sequence.
  <Production> ; <Production> denotes alternatives.
  { <Action> } denotes a grammar action.  Here <Action> is an arbitrary
  Mercury goal.  Grammar actions can be used to compute attributes.
  
- Zero or more Moose action declarations, of the form

        :- action(<Name>/<Arity>, <FuncName>).

  Each action declaration will add a method called FuncName
  to the type class parser state/1.  The method will have the same types
  as the rule given by Name/Arity, plus an <In> mode argument for the
  parser state and returning an <Out> mode result of the same type.

  For example
        :- rule foo(int).
        :- action(foo/1, process_foo).
  will generate
        :- typeclass parser state(T) where [
                ... get_token and any other action methods ...
                func process_foo(int, T) = T,
                mode process_foo(in, <In>) = <Out> is det
        ].

  Whenever the parser reduces using a rule, it will invoke the associated
  action method for that rule (if there is one).  Since the parser state
  is threaded through all action methods, it can be used to implement
  inherited attributes.  Actions can also modify the token stream in the
  parser state (see below).



In order to use the Moose parser, you need to provide a lexer, which
generates tokens of the type <TokenType> given in the Moose parse
declaration.  To allow flexibility in implementing the lexer, the parser
requests tokens using a type class.

The parser state type class is the set of all operations that must be
implemented in order to use the parser.  parser state will contain at
least two methods:

        :- typeclass parser_state(T) where [

                pred get_token(token, T, T),
                mode get_token(out, in, out) is det,

		func unget_token(token, T) = T,
		mode unget_token(in, <In>) = <Out> is det,

		... any action methods ...
        ].

get_token returns the next token in the token stream.  get_token should
return the <EndToken> on reaching the end of the input stream.

get_token and unget_token should satisfy the following property:

	all [Tok, T0] some [T] get_token(Tok, unget_token(Tok, T0), T)

The other methods in parser state will be dictated by the Moose action
declarations.  To use the Moose generated parser, simply call the
generated parse predicate with an instance of the parser state type
class.

The parse predicate will have the following signature

	:- pred parse(parse_result, P, P) <= parser_state(P).
	:- mode parse(out, <In>, <Out>) is det.

where

	:- type parse_result
		--->	<StartSymbolName>(...)
		;	error(string).

and the arguments types of the <StartSymbolName> constructor match those
for the corresponding rule declaration.



The samples directory contains some simple grammars, lexers
and implementations of the parser state.