Précepte is an opinionated scala monitoring library
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README.md

Précepte, let your code be state-aware & make runtime effect observation acceptable...

Join the chat at https://gitter.im/MfgLabs/precepte

Précepte is an opinionated purely functional & lazy API stacking some useful monads to help you observe the execution of your runtime effects by instrumenting your code with a managed state propagated all along your business workflow.

It can help you to:

Précepte embraces the concept that observing has a cost but let you control explicitly the balance between precision and performance without sacrifying code cleanness, FP purity or laziness.

Précepte's idea is simply to make your code state-aware by allowing you to obtain a State anywhere in your code. This state will provide you with:

  • a context defining from where this code comes and where it is (function name, custom tags, etc..)
  • any values you want to measure in your observation

The state provided by Précepte is composed of:

  • a managed part that is managed by Précepte and that consists in:

    • the Span: a global ID uniquely identifying the full execution workflow
    • the Call Path: a sequence of tuples of PId (local step ID) and Tags (defined at compile-time) accumulated by Précepte all along the execution of the workflow. This is what provides you with the place from where you come and where you are...
  • an unmanaged part that is just a container in which you can put anything you want and also perform some compile-time DI.

Precepte is a custom purely functional structure based on:

  • A State Monad to represent the pure propagation of the State in the workflow
  • A Free Monad to represent our monadic & applicative effectful workflow
  • Some helpers to make Precepte usable with Monad Transformers
  • Coyoneda to reduce the requirement of effects to be Functor in Free Monads
  • some custom optimizations to reduce the burden of Free Monads classic model (right association, map fusion, structure squashing)

Prerequisites

Using Précepte is not different from using a Future or any other monadic data type. You should understand the concepts of Monad, Functor and Applicative, and be familiar with Scalaz or Cats. All the examples below are using Scalaz, but Précepte is also fully compatible with Cats

Using Précepte in your project

Just add the following dependency in your built.sbt

libraryDependencies += "com.mfglabs" %% "precepte-core" % precepteVersion

You may also want the modules providing support for Logback, Influxdb, and Play framework:

libraryDependencies += "com.mfglabs" %% "precepte-logback" % precepteVersion

libraryDependencies += "com.mfglabs" %% "precepte-influx" % precepteVersion

libraryDependencies += "com.mfglabs" %% "precepte-play" % precepteVersion

From Future to Précepte

A Précepte is always parameterized by a type F representing the effect. This documentation is using Future, since it's familiar to most Scala developers.

Let's say you've written the following code:

import scala.concurrent.Future
import scala.concurrent.ExecutionContext.Implicits.global

def f1: Future[Int] = Future.successful(42)
def f2(s: Int): Future[String] = Future.successful(s"The answer to life the universe and everything is $s")

If you were to "chain" the calls to f1 and f2, that is call f1 and feed it's return to f2, you'd be writing something like:

val ultimateAnswer: Future[String] =
  for {
    s <- f1
    i <- f2(s)
  } yield i

Let's define a simple await function to test our code:

import scala.concurrent.Await
import scala.concurrent.duration._
def await[A](f: Future[A]) = Await.result(f, 10 seconds)

Now we can test it:

scala> await(ultimateAnswer)
res1: String = The answer to life the universe and everything is 42

All is well, but you'd really like to be able to collect insights on your code, like how fast it is. Of course you choose to use Précepte for that!

Let's rewrite your code to use Précepte, and attach some metadata to it.

import scala.concurrent.Future
import scala.concurrent.ExecutionContext.Implicits.global

import com.mfglabs.precepte._
import corescalaz._
import default._

type Pre[A] = DPre[Future, Unit, A]
object Demo extends Category("demo") {
  def apply[A](f: ST[Unit] => Future[A])(implicit c: Callee) =
    Pre(BaseTags(c, Demo))(f)
}

import Macros.callee

def f1: Pre[Int] =
  Demo { st =>
    Future.successful(42)
  }

def f2(s: Int): Pre[String] =
  Demo { st =>
    Future.successful(s"The answer to life the universe and everything is $s")
  }

What we've done so far is not particularly exiting. We wrapped everything in a Précepte, and added metadata: the name of the current method, and their "categories". A category is just a group or layer of things in your code. It could be "Database" for all the methods accessing a Database, or "WS" for the methods calling a webservice, or anything you like.

One interesting point is that, at call site, apart from the return type, everything stays identical to our old Future version (pun totally intended).

val ultimateAnswerPre: Pre[String] =
  for {
    s <- f1
    i <- f2(s)
  } yield i

The state

You probably have noticed a little st parameter sneaked into our code. This st is the current state. By default, Précepte will add the interesting metadata it collected in that state (Category, function name, ...). You can also use Précepte to carry a "custom" state. The type of the custom state is fixed in our type definition for Pre. We said it was Unit (remember: type Pre[A] = DPre[Future, Unit, A]).

Now if we want to run our code, we need to provide an initial state. Précepte will also ask you to provide information about the environment in which our application is executing.

val env = BaseEnv(Host("localhost"), Environment.Dev, Version("1.0-DEMO"))
val nostate = ST(Span.gen, env, Vector.empty, ())

implicit val unitSG = new scalaz.Semigroup[Unit] {
  def append(f1: Unit, f2: => Unit) = ()
}

import scalaz.std.scalaFuture._

// TODO: explain semigroup

Ok so we've added a bit of code, and finally, we're able to test the execution:

scala> val eventuallyUltimateAnswer = ultimateAnswerPre.eval(nostate)
eventuallyUltimateAnswer: scala.concurrent.Future[String] = scala.concurrent.impl.Promise$DefaultPromise@4ebc3945

scala> await(eventuallyUltimateAnswer)
res9: String = The answer to life the universe and everything is 42

Error handling

TODO

Contextualized logs

Now that you have access to metadata about the executing code, you can do pretty interesting things, like collecting contextualized logs. Précepte has a module to support Logback. all you have to to is add it into your build.sbt file.

libraryDependencies += "com.mfglabs" %% "precepte-logback" % precepteVersion

Once you have that, you can start using you contextualized Logger :)

val logback = Logback(env, "demo-logger")

object WithLogger extends Category("demo") {
  def apply[A](f: logback.Logger => Future[A])(implicit c: Callee) = {
    val withLogger = (st: ST[Unit]) => f(logback.Logger(st.managed.span, st.managed.path))
    Pre(BaseTags(c, Demo))(withLogger)
  }
}

import Macros.callee

def f1: Pre[Int] =
  WithLogger { logger =>
    logger.info("Computing a value")
    Future.successful(42)
  }

def f2(s: Int): Pre[String] =
  WithLogger { logger =>
    println("prout")
    logger.info("Performing string concatenation!", Macros.param(s))
    Future.successful(s"The answer to life the universe and everything is $s")
  }

val ultimateAnswerPre: Pre[String] =
  for {
    s <- f1
    i <- f2(s)
  } yield i

And now when we run the code:

val ultimateAnswer = ultimateAnswerPre.eval(nostate)
await(ultimateAnswer)

Assuming logback is configured properly (see the example logback.xml), the following should appear in your console:

{
  "@timestamp": "2015-11-13T16:29:47.656+01:00",
  "@version": 1,
  "message": "Computing a value",
  "logger_name": "application",
  "thread_name": "run-main-11",
  "level": "INFO",
  "level_value": 20000,
  "HOSTNAME": "Juliens-MacBook-Pro.local",
  "span": "c8e9b61b-cf7c-4272-85da-7c320effb037",
  "callees": "/f1",
  "path": "/3_0",
  "environment": "dev",
  "parameters": {}
}
{
  "@timestamp": "2015-11-13T16:29:47.717+01:00",
  "@version": 1,
  "message": "Performing string concatenation!",
  "logger_name": "application",
  "thread_name": "ForkJoinPool-1-worker-13",
  "level": "INFO",
  "level_value": 20000,
  "HOSTNAME": "Juliens-MacBook-Pro.local",
  "span": "c8e9b61b-cf7c-4272-85da-7c320effb037",
  "callees": "/f1/f2",
  "path": "/3_0/4_0",
  "environment": "dev",
  "parameters": {
    "s": "42"
  }
}

Graph it!

Précepte basically turn your code into a algebra, and an interpreter. It's very easy to change the runtime a bit in order to alter the semantics of a program. One application of this simple but powerful idea is built-in into Précepte. You can very easily generate an execution graph of your program:

  val ultimateAnswerWithExecutionGraph = ultimateAnswerPre.graph(Graph.empty).eval(nostate)
  val (graph, result) = await(ultimateAnswerWithExecutionGraph)

The graph can then easily be turned into a graphviz representation:

scala> graph.viz
res16: String =
"
digraph G {
  "f1_5_0" [label = "f1"]
  "f2_6_0" [label = "f2"]
  "f1_5_0" -> "f2_6_0"
}
  "

Which once rendered looks like this:

rendered graph

And indeed in our code, we call f1 and then f2. Let's try this with a slightly more complex example. Let's start by defining a bunch of async computations:

def p0 = Demo(s => Future(0 -> 0))
def p1 = Demo(s => Future(1 -> 1))
def p2 = Demo(s => Future(2 -> 2))
def p3 = Demo(s => Future(3 -> 3))
def p4 = Demo(s => Future(4 -> 4))

We can now built a more realistic example than the previous, mixing sequential and parallel effects using monads and applicative functors:

import scalaz.syntax.applicative._
val ptest =
  for {
    _ <- p0
    _ <- (p1 |@| p2 |@| p3).tupled
    _ <- p4
  } yield ()
  val (demoGraph, _) = await(ptest.graph(Graph.empty).eval(nostate))
scala> demoGraph.viz
res17: String =
"
digraph G {
  "p2_9_4" [label = "p2"]
  "p3_8_1" [label = "p3"]
  "p0_7_0" [label = "p0"]
  "p4_11_0" [label = "p4"]
  "p1_10_6" [label = "p1"]
  "p0_7_0" -> "p2_9_4"
  "p0_7_0" -> "p3_8_1"
  "p1_10_6" -> "p4_11_0"
  "p3_8_1" -> "p4_11_0"
  "p2_9_4" -> "p4_11_0"
  "p0_7_0" -> "p1_10_6"
}
  "

And again rendering this nice little graph :)

rendered graph

Monitoring with InfluxDB and Grafana

So far we've used Précepte to generate fancy logs, and visualize the execution of our program as a graph. The last use case we're going to show is the addition of monitoring to an application developed with Précepte.

For this feature to work, you'll need to add the influxdb module in you project dependencies:

libraryDependencies += "com.mfglabs" %% "precepte-influx" % precepteVersion

For the sake of demo, we'll use effect with random execution times:

import scala.concurrent.duration._
import akka.actor.ActorSystem;
val system = ActorSystem.create("demo-system")

def rnd(d: FiniteDuration)(v: (Int, Int)) = {
  val rnd = scala.util.Random
  val salt = rnd.nextInt(10).milliseconds
  akka.pattern.after(d + salt, system.scheduler)(Future.successful(v))
}

def p0 = Demo(s => rnd(10 milliseconds)(0 -> 0))
def p1 = Demo(s => rnd(20 milliseconds)(1 -> 1))
def p2 = Demo(s => rnd(40 milliseconds)(2 -> 2))
def p3 = Demo(s => rnd(5 milliseconds)(3 -> 3))
def p4 = Demo(s => rnd(15 milliseconds)(4 -> 4))

import scalaz.syntax.applicative._
val demo =
  for {
    _ <- p0
    _ <- (p1 |@| p2 |@| p3).tupled
    _ <- p4
  } yield ()

Now we have created the program but we've not executed it yet. All we have to do to push metrics into an influxdb instance is configure the influx client, and "inject" it into the execution of our program.

val influx = Influx[Unit](
    new java.net.URL("http://localhost:8086"),
      "root",
      "root",
      "precepte_demo"
    )
val monitoredDemo = demo.mapSuspension(influx.monitor)

now if we execute the code, metrics are automatically pushed to Influxdb.

val result =
  for {
    _ <- 1 to 100
  } await(monitoredDemo.eval(nostate))

Using Grafana and the following query:

influx query

We can get a very nice graph of our functions execution times.

influx graph

Précepte will push the following tags in influxdb:

type name description
tag host Name of the host
tag environment Environment (Dev, Staging, Prod)
tag version Application version
tag category Metric category (Database, Api, etc.)
tag callees Callees (ex: /method1/method2/method3)
tag method Name of the current method (ex: method3)
field span Span Id (ex: 8fe3a664-ade1-4bfb-9c28-fa4497a93979)
field path Full call path (ex: /5_0/7_0/12_0)
field execution_time Execution time for the current method.

Using Précepte with Play Framework.

TODO

Précepte and the Free monad.