Missing Value Handle
- LightGBM enables the missing value handle by default. Disable it by setting
- LightGBM uses NA (NaN) to represent missing values by default. Change it to use zero by setting
zero_as_missing=false(default), the unshown values in sparse matrices (and LightSVM) are treated as zeros.
zero_as_missing=true, NA and zeros (including unshown values in sparse matrices (and LightSVM)) are treated as missing.
Categorical Feature Support
- LightGBM offers good accuracy with integer-encoded categorical features. LightGBM applies Fisher (1958) to find the optimal split over categories as described here. This often performs better than one-hot encoding.
categorical_featureto specify the categorical features. Refer to the parameter
- Categorical features must be encoded as non-negative integers (
int) less than
Int32.MaxValue(2147483647). It is best to use a contiguous range of integers started from zero.
cat_smoothto deal with over-fitting (when
#datais small or
- For a categorical feature with high cardinality (
#categoryis large), it often works best to treat the feature as numeric, either by simply ignoring the categorical interpretation of the integers or by embedding the categories in a low-dimensional numeric space.
- The label should be of type
int, such that larger numbers correspond to higher relevance (e.g. 0:bad, 1:fair, 2:good, 3:perfect).
label_gainto set the gain(weight) of
max_positionto set the NDCG optimization position.
Cost Efficient Gradient Boosting
Cost Efficient Gradient Boosting (CEGB) makes it possible to penalise boosting based on the cost of obtaining feature values. CEGB penalises learning in the following ways:
- Each time a tree is split, a penalty of
- When a feature is used for the first time,
cegb_penalty_feature_coupledis applied. This penalty can be different for each feature and should be specified as one
- When a feature is used for the first time for a data row,
cegb_penalty_feature_lazyis applied. Like
cegb_penalty_feature_coupled, this penalty is specified as one
Each of the penalties above is scaled by
Using this parameter, it is possible to change the overall strength of the CEGB penalties by changing only one parameter.
- Refer to Parameters Tuning.
- Refer to Parallel Learning Guide.
Recommendations for gcc Users (MinGW, *nix)
- Refer to gcc Tips.