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# Introduction and Raspberry Pi ESD Precautions ################################################################################
This cheat sheet is intended to be used in conjunction with the following video:
(VIDEO LINK HERE WHEN DONE !!!!)
the following other documents may also be helpful:
readme.txt
parts_list.txt
RaspberryPi2_J8_pinout.png
use ESD precautions anytime the RPi is not in its case, a properly grounded ESD workstation is recommended, it would be suggested to view my video series on setting up an ESD workstation:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKQt5x_Zi50
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z-GVxM9O6jA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOwyyCwn-Yc
in lieu of an ESD workstation, observe the following precautions when the RPi is not in its case:
-do NOT work in an area where the floor is carpeted
-a moment before touching the RPi, touch a substantial size metal object first (ex. a computer case or metal cabinet)
-when handling the RPi, hold the board by the edges and only let your fingers touch the board edge or the outside of the large connectors on the board, do not let your fingers touch chips or pins
Also, shutdown the RPi (sudo shutdown -h now) and disconnect power before breadboarding a circuit
# Making the Raspbian SD Card #################################################################################
download latest .zip version of Raspbian from www.raspberrypi.org, ex: "2015-09-24-raspbian-jessie.zip", then unzip
download and install Win32DiskImager (either follow the link from this page on the Raspberry Pi official site "https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/installation/installing-images/windows.md" or Google "Win32 Disk Imager SourceForge"), during installation check the "Create a desktop icon", for all other choices the defaults are ok
most computers today have an SD card slot, if yours does not you can purchase a separate USB SD card reader, ex:
http://www.amazon.com/Transcend-Information-Card-Reader-TS-RDF5K/dp/B009D79VH4/ref=sr_1_1?s=pc&ie=UTF8&qid=1441762580&sr=1-1&keywords=SD+card+reader
http://www.amazon.com/IOGEAR-MicroSD-Reader-Writer-GFR204SD/dp/B0046TJG1U/ref=sr_1_3?s=pc&ie=UTF8&qid=1441762580&sr=1-3&keywords=SD+card+reader
insert and format your SD card (default settings are ok for the format), then open Win32DiskImager and flash Raspbian to the SD card, when flashing is complete before removing the SD card, make sure to right-click on the SD card drive letter and choose "Eject", then remove the SD card (if "Eject" is not an option then most likely write-caching is not enabled in which case choosing "Eject" is not necessary)
# First Time Boot-up ##########################################################################################
insert the flashed SD card into the RPi, then connect:
-USB keyboard
-USB mouse
-USB wireless adapter
-USB webcam
-HDMI monitor cable
-power (connect power last as the RPi will begin booting when power is connected, there is no "ON" switch)
The newest version of Raspbian, Raspbian-Jessie, boots directly into the graphical desktop, once boot-up is complete, bring up a command line (choose the icon at the top that looks like a monitor), type "sudo raspi-config", and set the following options:
1 Expand Filesystem - set OS to fill SD card
3 Boot Options - set to "B1 Console"
4 Internationalization Options - set U.S. keyboard
choose "Finish", when asked "Would you like to reboot?" choose "Yes", if you need to reboot from the command line type "sudo shutdown -r now" to reboot, for future reference if you need to shut down without rebooting type "sudo shutdown -h now"
log in with the default username / password, which is pi / raspberry
startx # start the graphical desktop
choose wireless icon at the top right, enter wireless router password, verify networking works
hostname -I # write down IP address
sudo shutdown -r now # reboot, you don't need to log in on the RPi after rebooting
# PuTTY and Xming #############################################################################################
install PuTTY (http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html, choose "putty.exe")
an installer is not necessary for PuTTY, for example you could make a directory "C:\putty" and save putty.exe to there, then create a PuTTY shortcut on your desktop
install Xming and Xming-fonts (http://sourceforge.net/projects/xming)
when installing Xming and Xming-fonts, choose to create an Xming shortcut on your desktop and to install all fonts, for all other choices the defaults are ok, the Xming-fonts install may prompt "The Xming directory already exists, you want to install Xming-fonts to the same directory?", if this prompt appears choose "yes"
reboot after installing PuTTY, Xming, and Xming-fonts
start PuTTY and set the following settings:
-your RPi IP address
-Terminal -> Bell -> None (bell disabled)
-Connection -> Seconds between keepalives -> set to "30"
-Connection -> expand SSH -> X11 -> check "Enable X11 forwarding"
then save these settings by entering a preferred name in the "Saved Sessions" box, for example "my_default", then choosing Save
to begin a PuTTY session, load your preferred settings and click "Open"
start Xming before or just after beginning a PuTTY session if you would like to see Raspbian windows rendered on your Windows desktop computer, to verify Xming is running look for the Xming icon (black X with a red circle around it) in the "notification area" (aka "system tray") adjacent to the clock (lower right corner of your Windows screen)
to verify PuTTY and Xming are working, start PuTTY try the following commands
pwd # present working directory, should say "/home/pi" as this is the default location for the user "pi"
ls -l # lists the files in the current directory
pcmanfm & # this is the graphical Raspbian file browser and should open as a separate window
epiphany-browser & # this is the graphical default Raspbian internet browser, which can also be used to browse files, FTP, etc.
to paste into a PuTTY window simply right-click anywhere in the PuTTY window, to copy from a PuTTY window simply highlight what you would like to copy (not necessary to press Ctrl+C)
note that the "&" starts (in Linux parlance "forks") programs as a separate process from the command line session
from this point on most of the cheat sheet is commands to be copied / pasted into a PuTTY session
# Verify Webcam Works #########################################################################################
lsusb # your webcam should be listed
cd /dev # cd to dev directory
ls -l # verify "video0" is listed, this is your webcam
cd ~ # back to home directory
sudo apt-get install fswebcam # install program to take still images with your webcam
fswebcam -r 640x480 --no-banner image.jpg # take a still image with your webcam
ls -l # verify "image.jpg" is there
pcmanfm & # double click on "image.jpg" to view
epiphany-browser "image.jpg" & # or you can view image.jpg in the Epiphany browser with this command
sudo apt-get install luvcview # install webcam stream viewer
luvcview -s 320x240 # test webcam
# Get a LED Blinking ##########################################################################################
breadboard "my_blink.png"
if you are wondering how to calculate the resistor value in this circuit, see "resistor for LED calculation.pdf"
see "RaspberryPi2_J8_pinout.png" for a complete RPi 2 connector J8 pinout
continuing at the RPi command line:
cd ~ # return to home directory if not there already
touch my_blink.py # create an empty file with the touch command
# alternatively simply type the desired file name after nano (next line) and nano will create the file if it has not been created already
nano my_blink.py # open the file my_blink.py with the nano editor
# copy / paste in my_blink.py from the GitHub site, then press Ctrl+O to save, then Ctrl+X to exit nano
sudo python my_blink.py # run the program with this command, note sudo "super user do", i.e. root access is necessary to perform hardware I/O on the RPi
# you should now see the LED on your board blinking
# press Ctrl+C to exit this program, for future reference Ctrl+C exits most programs when ran from a Linux command line
# if you would like to make your program run when Raspbian boots (i.e. for a headless embedded application) proceed as follows . . .
sudo nano /etc/rc.local # open rc.local in the nano editor
# in rc.local just before "exit 0" add the following
sudo python /home/pi/my_blink.py & # add this to rc.local, just before "exit 0"
# note 1: Do NOT forget the "&" to start as a separate process or the RPi will run your program indefinitely and will not continue to boot !!
# Forgetting the "&" could put the RPi in an unrecoverable state (necessitating re-formatting the SD card).
# note 2: /etc/rc.local is ran by the RPi as root during boot-up, so you don't really need to include "sudo" in the command
even if accessing GPIO pins, but including sudo does not seem to hurt either.
sudo shutdown -r now # reboot, the LED should start blinking during RPi boot-up
# to return to the regular boot-up, simply open rc.local again and remove the "sudo python /home/pi/my_blink.py &" line
sudo nano /etc/rc.local # remove the "sudo python /home/pi/my_blink.py &"
# Using the Raspbian Provided OpenCV Pre-compiled Binaries ####################################################
Note: I do NOT recommend following the steps in this section, this is here for information/reference only. The recommended procedure is to not perform the steps in this section and to continue to the next section to compile OpenCV 3.0.0 or later from source.
Raspbian includes OpenCV precompiled binaries, which as of the most recent release are only moderately out of date (OpenCV 2.4.9). At a RPi command line enter the following:
dpkg -l | less
This will list all installed packages. Navigate to the opencv libs and you will see the version of the OpenCV libraries included with the current Raspbian build is 2.4.9, which was released in April of 2014. If you would like to use these pre-compiled binaries, proceed as follows at the RPi command line (as mentioned above this is NOT recommended):
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get install libopencv-dev python-opencv
# verify the OpenCV install
python
>>> import cv2
>>> cv2.__version__ # will say "2.4.9" if pre-compiled binary installation was successful
Note that if you use these old pre-compiled binaries the OpenCV Python programs used in this tutorial will NOT work since they have been written for OpenCV 3.
# OpenCV Compile ################################################################################################
# this takes about 3.5 hours total on a RPi 2, the make command alone takes about 3 hours
cd ~
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get install python-numpy python-scipy python-matplotlib
sudo apt-get install build-essential cmake pkg-config
sudo apt-get install default-jdk ant
sudo apt-get install libgtkglext1-dev
sudo apt-get install v4l-utils
sudo apt-get install libjpeg8 \
libjpeg8-dev \
libjpeg8-dbg \
libjpeg-progs \
libavcodec-dev \
libavformat-dev \
libgstreamer0.10-0-dbg \
libgstreamer0.10-0 \
libgstreamer0.10-dev \
libxine2-dev \
libunicap2 \
libunicap2-dev \
swig \
libv4l-0 \
libv4l-dev \
python-numpy \
libpython2.7 \
python-dev \
python2.7-dev \
libgtk2.0-dev \
libjasper-dev \
libpng12-dev \
libswscale-dev
wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/opencvlibrary/files/opencv-unix/3.0.0/opencv-3.0.0.zip
unzip opencv-3.0.0.zip
cd opencv-3.0.0
mkdir build
cd build
cmake -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=RELEASE \
-D INSTALL_C_EXAMPLES=ON \
-D INSTALL_PYTHON_EXAMPLES=ON \
-D BUILD_EXAMPLES=ON \
-D CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local \
-D WITH_V4L=ON ..
# The next command, make, takes about 3 hours and pushes the RPi to the limits of what it is capable of, and as a result the RPi will get noticeably warm
# To prevent overheating, it would be best to remove the top of the case and perch the RPi on a small metal object to facilitate air circulation and heat dissipation
sudo make # this takes about 3 hours on the RPi 2
sudo make install
sudo nano /etc/ld.so.conf.d/opencv.conf
# opencv.conf will be blank, add the following line, then save and exit nano:
/usr/local/lib # enter this in opencv.conf, NOT at the command line
(leave a blank line at the end of opencv.conf)
# back to the command line
sudo ldconfig
sudo nano /etc/bash.bashrc
# add the following lines at the bottom of bash.bashrc
PKG_CONFIG_PATH=$PKG_CONFIG_PATH:/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig # enter these at the bottom of bash.bashrc, NOT at the command line
export PKG_CONFIG_PATH # enter these at the bottom of bash.bashrc, NOT at the command line
(leave a blank line at the end of bash.bashrc)
# save bash.bashrc changes, then back at the command line, reboot
sudo shutdown -r now
# after rebooting, verify our OpenCV install
python # enter interactive Python prompt session
>>> import cv2
>>> cv2.__version__
# should say your OpenCV version, i.e. '3.0.0', press Ctrl+D to exit the Python prompt session
# Test OpenCV Programs ###########################################################################################
from the GitHub page, copy / paste OpenCVTest1.py, OpenCVTest2.py, and OpenCVTest3.py into nano and run to test your OpenCV compile, ex:
nano OpenCVTest1.py # copy/paste in OpenCVTest1.py
python OpenCVTest1.py # test OpenCVTest1.py
nano OpenCVTest2.py # copy/paste in OpenCVTest2.py
python OpenCVTest2.py # test OpenCVTest2.py
nano OpenCVTest3.py # copy/paste in OpenCVTest3.py
python OpenCVTest3.py # test OpenCVTest2.py
# Example Servo Motor Control Program ############################################################################
# to try out PWM on the RPi, breadboard LED_PWM.png (same circuit as my_blink.png above) then make LED_PWM.py and open in nano
cd ~ # return to home directory if not there already
touch LED_PWM.py # make empty file LED_PWM.py
nano LED_PWM.py # copy/paste in LED_PWM.py from the GitHub site
sudo python LED_PWM.py # this is a simple program that controls LED brightness via PWM
# next breadboard simple_servo.png, then create the program
nano simple_servo.py # copy/paste in simple_servo.py
sudo python simple_servo.py # simple program to control servo motor angle from the command line
# the timing for your servo may be different, see "example servo timing calculation.pdf"
# Finale (putting it all together) - Pan and Tilt Tracker ########################################################
# breadboard pan_and_tilt_tracker.png
nano pan_and_tilt_tracker.py # copy / paste in pan_and_tilt_tracker.py, the webcam will pan/tilt on the servos to follow a red ball
sudo python pan_and_tilt_tracker.py headed # this will start pan_and_tilt_tracker.py with windows showing the tracking
sudo python pan_and_tilt_tracker.py headless # this will start pan_and_tilt_tracker.py without windows