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// ==++==
//
// Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
//
// ==--==
// =+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
//
// ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair.cs
//
// <OWNER>Microsoft</OWNER>
//
// A pair of schedulers that together support concurrent (reader) / exclusive (writer)
// task scheduling. Using just the exclusive scheduler can be used to simulate a serial
// processing queue, and using just the concurrent scheduler with a specified
// MaximumConcurrentlyLevel can be used to achieve a MaxDegreeOfParallelism across
// a bunch of tasks, parallel loops, dataflow blocks, etc.
//
// =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
using System.Collections.Concurrent;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis;
using System.Diagnostics.Contracts;
using System.Security;
using System.Security.Permissions;
namespace System.Threading.Tasks
{
/// <summary>
/// Provides concurrent and exclusive task schedulers that coordinate to execute
/// tasks while ensuring that concurrent tasks may run concurrently and exclusive tasks never do.
/// </summary>
[HostProtection(Synchronization = true, ExternalThreading = true)]
[DebuggerDisplay("Concurrent={ConcurrentTaskCountForDebugger}, Exclusive={ExclusiveTaskCountForDebugger}, Mode={ModeForDebugger}")]
[DebuggerTypeProxy(typeof(ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair.DebugView))]
public class ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair
{
/// <summary>A dictionary mapping thread ID to a processing mode to denote what kinds of tasks are currently being processed on this thread.</summary>
private readonly ConcurrentDictionary<int, ProcessingMode> m_threadProcessingMapping = new ConcurrentDictionary<int, ProcessingMode>();
/// <summary>The scheduler used to queue and execute "concurrent" tasks that may run concurrently with other concurrent tasks.</summary>
private readonly ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler m_concurrentTaskScheduler;
/// <summary>The scheduler used to queue and execute "exclusive" tasks that must run exclusively while no other tasks for this pair are running.</summary>
private readonly ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler m_exclusiveTaskScheduler;
/// <summary>The underlying task scheduler to which all work should be scheduled.</summary>
private readonly TaskScheduler m_underlyingTaskScheduler;
/// <summary>
/// The maximum number of tasks allowed to run concurrently. This only applies to concurrent tasks,
/// since exlusive tasks are inherently limited to 1.
/// </summary>
private readonly int m_maxConcurrencyLevel;
/// <summary>The maximum number of tasks we can process before recyling our runner tasks.</summary>
private readonly int m_maxItemsPerTask;
/// <summary>
/// If positive, it represents the number of concurrently running concurrent tasks.
/// If negative, it means an exclusive task has been scheduled.
/// If 0, nothing has been scheduled.
/// </summary>
private int m_processingCount;
/// <summary>Completion state for a task representing the completion of this pair.</summary>
/// <remarks>Lazily-initialized only if the scheduler pair is shutting down or if the Completion is requested.</remarks>
private CompletionState m_completionState;
/// <summary>A constant value used to signal unlimited processing.</summary>
private const int UNLIMITED_PROCESSING = -1;
/// <summary>Constant used for m_processingCount to indicate that an exclusive task is being processed.</summary>
private const int EXCLUSIVE_PROCESSING_SENTINEL = -1;
/// <summary>Default MaxItemsPerTask to use for processing if none is specified.</summary>
private const int DEFAULT_MAXITEMSPERTASK = UNLIMITED_PROCESSING;
/// <summary>Default MaxConcurrencyLevel is the processor count if not otherwise specified.</summary>
private static Int32 DefaultMaxConcurrencyLevel { get { return Environment.ProcessorCount; } }
/// <summary>Gets the sync obj used to protect all state on this instance.</summary>
private object ValueLock { get { return m_threadProcessingMapping; } }
/// <summary>
/// Initializes the ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair.
/// </summary>
public ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair() :
this(TaskScheduler.Default, DefaultMaxConcurrencyLevel, DEFAULT_MAXITEMSPERTASK) { }
/// <summary>
/// Initializes the ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair to target the specified scheduler.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="taskScheduler">The target scheduler on which this pair should execute.</param>
public ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair(TaskScheduler taskScheduler) :
this(taskScheduler, DefaultMaxConcurrencyLevel, DEFAULT_MAXITEMSPERTASK) { }
/// <summary>
/// Initializes the ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair to target the specified scheduler with a maximum concurrency level.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="taskScheduler">The target scheduler on which this pair should execute.</param>
/// <param name="maxConcurrencyLevel">The maximum number of tasks to run concurrently.</param>
public ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair(TaskScheduler taskScheduler, int maxConcurrencyLevel) :
this(taskScheduler, maxConcurrencyLevel, DEFAULT_MAXITEMSPERTASK) { }
/// <summary>
/// Initializes the ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair to target the specified scheduler with a maximum
/// concurrency level and a maximum number of scheduled tasks that may be processed as a unit.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="taskScheduler">The target scheduler on which this pair should execute.</param>
/// <param name="maxConcurrencyLevel">The maximum number of tasks to run concurrently.</param>
/// <param name="maxItemsPerTask">The maximum number of tasks to process for each underlying scheduled task used by the pair.</param>
public ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair(TaskScheduler taskScheduler, int maxConcurrencyLevel, int maxItemsPerTask)
{
// Validate arguments
if (taskScheduler == null) throw new ArgumentNullException("taskScheduler");
if (maxConcurrencyLevel == 0 || maxConcurrencyLevel < -1) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("maxConcurrencyLevel");
if (maxItemsPerTask == 0 || maxItemsPerTask < -1) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("maxItemsPerTask");
Contract.EndContractBlock();
// Store configuration
m_underlyingTaskScheduler = taskScheduler;
m_maxConcurrencyLevel = maxConcurrencyLevel;
m_maxItemsPerTask = maxItemsPerTask;
// Downgrade to the underlying scheduler's max degree of parallelism if it's lower than the user-supplied level
int mcl = taskScheduler.MaximumConcurrencyLevel;
if (mcl > 0 && mcl < m_maxConcurrencyLevel) m_maxConcurrencyLevel = mcl;
// Treat UNLIMITED_PROCESSING/-1 for both MCL and MIPT as the biggest possible value so that we don't
// have to special case UNLIMITED_PROCESSING later on in processing.
if (m_maxConcurrencyLevel == UNLIMITED_PROCESSING) m_maxConcurrencyLevel = Int32.MaxValue;
if (m_maxItemsPerTask == UNLIMITED_PROCESSING) m_maxItemsPerTask = Int32.MaxValue;
// Create the concurrent/exclusive schedulers for this pair
m_exclusiveTaskScheduler = new ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler(this, 1, ProcessingMode.ProcessingExclusiveTask);
m_concurrentTaskScheduler = new ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler(this, m_maxConcurrencyLevel, ProcessingMode.ProcessingConcurrentTasks);
}
/// <summary>Informs the scheduler pair that it should not accept any more tasks.</summary>
/// <remarks>
/// Calling <see cref="Complete"/> is optional, and it's only necessary if the <see cref="Completion"/>
/// will be relied on for notification of all processing being completed.
/// </remarks>
public void Complete()
{
lock (ValueLock)
{
if (!CompletionRequested)
{
RequestCompletion();
CleanupStateIfCompletingAndQuiesced();
}
}
}
/// <summary>Gets a <see cref="System.Threading.Tasks.Task"/> that will complete when the scheduler has completed processing.</summary>
public Task Completion
{
// ValueLock not needed, but it's ok if it's held
get { return EnsureCompletionStateInitialized().Task; }
}
/// <summary>Gets the lazily-initialized completion state.</summary>
private CompletionState EnsureCompletionStateInitialized()
{
// ValueLock not needed, but it's ok if it's held
return LazyInitializer.EnsureInitialized(ref m_completionState, () => new CompletionState());
}
/// <summary>Gets whether completion has been requested.</summary>
private bool CompletionRequested
{
// ValueLock not needed, but it's ok if it's held
get { return m_completionState != null && Volatile.Read(ref m_completionState.m_completionRequested); }
}
/// <summary>Sets that completion has been requested.</summary>
private void RequestCompletion()
{
ContractAssertMonitorStatus(ValueLock, held: true);
EnsureCompletionStateInitialized().m_completionRequested = true;
}
/// <summary>
/// Cleans up state if and only if there's no processing currently happening
/// and no more to be done later.
/// </summary>
private void CleanupStateIfCompletingAndQuiesced()
{
ContractAssertMonitorStatus(ValueLock, held: true);
if (ReadyToComplete) CompleteTaskAsync();
}
/// <summary>Gets whether the pair is ready to complete.</summary>
private bool ReadyToComplete
{
get
{
ContractAssertMonitorStatus(ValueLock, held: true);
// We can only complete if completion has been requested and no processing is currently happening.
if (!CompletionRequested || m_processingCount != 0) return false;
// Now, only allow shutdown if an exception occurred or if there are no more tasks to process.
var cs = EnsureCompletionStateInitialized();
return
(cs.m_exceptions != null && cs.m_exceptions.Count > 0) ||
(m_concurrentTaskScheduler.m_tasks.IsEmpty && m_exclusiveTaskScheduler.m_tasks.IsEmpty);
}
}
/// <summary>Completes the completion task asynchronously.</summary>
private void CompleteTaskAsync()
{
Contract.Requires(ReadyToComplete, "The block must be ready to complete to be here.");
ContractAssertMonitorStatus(ValueLock, held: true);
// Ensure we only try to complete once, then schedule completion
// in order to escape held locks and the caller's context
var cs = EnsureCompletionStateInitialized();
if (!cs.m_completionQueued)
{
cs.m_completionQueued = true;
ThreadPool.QueueUserWorkItem(state =>
{
var localCs = (CompletionState)state; // don't use 'cs', as it'll force a closure
Contract.Assert(!localCs.Task.IsCompleted, "Completion should only happen once.");
var exceptions = localCs.m_exceptions;
bool success = (exceptions != null && exceptions.Count > 0) ?
localCs.TrySetException(exceptions) :
localCs.TrySetResult(default(VoidTaskResult));
Contract.Assert(success, "Expected to complete completion task.");
}, cs);
}
}
/// <summary>Initiatites scheduler shutdown due to a worker task faulting..</summary>
/// <param name="faultedTask">The faulted worker task that's initiating the shutdown.</param>
private void FaultWithTask(Task faultedTask)
{
Contract.Requires(faultedTask != null && faultedTask.IsFaulted && faultedTask.Exception.InnerExceptions.Count > 0,
"Needs a task in the faulted state and thus with exceptions.");
ContractAssertMonitorStatus(ValueLock, held: true);
// Store the faulted task's exceptions
var cs = EnsureCompletionStateInitialized();
if (cs.m_exceptions == null) cs.m_exceptions = new List<Exception>();
cs.m_exceptions.AddRange(faultedTask.Exception.InnerExceptions);
// Now that we're doomed, request completion
RequestCompletion();
}
/// <summary>
/// Gets a TaskScheduler that can be used to schedule tasks to this pair
/// that may run concurrently with other tasks on this pair.
/// </summary>
public TaskScheduler ConcurrentScheduler { get { return m_concurrentTaskScheduler; } }
/// <summary>
/// Gets a TaskScheduler that can be used to schedule tasks to this pair
/// that must run exclusively with regards to other tasks on this pair.
/// </summary>
public TaskScheduler ExclusiveScheduler { get { return m_exclusiveTaskScheduler; } }
/// <summary>Gets the number of tasks waiting to run concurrently.</summary>
/// <remarks>This does not take the necessary lock, as it's only called from under the debugger.</remarks>
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Performance", "CA1811:AvoidUncalledPrivateCode")]
private int ConcurrentTaskCountForDebugger { get { return m_concurrentTaskScheduler.m_tasks.Count; } }
/// <summary>Gets the number of tasks waiting to run exclusively.</summary>
/// <remarks>This does not take the necessary lock, as it's only called from under the debugger.</remarks>
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Performance", "CA1811:AvoidUncalledPrivateCode")]
private int ExclusiveTaskCountForDebugger { get { return m_exclusiveTaskScheduler.m_tasks.Count; } }
/// <summary>Notifies the pair that new work has arrived to be processed.</summary>
/// <param name="fairly">Whether tasks should be scheduled fairly with regards to other tasks.</param>
/// <remarks>Must only be called while holding the lock.</remarks>
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Design", "CA1031:DoNotCatchGeneralExceptionTypes")]
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Performance", "CA1804:RemoveUnusedLocals")]
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Reliability", "CA2000:Dispose objects before losing scope")]
private void ProcessAsyncIfNecessary(bool fairly = false)
{
ContractAssertMonitorStatus(ValueLock, held: true);
// If the current processing count is >= 0, we can potentially launch further processing.
if (m_processingCount >= 0)
{
// We snap whether there are any exclusive tasks or concurrent tasks waiting.
// (We grab the concurrent count below only once we know we need it.)
// With processing happening concurrent to this operation, this data may
// immediately be out of date, but it can only go from non-empty
// to empty and not the other way around. As such, this is safe,
// as worst case is we'll schedule an extra task when we didn't
// otherwise need to, and we'll just eat its overhead.
bool exclusiveTasksAreWaiting = !m_exclusiveTaskScheduler.m_tasks.IsEmpty;
// If there's no processing currently happening but there are waiting exclusive tasks,
// let's start processing those exclusive tasks.
Task processingTask = null;
if (m_processingCount == 0 && exclusiveTasksAreWaiting)
{
// Launch exclusive task processing
m_processingCount = EXCLUSIVE_PROCESSING_SENTINEL; // -1
try
{
processingTask = new Task(thisPair => ((ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair)thisPair).ProcessExclusiveTasks(), this,
default(CancellationToken), GetCreationOptionsForTask(fairly));
processingTask.Start(m_underlyingTaskScheduler);
// When we call Start, if the underlying scheduler throws in QueueTask, TPL will fault the task and rethrow
// the exception. To deal with that, we need a reference to the task object, so that we can observe its exception.
// Hence, we separate creation and starting, so that we can store a reference to the task before we attempt QueueTask.
}
catch
{
m_processingCount = 0;
FaultWithTask(processingTask);
}
}
// If there are no waiting exclusive tasks, there are concurrent tasks, and we haven't reached our maximum
// concurrency level for processing, let's start processing more concurrent tasks.
else
{
int concurrentTasksWaitingCount = m_concurrentTaskScheduler.m_tasks.Count;
if (concurrentTasksWaitingCount > 0 && !exclusiveTasksAreWaiting && m_processingCount < m_maxConcurrencyLevel)
{
// Launch concurrent task processing, up to the allowed limit
for (int i = 0; i < concurrentTasksWaitingCount && m_processingCount < m_maxConcurrencyLevel; ++i)
{
++m_processingCount;
try
{
processingTask = new Task(thisPair => ((ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair)thisPair).ProcessConcurrentTasks(), this,
default(CancellationToken), GetCreationOptionsForTask(fairly));
processingTask.Start(m_underlyingTaskScheduler); // See above logic for why we use new + Start rather than StartNew
}
catch
{
--m_processingCount;
FaultWithTask(processingTask);
}
}
}
}
// Check to see if all tasks have completed and if completion has been requested.
CleanupStateIfCompletingAndQuiesced();
}
else Contract.Assert(m_processingCount == EXCLUSIVE_PROCESSING_SENTINEL, "The processing count must be the sentinel if it's not >= 0.");
}
/// <summary>
/// Processes exclusive tasks serially until either there are no more to process
/// or we've reached our user-specified maximum limit.
/// </summary>
private void ProcessExclusiveTasks()
{
Contract.Requires(m_processingCount == EXCLUSIVE_PROCESSING_SENTINEL, "Processing exclusive tasks requires being in exclusive mode.");
Contract.Requires(!m_exclusiveTaskScheduler.m_tasks.IsEmpty, "Processing exclusive tasks requires tasks to be processed.");
ContractAssertMonitorStatus(ValueLock, held: false);
try
{
// Note that we're processing exclusive tasks on the current thread
Contract.Assert(!m_threadProcessingMapping.ContainsKey(Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId),
"This thread should not yet be involved in this pair's processing.");
m_threadProcessingMapping[Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId] = ProcessingMode.ProcessingExclusiveTask;
// Process up to the maximum number of items per task allowed
for (int i = 0; i < m_maxItemsPerTask; i++)
{
// Get the next available exclusive task. If we can't find one, bail.
Task exclusiveTask;
if (!m_exclusiveTaskScheduler.m_tasks.TryDequeue(out exclusiveTask)) break;
// Execute the task. If the scheduler was previously faulted,
// this task could have been faulted when it was queued; ignore such tasks.
if (!exclusiveTask.IsFaulted) m_exclusiveTaskScheduler.ExecuteTask(exclusiveTask);
}
}
finally
{
// We're no longer processing exclusive tasks on the current thread
ProcessingMode currentMode;
m_threadProcessingMapping.TryRemove(Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId, out currentMode);
Contract.Assert(currentMode == ProcessingMode.ProcessingExclusiveTask,
"Somehow we ended up escaping exclusive mode.");
lock (ValueLock)
{
// When this task was launched, we tracked it by setting m_processingCount to WRITER_IN_PROGRESS.
// now reset it to 0. Then check to see whether there's more processing to be done.
// There might be more concurrent tasks available, for example, if concurrent tasks arrived
// after we exited the loop, or if we exited the loop while concurrent tasks were still
// available but we hit our maxItemsPerTask limit.
Contract.Assert(m_processingCount == EXCLUSIVE_PROCESSING_SENTINEL, "The processing mode should not have deviated from exclusive.");
m_processingCount = 0;
ProcessAsyncIfNecessary(true);
}
}
}
/// <summary>
/// Processes concurrent tasks serially until either there are no more to process,
/// we've reached our user-specified maximum limit, or exclusive tasks have arrived.
/// </summary>
private void ProcessConcurrentTasks()
{
Contract.Requires(m_processingCount > 0, "Processing concurrent tasks requires us to be in concurrent mode.");
ContractAssertMonitorStatus(ValueLock, held: false);
try
{
// Note that we're processing concurrent tasks on the current thread
Contract.Assert(!m_threadProcessingMapping.ContainsKey(Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId),
"This thread should not yet be involved in this pair's processing.");
m_threadProcessingMapping[Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId] = ProcessingMode.ProcessingConcurrentTasks;
// Process up to the maximum number of items per task allowed
for (int i = 0; i < m_maxItemsPerTask; i++)
{
// Get the next available concurrent task. If we can't find one, bail.
Task concurrentTask;
if (!m_concurrentTaskScheduler.m_tasks.TryDequeue(out concurrentTask)) break;
// Execute the task. If the scheduler was previously faulted,
// this task could have been faulted when it was queued; ignore such tasks.
if (!concurrentTask.IsFaulted) m_concurrentTaskScheduler.ExecuteTask(concurrentTask);
// Now check to see if exclusive tasks have arrived; if any have, they take priority
// so we'll bail out here. Note that we could have checked this condition
// in the for loop's condition, but that could lead to extra overhead
// in the case where a concurrent task arrives, this task is launched, and then
// before entering the loop an exclusive task arrives. If we didn't execute at
// least one task, we would have spent all of the overhead to launch a
// task but with none of the benefit. There's of course also an inherent
// ---- here with regards to exclusive tasks arriving, and we're ok with
// executing one more concurrent task than we should before giving priority to exclusive tasks.
if (!m_exclusiveTaskScheduler.m_tasks.IsEmpty) break;
}
}
finally
{
// We're no longer processing concurrent tasks on the current thread
ProcessingMode currentMode;
m_threadProcessingMapping.TryRemove(Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId, out currentMode);
Contract.Assert(currentMode == ProcessingMode.ProcessingConcurrentTasks,
"Somehow we ended up escaping concurrent mode.");
lock (ValueLock)
{
// When this task was launched, we tracked it with a positive processing count;
// decrement that count. Then check to see whether there's more processing to be done.
// There might be more concurrent tasks available, for example, if concurrent tasks arrived
// after we exited the loop, or if we exited the loop while concurrent tasks were still
// available but we hit our maxItemsPerTask limit.
Contract.Assert(m_processingCount > 0, "The procesing mode should not have deviated from concurrent.");
if (m_processingCount > 0) --m_processingCount;
ProcessAsyncIfNecessary(true);
}
}
}
#if PRENET45
/// <summary>
/// Type used with TaskCompletionSource(Of TResult) as the TResult
/// to ensure that the resulting task can't be upcast to something
/// that in the future could lead to compat problems.
/// </summary>
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Performance", "CA1812:AvoidUninstantiatedInternalClasses")]
[DebuggerNonUserCode]
private struct VoidTaskResult { }
#endif
/// <summary>
/// Holder for lazily-initialized state about the completion of a scheduler pair.
/// Completion is only triggered either by rare exceptional conditions or by
/// the user calling Complete, and as such we only lazily initialize this
/// state in one of those conditions or if the user explicitly asks for
/// the Completion.
/// </summary>
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Performance", "CA1812:AvoidUninstantiatedInternalClasses")]
private sealed class CompletionState : TaskCompletionSource<VoidTaskResult>
{
/// <summary>Whether the scheduler has had completion requested.</summary>
/// <remarks>This variable is not volatile, so to gurantee safe reading reads, Volatile.Read is used in TryExecuteTaskInline.</remarks>
internal bool m_completionRequested;
/// <summary>Whether completion processing has been queued.</summary>
internal bool m_completionQueued;
/// <summary>Unrecoverable exceptions incurred while processing.</summary>
internal List<Exception> m_exceptions;
}
/// <summary>
/// A scheduler shim used to queue tasks to the pair and execute those tasks on request of the pair.
/// </summary>
[DebuggerDisplay("Count={CountForDebugger}, MaxConcurrencyLevel={m_maxConcurrencyLevel}, Id={Id}")]
[DebuggerTypeProxy(typeof(ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler.DebugView))]
private sealed class ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler : TaskScheduler
{
/// <summary>Cached delegate for invoking TryExecuteTaskShim.</summary>
private static readonly Func<object, bool> s_tryExecuteTaskShim = new Func<object, bool>(TryExecuteTaskShim);
/// <summary>The parent pair.</summary>
private readonly ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair m_pair;
/// <summary>The maximum concurrency level for the scheduler.</summary>
private readonly int m_maxConcurrencyLevel;
/// <summary>The processing mode of this scheduler, exclusive or concurrent.</summary>
private readonly ProcessingMode m_processingMode;
/// <summary>Gets the queue of tasks for this scheduler.</summary>
internal readonly IProducerConsumerQueue<Task> m_tasks;
/// <summary>Initializes the scheduler.</summary>
/// <param name="pair">The parent pair.</param>
/// <param name="maxConcurrencyLevel">The maximum degree of concurrency this scheduler may use.</param>
/// <param name="processingMode">The processing mode of this scheduler.</param>
internal ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler(ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair pair, int maxConcurrencyLevel, ProcessingMode processingMode)
{
Contract.Requires(pair != null, "Scheduler must be associated with a valid pair.");
Contract.Requires(processingMode == ProcessingMode.ProcessingConcurrentTasks || processingMode == ProcessingMode.ProcessingExclusiveTask,
"Scheduler must be for concurrent or exclusive processing.");
Contract.Requires(
(processingMode == ProcessingMode.ProcessingConcurrentTasks && (maxConcurrencyLevel >= 1 || maxConcurrencyLevel == UNLIMITED_PROCESSING)) ||
(processingMode == ProcessingMode.ProcessingExclusiveTask && maxConcurrencyLevel == 1),
"If we're in concurrent mode, our concurrency level should be positive or unlimited. If exclusive, it should be 1.");
m_pair = pair;
m_maxConcurrencyLevel = maxConcurrencyLevel;
m_processingMode = processingMode;
m_tasks = (processingMode == ProcessingMode.ProcessingExclusiveTask) ?
(IProducerConsumerQueue<Task>)new SingleProducerSingleConsumerQueue<Task>() :
(IProducerConsumerQueue<Task>)new MultiProducerMultiConsumerQueue<Task>();
}
/// <summary>Gets the maximum concurrency level this scheduler is able to support.</summary>
public override int MaximumConcurrencyLevel { get { return m_maxConcurrencyLevel; } }
/// <summary>Queues a task to the scheduler.</summary>
/// <param name="task">The task to be queued.</param>
[SecurityCritical]
protected internal override void QueueTask(Task task)
{
Contract.Assert(task != null, "Infrastructure should have provided a non-null task.");
lock (m_pair.ValueLock)
{
// If the scheduler has already had completion requested, no new work is allowed to be scheduled
if (m_pair.CompletionRequested) throw new InvalidOperationException(GetType().Name);
// Queue the task, and then let the pair know that more work is now available to be scheduled
m_tasks.Enqueue(task);
m_pair.ProcessAsyncIfNecessary();
}
}
/// <summary>Executes a task on this scheduler.</summary>
/// <param name="task">The task to be executed.</param>
[SecuritySafeCritical]
internal void ExecuteTask(Task task)
{
Contract.Assert(task != null, "Infrastructure should have provided a non-null task.");
base.TryExecuteTask(task);
}
/// <summary>Tries to execute the task synchronously on this scheduler.</summary>
/// <param name="task">The task to execute.</param>
/// <param name="taskWasPreviouslyQueued">Whether the task was previously queued to the scheduler.</param>
/// <returns>true if the task could be executed; otherwise, false.</returns>
[SecurityCritical]
protected override bool TryExecuteTaskInline(Task task, bool taskWasPreviouslyQueued)
{
Contract.Assert(task != null, "Infrastructure should have provided a non-null task.");
// If the scheduler has had completion requested, no new work is allowed to be scheduled.
// A non-locked read on m_completionRequested (in CompletionRequested) is acceptable here because:
// a) we don't need to be exact... a Complete call could come in later in the function anyway
// b) this is only a fast path escape hatch. To actually inline the task,
// we need to be inside of an already executing task, and in such a case,
// while completion may have been requested, we can't have shutdown yet.
if (!taskWasPreviouslyQueued && m_pair.CompletionRequested) return false;
// We know the implementation of the default scheduler and how it will behave.
// As it's the most common underlying scheduler, we optimize for it.
bool isDefaultScheduler = m_pair.m_underlyingTaskScheduler == TaskScheduler.Default;
// If we're targeting the default scheduler and taskWasPreviouslyQueued is true,
// we know that the default scheduler will only allow it to be inlined
// if we're on a thread pool thread (but it won't always allow it in that case,
// since it'll only allow inlining if it can find the task in the local queue).
// As such, if we're not on a thread pool thread, we know for sure the
// task won't be inlined, so let's not even try.
if (isDefaultScheduler && taskWasPreviouslyQueued && !Thread.CurrentThread.IsThreadPoolThread)
{
return false;
}
else
{
// If a task is already running on this thread, allow inline execution to proceed.
// If there's already a task from this scheduler running on the current thread, we know it's safe
// to run this task, in effect temporarily taking that task's count allocation.
ProcessingMode currentThreadMode;
if (m_pair.m_threadProcessingMapping.TryGetValue(Thread.CurrentThread.ManagedThreadId, out currentThreadMode) &&
currentThreadMode == m_processingMode)
{
// If we're targeting the default scheduler and taskWasPreviouslyQueued is false,
// we know the default scheduler will allow it, so we can just execute it here.
// Otherwise, delegate to the target scheduler's inlining.
return (isDefaultScheduler && !taskWasPreviouslyQueued) ?
TryExecuteTask(task) :
TryExecuteTaskInlineOnTargetScheduler(task);
}
}
// We're not in the context of a task already executing on this scheduler. Bail.
return false;
}
/// <summary>
/// Implements a reasonable approximation for TryExecuteTaskInline on the underlying scheduler,
/// which we can't call directly on the underlying scheduler.
/// </summary>
/// <param name="task">The task to execute inline if possible.</param>
/// <returns>true if the task was inlined successfully; otherwise, false.</returns>
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Performance", "CA1804:RemoveUnusedLocals", MessageId = "ignored")]
private bool TryExecuteTaskInlineOnTargetScheduler(Task task)
{
// We'd like to simply call TryExecuteTaskInline here, but we can't.
// As there's no built-in API for this, a workaround is to create a new task that,
// when executed, will simply call TryExecuteTask to run the real task, and then
// we run our new shim task synchronously on the target scheduler. If all goes well,
// our synchronous invocation will succeed in running the shim task on the current thread,
// which will in turn run the real task on the current thread. If the scheduler
// doesn't allow that execution, RunSynchronously will block until the underlying scheduler
// is able to invoke the task, which might account for an additional but unavoidable delay.
// Once it's done, we can return whether the task executed by returning the
// shim task's Result, which is in turn the result of TryExecuteTask.
var t = new Task<bool>(s_tryExecuteTaskShim, Tuple.Create(this, task));
try
{
t.RunSynchronously(m_pair.m_underlyingTaskScheduler);
return t.Result;
}
catch
{
Contract.Assert(t.IsFaulted, "Task should be faulted due to the scheduler faulting it and throwing the exception.");
var ignored = t.Exception;
throw;
}
finally { t.Dispose(); }
}
/// <summary>Shim used to invoke this.TryExecuteTask(task).</summary>
/// <param name="state">A tuple of the ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler and the task to execute.</param>
/// <returns>true if the task was successfully inlined; otherwise, false.</returns>
/// <remarks>
/// This method is separated out not because of performance reasons but so that
/// the SecuritySafeCritical attribute may be employed.
/// </remarks>
[SecuritySafeCritical]
private static bool TryExecuteTaskShim(object state)
{
var tuple = (Tuple<ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler, Task>)state;
return tuple.Item1.TryExecuteTask(tuple.Item2);
}
/// <summary>Gets for debugging purposes the tasks scheduled to this scheduler.</summary>
/// <returns>An enumerable of the tasks queued.</returns>
[SecurityCritical]
protected override IEnumerable<Task> GetScheduledTasks() { return m_tasks; }
/// <summary>Gets the number of tasks queued to this scheduler.</summary>
[SuppressMessage("Microsoft.Performance", "CA1811:AvoidUncalledPrivateCode")]
private int CountForDebugger { get { return m_tasks.Count; } }
/// <summary>Provides a debug view for ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler.</summary>
private sealed class DebugView
{
/// <summary>The scheduler being debugged.</summary>
private readonly ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler m_taskScheduler;
/// <summary>Initializes the debug view.</summary>
/// <param name="scheduler">The scheduler being debugged.</param>
public DebugView(ConcurrentExclusiveTaskScheduler scheduler)
{
Contract.Requires(scheduler != null, "Need a scheduler with which to construct the debug view.");
m_taskScheduler = scheduler;
}
/// <summary>Gets this pair's maximum allowed concurrency level.</summary>
public int MaximumConcurrencyLevel { get { return m_taskScheduler.m_maxConcurrencyLevel; } }
/// <summary>Gets the tasks scheduled to this scheduler.</summary>
public IEnumerable<Task> ScheduledTasks { get { return m_taskScheduler.m_tasks; } }
/// <summary>Gets the scheduler pair with which this scheduler is associated.</summary>
public ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair SchedulerPair { get { return m_taskScheduler.m_pair; } }
}
}
/// <summary>Provides a debug view for ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair.</summary>
private sealed class DebugView
{
/// <summary>The pair being debugged.</summary>
private readonly ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair m_pair;
/// <summary>Initializes the debug view.</summary>
/// <param name="pair">The pair being debugged.</param>
public DebugView(ConcurrentExclusiveSchedulerPair pair)
{
Contract.Requires(pair != null, "Need a pair with which to construct the debug view.");
m_pair = pair;
}
/// <summary>Gets a representation of the execution state of the pair.</summary>
public ProcessingMode Mode { get { return m_pair.ModeForDebugger; } }
/// <summary>Gets the number of tasks waiting to run exclusively.</summary>
public IEnumerable<Task> ScheduledExclusive { get { return m_pair.m_exclusiveTaskScheduler.m_tasks; } }
/// <summary>Gets the number of tasks waiting to run concurrently.</summary>
public IEnumerable<Task> ScheduledConcurrent { get { return m_pair.m_concurrentTaskScheduler.m_tasks; } }
/// <summary>Gets the number of tasks currently being executed.</summary>
public int CurrentlyExecutingTaskCount
{
get { return (m_pair.m_processingCount == EXCLUSIVE_PROCESSING_SENTINEL) ? 1 : m_pair.m_processingCount; }
}
/// <summary>Gets the underlying task scheduler that actually executes the tasks.</summary>
public TaskScheduler TargetScheduler { get { return m_pair.m_underlyingTaskScheduler; } }
}
/// <summary>Gets an enumeration for debugging that represents the current state of the scheduler pair.</summary>
/// <remarks>This is only for debugging. It does not take the necessary locks to be useful for runtime usage.</remarks>
private ProcessingMode ModeForDebugger
{
get
{
// If our completion task is done, so are we.
if (m_completionState != null && m_completionState.Task.IsCompleted) return ProcessingMode.Completed;
// Otherwise, summarize our current state.
var mode = ProcessingMode.NotCurrentlyProcessing;
if (m_processingCount == EXCLUSIVE_PROCESSING_SENTINEL) mode |= ProcessingMode.ProcessingExclusiveTask;
if (m_processingCount >= 1) mode |= ProcessingMode.ProcessingConcurrentTasks;
if (CompletionRequested) mode |= ProcessingMode.Completing;
return mode;
}
}
/// <summary>Asserts that a given synchronization object is either held or not held.</summary>
/// <param name="syncObj">The monitor to check.</param>
/// <param name="held">Whether we want to assert that it's currently held or not held.</param>
[Conditional("DEBUG")]
internal static void ContractAssertMonitorStatus(object syncObj, bool held)
{
Contract.Requires(syncObj != null, "The monitor object to check must be provided.");
#if PRENET45
#if DEBUG
// PRENET45
if (ShouldCheckMonitorStatus)
{
bool exceptionThrown;
try
{
Monitor.Pulse(syncObj); // throws a SynchronizationLockException if the monitor isn't held by this thread
exceptionThrown = false;
}
catch (SynchronizationLockException) { exceptionThrown = true; }
Contract.Assert(held == !exceptionThrown, "The locking scheme was not correctly followed.");
}
#endif
#else
Contract.Assert(Monitor.IsEntered(syncObj) == held, "The locking scheme was not correctly followed.");
#endif
}
/// <summary>Gets the options to use for tasks.</summary>
/// <param name="isReplacementReplica">If this task is being created to replace another.</param>
/// <remarks>
/// These options should be used for all tasks that have the potential to run user code or
/// that are repeatedly spawned and thus need a modicum of fair treatment.
/// </remarks>
/// <returns>The options to use.</returns>
internal static TaskCreationOptions GetCreationOptionsForTask(bool isReplacementReplica = false)
{
TaskCreationOptions options =
#if PRENET45
TaskCreationOptions.None;
#else
TaskCreationOptions.DenyChildAttach;
#endif
if (isReplacementReplica) options |= TaskCreationOptions.PreferFairness;
return options;
}
/// <summary>Provides an enumeration that represents the current state of the scheduler pair.</summary>
[Flags]
private enum ProcessingMode : byte
{
/// <summary>The scheduler pair is currently dormant, with no work scheduled.</summary>
NotCurrentlyProcessing = 0x0,
/// <summary>The scheduler pair has queued processing for exclusive tasks.</summary>
ProcessingExclusiveTask = 0x1,
/// <summary>The scheduler pair has queued processing for concurrent tasks.</summary>
ProcessingConcurrentTasks = 0x2,
/// <summary>Completion has been requested.</summary>
Completing = 0x4,
/// <summary>The scheduler pair is finished processing.</summary>
Completed = 0x8
}
}
}