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M Extensions

Table of Contents


Power BI extensions are created using M (also known as the Power Query Formula Language). This is the same language used by the Power Query (PQ) user experience found in Power BI Desktop (PBID) and Excel 2016. Extensions allow you to define new functions for the M language, and can be used to enable connectivity to new data sources. While this document will focus on defining new connectors, much of the same process applies to defining general purpose M functions. Extensions can vary in complexity, from simple wrappers that essentially just provide "branding" over existing data source functions, to rich connectors that support Direct Query (DQ).

The general process is:

  1. Install the Power Query SDK from the Visual Studio Marketplace
  2. Create a new Data Connector project
  3. Define your connector logic
  4. Build the project to produce an extension file
  5. Create a [My Documents]\Power BI Desktop\Custom Connectors directory
  6. Copy the extension file into this directory
  7. Enable the Custom data connectors preview feature in Power BI Desktop (under File | Options and settings | Custom data connectors)
  8. Restart Power BI Desktop

Preview Feature

We are currently working on enabling a central marketplace/distribution mechanism for Data Connectors. In the meantime, ISVs interested in distributing their connectors with Power BI Desktop can contact

Additional Resources

Developer Tools

The following tools are recommended for developing PQ extensions.

Tool Description Location
Power Query SDK for Visual Studio Visual studio extension (vsix) which provides the Data Connector Project templates, as well as syntax highlighting, intellisense, and build capabilities. Download
Power BI Desktop Used to visually build M expressions and test out your data source extension. Download

Power Query SDK

Creating a New Extension in Visual Studio

Installing the Power Query SDK for Visual Studio will create a new Data Connector project template in Visual Studio.


This creates a new project containing the following files:

  1. Connector definition file (<connectorName>.pq)
  2. A query test file (<connectorName>.query.pq)
  3. A string resource file (resources.resx)
  4. PNG files of various sizes used to create icons

Your connector definition file will start with an empty Data Source description. Please see the Data Source Kind section later in this document for details.

Testing in Visual Studio

The Power Query SDK provides basic query execution capabilities, allowing you to test your extension without having to switch over to Power BI Desktop. See the Query File section for more details.

Build and Deploy from Visual Studio

Building your project will produce your .pqx file.

Data Connector projects do not support custom post build steps to copy the extension file to your [Documents]\Power BI Desktop\Custom Connectors directory. If this is something you want to do, you may want to use a third party visual studio extension, such as Auto Deploy.

Extension Files

PQ extensions are bundled in a zip file and given a .mez file extension. At runtime, PBI Desktop will load extensions from the [Documents]\Power BI Desktop\Custom Connectors.

Note: in an upcoming change the default extension will be changed from .mez to .pqx

Extension File Format

Extensions are defined within an M section document. A section document has a slightly different format from the query document(s) generated in Power Query. Code you import from Power Query typically requires modification to fit into a section document, but the changes are minor. Section document differences you should be aware of include:

  • They begin with a section declaration (ex. section HelloWorld;)
  • Each expression ends with a semi-colon (ex. a = 1; or b = let c = 1 + 2 in c;)
  • All functions and variables are local to the section document, unless they are marked as shared. Shared functions become visible to other queries/functions, and can be thought of as the exports for your extension (i.e. they become callable from Power Query).

More information about M section documents can be found in the M Language specification.

Query File

In addition to the extension file, Data Connector projects can have a Query file (<name>.query.pq). This file can be used to run test queries within Visual Studio. The query evaluation will automatically include your extension code, without having to register your .pqx file, allowing you to call/test any shared functions in your extension code.

The query file can contain a single expression (ex. HelloWorld.Contents()), a let expression (such as what Power Query would generate), or a section document.

Technical Reference

Data Source Functions

A Data Connector wraps and customizes the behavior of a data source function in the M Library. For example, an extension for a REST API would make use of the Web.Contents function to make HTTP requests. Currently, a limited set of data source functions have been enabled to support extensibility.


[DataSource.Kind="HelloWorld", Publish="HelloWorld.Publish"]
shared HelloWorld.Contents = (optional message as text) =>
        message = if (message <> null) then message else "Hello world"

Data Source Kind

Functions marked as shared in your extension can be associated with a specific data source by including a DataSource.Kind metadata record on the function with the name of a Data Source definition record. The Data Source record defines the authentication types supported by your data source, and basic branding information (like the display name / label). The name of the record becomes is unique identifier.

Functions associated with a data source must have the same required function parameters (including name, type, and order). Functions for a specific Data Source Kind can only use credentials associated with that Kind. Credentials are identified at runtime by performing a lookup based on the combination of the function's required parameters. For more information about how credentials are identified, please see [Data Source Paths] below.


HelloWorld = [
    Authentication = [
        Implicit = []
    Label = Extension.LoadString("DataSourceLabel")


The following table lists the fields for your Data Source definition record.

Field Type Details
Authentication record Specifies one or more types of authentication supported by your data source. At least one kind is required. Each kind will be displayed as an option in the Power Query credential prompt. For more information, see Authentication Kinds below.
Label text (optional) Friendly display name for this extension in credential dialogs.
SupportsEncryption logical (optional) When true, the UI will present the option to connect to the data source using an encrypted connection. This is typically used for data sources with a non-encrypted fallback mechanism (generally ODBC or ADO.NET based sources).
TestConnection function (optional) Function used to validate credentials for your extension. Required for Gateway support. See Test Connection below for more information.

Publish to UI

Similar to the Data Source definition record, the Publish record provides the Power Query UI the information it needs to expose this extension in the Get Data dialog.


HelloWorld.Publish = [
    Beta = true,
    ButtonText = { Extension.LoadString("FormulaTitle"), Extension.LoadString("FormulaHelp") },
    SourceImage = HelloWorld.Icons,
    SourceTypeImage = HelloWorld.Icons

HelloWorld.Icons = [
    Icon16 = { Extension.Contents("HelloWorld16.png"), Extension.Contents("HelloWorld20.png"), Extension.Contents("HelloWorld24.png"), Extension.Contents("HelloWorld32.png") },
    Icon32 = { Extension.Contents("HelloWorld32.png"), Extension.Contents("HelloWorld40.png"), Extension.Contents("HelloWorld48.png"), Extension.Contents("HelloWorld64.png") }


The following table lists the fields for your Publish record.

Field Type Details
ButtonText list List of text items that will be displayed next to the data source's icon in the Power BI Get Data dialog.
Category text Where the extension should be displayed in the Get Data dialog. Currently the only category values with special handing are Azure and Database. All other values will end up under the Other category.
Beta logical (optional) When set to true, the UI will display a Preview/Beta identifier next to your connector name and a warning dialog that the implementation of the connector is subject to breaking changes.
LearnMoreUrl text (optional) Url to website containing more information about this data source or connector.
SupportsDirectQuery logical (optional) Enables Direct Query for your extension.
This is currently only supported for ODBC extensions.
SourceImage record (optional) A record containing a list of binary images (sourced from the extension file using the Extension.Contents method). The record contains two fields (Icon16, Icon32), each with its own list. Each icon should be a different size.
SourceTypeImage record (optional) Similar to SourceImage, except the convention for many out of the box connectors is to display a sheet icon with the source specific icon in the bottom right corner. Having a different set of icons for SourceTypeImage is optional - many extensions simply reuse the same set of icons for both fields.

Authentication and Credentials

Authentication Kinds

An extension can support one or more kinds of Authentication. Each authentication kind is a different type of credential. The authentication UI displayed to end users in Power Query is driven by the type of credential(s) that an extension supports.

The list of supported authentication types is defined as part of an extension's Data Source Kind definition. Each Authentication value is a record with specific fields. The table below lists the expected fields for each kind. All fields are required unless marked otherwise.

Authentication Kind Field Description
Implicit The Implicit (anonymous) authentication kind does not have any fields.
OAuth StartLogin Function which provides the URL and state information for initiating an OAuth flow.

See Implementing an OAuth Flow below.
FinishLogin Function which extracts the access_token and other properties related to the OAuth flow.
Refresh (optional) Function that retrieves a new access token from a refresh token.
Logout (optional) Function that invalidates the user's current access token.
Label (optional) A text value that allows you to override the default label for this AuthenticationKind.
UsernamePassword UsernameLabel (optional) A text value to replace the default label for the Username text box on the credentials UI.
PasswordLabel (optional) A text value to replace the default label for the Password text box on the credentials UI.
Label (optional) A text value that allows you to override the default label for this AuthenticationKind.
Windows UsernameLabel (optional) A text value to replace the default label for the Username text box on the credentials UI.
PasswordLabel (optional) A text value to replace the default label for the Password text box on the credentials UI.
Label (optional) A text value that allows you to override the default label for this AuthenticationKind.
Key KeyLabel (optional) A text value to replace the default label for the API Key text box on the credentials UI.
Label (optional) A text value that allows you to override the default label for this AuthenticationKind.

The sample below shows the Authentication record for a connector that supports OAuth, Key, Windows, Basic (Username and Password), and anonymous credentials.


Authentication = [
    OAuth = [
        StartLogin = StartLogin,
        FinishLogin = FinishLogin,
        Refresh = Refresh,
        Logout = Logout
    Key = [],
    UsernamePassword = [],
    Windows = [],
    Implicit = []

Accessing the Current Credentials

The current credentials can be retrieved using the Extension.CurrentCredential() function.

M data source functions that have been enabled for extensibility will automatically inherit your extension's credential scope. In most cases, you will not need to explicitly access the current credentials, however, there are exceptions, such as:

  • Passing in the credential in a custom header or query string parameter (such as when you are using the API Key auth type)
  • Setting connection string properties for ODBC or ADO.NET extensions
  • Checking custom properties on an OAuth token
  • Using the credentials as part of an OAuth v1 flow

The Extension.CurrentCredential() function returns a record object. The fields it contains will be authentication type specific. See the table below for details.

Field Description Used By
AuthenticationKind Contains the name of the authentication kind assigned to this credential (UsernamePassword, OAuth, etc). All
Username Username value UsernamePassword, Windows
Password Password value. Typically used with UsernamePassword, but it is also set for Key. Key, UsernamePassword, Windows
access_token OAuth access token value. OAuth
Properties A record containing other custom properties for a given credential. Typically used with OAuth to store additional properties (such as the refresh_token) returned with the access_token during the authentication flow. OAuth
Key The API key value. Note, the key value is also available in the Password field as well. By default the mashup engine will insert this in an Authorization header as if this value were a basic auth password (with no username). If this is not the behavior you want, you must specify the ManualCredentials = true option in the options record. Key
EncryptConnection A logical value that determined whether to require an encrypted connection to the data source. This value is available for all Authentication Kinds, but will only be set if EncryptConnection is specified in the Data Source definition. All

The following is an example of accessing the current credential for an API key and using it to populate a custom header (x-APIKey).


MyConnector.Raw = (_url as text) as binary =>
    apiKey = Extension.CurrentCredential()[Key],
    headers = [

        #"x-APIKey" = apiKey,
        Accept = "application/vnd.api+json",
        #"Content-Type" = "application/json"
    request = Web.Contents(_url, [ Headers = headers, ManualCredentials = true ])

Implementing an OAuth Flow

The OAuth authentication type allows an extension to implement custom logic for their service. To do this, an extension will provide functions for StartLogin (returning the authorization URI to initiate the OAuth flow) and FinishLogin (exchanging the authorization code for an access token). Extensions can optionally implement Refresh (exchanging a refresh token for a new access token) and Logout (expiring the current refresh and access tokens) functions as well.

Note: Power Query extensions are evaluated in applications running on client machines. Data Connectors should not use confidential secrets in their OAuth flows, as users may inspect the extension or network traffic to learn the secret. Please see the OAuth 2.0 for Native Apps draft RFC for further details on providing flows that do not rely on shared secrets.

In the future we plan to support data sources that require confidential secrets (using a proxy based mechanism).

Please see the MyGraph and Github samples for more details.

Data Source Paths

The M engine identifies a data source using a combination of its Kind and Path. When a data source is encountered during a query evaluation, the M engine will try to find matching credentials. If no credentials are found, the engine returns an special error which results in a credential prompt in Power Query.

The Kind value comes from [Data Source Kind] definition.

The Path value is derived from the required parameters of your data source function. Optional parameters are not factored into the data source path identifier. As a result, all data source functions associated with a data source kind must have the same parameters. There is special handling for functions that have a single parameter of type Uri.Type. See the section below for details.

You can see an example of how credentials are stored in the Data source settings dialog in Power BI Desktop. In this dialog, the Kind is represented by an icon, and the Path value is displayed as text.


Note: If you change your data source function's required parameters during development, previously stored credentials will no longer work (because the path values no longer match). You should delete any stored credentials any time you change your data source function parameters. If incompatible credentials are found, you may receive an error at runtime.

Data Source Path Format

The Path value for a data source is derived from the data source function's required parameters.

By default, you can see the actual string value in the Data source settings dialog in Power BI Desktop, and in the credential prompt. If the Data Source Kind definition has included a Label value, you will see the label value instead.

For example, the data source function in the HelloWorldWithDocs sample has the following signature:

HelloWorldWithDocs.Contents = (message as text, optional count as number) as table => ...

The function has a single required parameter (message) of type text, and will be used to calculate the data source path. The optional parameter (count) would be ignored. The path would be displayed

Credential prompt:


Data source settings UI:


When a Label value is defined, the data source path value would not be shown:


Note: We currently recommend you do not include a Label for your data source if your function has required parameters, as users will not be able to distinguish between the different credentials they have entered. We are hoping to improve this in the future (i.e. allowing data connectors to display their own custom data source paths).

Functions with an Uri parameter

Because data sources with an Uri based identifier are so common, there is special handling in the Power Query UI when dealing with Uri based data source paths. When an Uri-based data source is encountered, the credential dialog provides a drop down allowing the user to select the base path, rather than the full path (and all paths in between).


As Uri.Type is an ascribed type rather than a primitive type in the M language, you will need to use the Value.ReplaceType function to indicate that your text parameter should be treated as an Uri.

shared GithubSample.Contents = Value.ReplaceType(Github.Contents, type function (url as Uri.Type) as any);

Implementing TestConnection for Gateway Support

Custom Connector support is now available in both Personal and Enterprise modes of the On-Premises Data Gateway. Both gateway modes support Import - Direct Query support in the Enterprise mode is targeted at an upcoming release.

The method for implementing TestConnection functionality is likely to change prior while the Power BI Custom Data Connector functionality is in preview.

To support scheduled refresh through the on-premises data gateway, your connector must implement a TestConnection handler. The function is called when the user is configuring credentials for your source, and used to ensure they are valid. The TestConnection handler is set in the Data Source Kind record, and has the following signature:

(dataSourcePath) as list => ...

Where dataSourcePath is the Data Source Path value for your function, and the return value is a list composed of:

  1. The name of the function to call (this function must be marked as #shared, and is usually your primary data source function)
  2. One or more arguments to pass to your function

If the invocation of the function results in an error, TestConnection is considered to have failed, and the credential will not be persisted.

Note: As stated above, the function name provided by TestConnection must be a shared member.

Example: Connector with no required arguments

The code snippet below implements TestConnection for a data source with no required parameters (such as the one found in the TripPin tutorial). Connectors with no required parameters (referred to as 'Singletons') do not need any user provided input to test a connection (other than credentials). In this case, the dataSourcePath value would be equal to the name of the Data Source Kind, and can be ignored. The TripPin.Contents function is invoked with no additional parameters.

TripPin = [
    TestConnection = (dataSourcePath) => { "TripPin.Contents" },
    Authentication = [
        Anonymous = []
    Label = "TripPin"

Example: Connector with a URL parameter

If your data source function has a single required parameter of the type Uri.Type, its dataSourcePath will be equal to the URL provided by the user. The snippet below shows the TestConnection implementation from the Github Sample.

GithubSample = [
    TestConnection = (dataSourcePath) => {"GithubSample.Contents", dataSourcePath},
    Authentication = [
        OAuth = [
            StartLogin = StartLogin,
            FinishLogin = FinishLogin,
            Label = Extension.LoadString("AuthenticationLabel")

Example: Connector with required parameters

If your data source function has multiple parameters, or a single non-URL parameter, then the dataSourcePath value will be a json string containing the parameters. The snippet below comes from the DirectQueryForSQL sample.

DirectSQL = [
    TestConnection = (dataSourcePath) =>
            json = Json.Document(dataSourcePath),
            server = json[server],
            database = json[database]
            { "DirectSQL.Database", server, database },
    Authentication = [
        Windows = [],
        UsernamePassword = []
    Label = "Direct Query for SQL"

Next Steps