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PWAs as URL Handlers

Authors: Lu Huang <>

Status of this Document

This document is intended as a starting point for engaging the community and standards bodies in developing collaborative solutions fit for standardization. As the solutions to problems described in this document progress along the standards-track, we will retain this document as an archive and use this section to keep the community up-to-date with the most current standards venue and content location of future work and discussions.


Developers can create a more engaging experience if Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) are able to register as handlers for https uniform resource identifiers (URLs). This document proposes a scheme for a PWA to register as a URL handler and be launched when associated URLs are activated. PWA developers and end users are the customers of this solution.

Today, native applications on many operating systems (Windows, Android, iOS, MacOS) can be associated with http(s) URLs. They can request to be launched as URL handlers when associated URLs are activated. For example, a user could click on a link to a news story from an e-mail. An associated native app for viewing news stories would automatically be launched to handle the activation of the link. Web developers would be able to build more compelling PWA experiences with stronger user engagement if PWAs could request to be URL handlers through their web app manifests.

PWAs may have different levels of URL handling ability depending on the capabilities of the host OS. Whenever URL activations launch a conforming browser, that browser should have the ability to launch a registered PWA to render the requested content. In the best case, it would be possible for URL activations anywhere in the user's system to launch PWAs because they are registered as URL handlers with the OS. We are proposing changes below that could help accomplish this.


  1. Enable PWA developers to opt-in to URL handling features using the web app manifest.
  2. Enable the default browser to support URL activation by launching a PWA.
  3. Where possible, enable registration of PWAs as URL handlers with the operating system.
  4. Provide a better user experience by allowing users to explicitly choose an installed PWA in app pickers and disambiguation dialogs.
  5. Protect content owners by only allowing associated PWAs to register as URL handlers for their content.
  6. Keep the user in control of choosing the best experience for them, whether that is in the browser, in a native app, or in a PWA.


  • Custom URL protocol handling. A separate explainer for that can be found here.

  • Launching PWAs due to in-browser link navigation. Instead, this explainer focuses on scenarios where the URL activation has occurred from outside of the browser.

Use Case

There is one main use case that we wish to address in this explainer: URL activation in native applications.

The user clicks on a Spotify link in their native e-mail application, (eg., in the Outlook app), which launches their default browser. Because the user already has the Spotify PWA installed and registered as a URL handler with their default browser, the URL activation launches the PWA instead of a new tab.

Proposed Solution

We propose the following:

  1. Modify the web app manifest format to include a url_handlers dictionary entry.

    • Gives PWAs control over which URLs to handle.
    • Allows PWA developers to opt-in to URL handling in the same way across different platforms.
  2. A pwa-site-association file format for validating out-of-scope URL associations.

    • Protects content owners by letting them define which PWAs are allowed to associate with their sites.
    • Gives sites control over which URLs are allowed to be handled by each associated PWA.
  3. If launched to handle a URL activation, browsers then launch a PWA with matching url_handlers to handle that URL.

  4. If multiple PWAs are registered to handle a given URL, browsers display a disambiguation dialog to allow users to choose.

  5. On OSes with adequate support, register PWAs as URL handlers at the OS level instead.

Changes 1-4 allow PWAs to handle URL activations at the browser level, which means that as long as a URL activation (clicking on a link) launches a conforming browser, the browser has the ability to launch the matching PWA. A PWA will not be launched if it was installed through a non-default browser and all URL activations launch the default browser.

To allow PWAs to handle URLs that are outside of their own scope, it is necessary to introduce a mechanism for the owner of those URLs to opt-in to URL handling by PWAs. Change 2 introduces the concept of a pwa-site-association file that will serve this purpose. This file is similar to the Apple App Site Association File, the assetlinks.json file in Android, and the windows-app-web-link file in Windows. What differs, is that the pwa-site-association file does not require a platform specific app id, but instead identifies PWAs by their web app manifest URL.

Change 5 will also allow PWAs to handle URL activations at the OS level on supportive platforms. If the PWA is able to register as a URL handler with the OS, it could be launched whenever a URL activation is handled by the OS, regardless of the default browser setting. Most native applications rely on the OS for URL activation. In terms of user experience, the OS could now prompt the user to choose between the PWA and the default browser using the system app disambiguation dialog. The user is able to make an explicit choice to select the PWA and configure their default setting from there. (Implementation note: because most OSes do not know of or treat PWAs as first-class applications, it may not be possible to register them directly with the OS as URL handlers. Supporting changes will need to be made in PWA implementation and/or in the OS to enable this. A notable exception is Chrome's implementation of PWAs on Android using WebAPK. Because WebAPKs are recognized by the Android OS, Chrome PWAs are able to fully integrate with OS features like the app picker.)

Manifest Changes

We propose adding a new optional data field url_handlers to the manifest object. This data value will contain an array of URL handler declaration objects. Each object should contains a base string, an optional paths array of strings, and an optional exclude_paths array of strings.

The url_handlers data serves as requests from the PWA to handle URLs. The browser should validate that the PWA has the authority to handle those URLs and then store the request for later use. On an OS that allows for deeper integration, the browser should also perform the URL handling registrations with the OS and keep them in sync with the app lifecycle.

Example web app manifest hosted at

  "name": "Contoso App",
  "description": "A Business App",
  "url_handlers": [
          "base": "",
          "paths": ["*"],
          "exclude_paths": [
          "base": "%*",
          "paths": ["*"]
          "base": "",
  "icons": [
      "src": "images/icons-144.png",
      "type": "image/png",
      "sizes": "144x144"
  "background_color": "#FFFFFF",
  "display": "standalone",
  "start_url": "/",

These are the fields in each URL handler object:

Field Required / Optional Description Default
base Required Base portion of the URL to be handled. Can also be a complete URL. N/A
paths Optional Array of allowed paths relative to base []
exclude_paths Optional Array of disallowed paths relative to base []

In this scheme, a URL matches a URL handler if it matches the base, at least one of values in paths if there are any, does not match any of the values in exclude_paths, and is verifiably associated with the PWA.

Requested URLs do not have to be within the requesting PWA's scope. In this scheme, any URL can be registered as part of the URL handling request. The base field is necessary because URLs from different domains can be requested. Not restricting URLs to the same scope or domain as the requesting PWA gives the developer freedom to use multiple domain names for the same content and handle them with the same PWA. See this section for how cross-domain requests are validated. The base field can start with a %*. prefix to indicate the inclusion of subdomains.

(Implementation note: URL handling requests are registered with either the browser or the OS when a PWA is being installed. At this point, the browser should validate the requests. If necessary, the PWA install can be failed.)

Wildcard Matching

Wildcard characters can be used in the values of all three fields: base, paths, and exclude_paths. The wildcard * matches zero or more characters. The wildcard ? matches exactly one character.

The base field is able to contain a wildcard prefix to allow the specification of sub-domains: eg. %* matches and but not There may be other ways of specifying a group of related domains using a proposal such as First Party Sets.

PWA to site association

The base field in url_handlers requests must either match the requesting PWA's scope or be the location of an association file which validates that the requested URLs' domain is associated with the requesting PWA:

  • If the base field is equal to or within the PWA's scope, there is no need to provide an association file. The association is already confirmed by the web app manifest. This will be the default case for most PWAs that are just trying to handle URLs within their own scope.
  • If the base field is outside of the PWA's scope, an association file needs to be downloadable from its path to prove an association to the app.
  • The association file must be named pwa-site-association and must be found in a .well-known directory.

pwa-site-association file

Example pwa-site-association file hosted at

  "apps": [
      "manifest": "",
      "paths": ["/*"],
      "manifest": "",
      "paths": ["/*"],
      "exclude_paths": ["/users/*"],

This example pwa-site-association file proves that is associated with the PWA that has a web app manifest at Furthermore, it allows all* URL to be handled by the PWA. The requested paths in the web app manifest url_handlers data must be a subset of the allowed paths in the association object.

This example shows that also allows the PWA with web app manifest at to also handle a subset of its URLs. All* paths are allowed but all* URL are disallowed to be handled by the PWA.

These are the fields at the top level:

Field Required / Optional Description Default
apps Required Array of association objects []

These are the fields in each association object:

Field Required / Optional Description Default
manifest Required URL of the web app manifest of the associated PWA N/A
paths Optional Array of allowed paths ["*"]
exclude_paths Optional Array of disallowed paths []

File Location

In the case where a fully specified base is used, the association file must be found at [base]/.well-known/pwa-site-association (without an extension).

If a base with a %*. prefix is used, the pwa-site-association file must be present at the path without the prefix. Eg. a base of %* must have a pwa-site-association file at

Failure to Associate

If the pwa-site-association file cannot be downloaded or the association validation cannot be completed successfully, the browser may either omit the requested URL handler registrations affected or fail the PWA installation completely. The implementor should decide what the best user experience is in this case.

Periodic Revalidation

It is possible for sites to modify their associations with installed PWAs by editing their pwa-site-association file at any time. Conforming browsers may revalidate registered URL handlers at appropriate intervals by re-downloading the relevant pwa-site-association files. If a URL handler registration fails to revalidate because the pwa-site-association data has changed, the implementor may prompt the user to un-register URL handlers or uninstall the PWA in a way that is consistent with the behavior during initial validation.

Shortened URLs

Web applications often provide users with shortened URLs for their convenience. If developers would like to handle shortened URLs in a PWA, they have to have access to the base path of the shortened URLs to place the pwa-site-association file. This may not be possible when using third party URL shortening services that the developer does not have control over.

Browser Changes

To support basic, browser-level registration of URL handlers, browsers need to make the following changes:

  1. Validate and register the URL handling requests from PWA manifests during PWA installation.

  2. When starting up with a URL parameter, determine if there are any matching PWA URL handlers.

  3. If there is a match, launch the PWA and load the URL in the PWA window instead of the browser window.

  4. If there is more than one match, display the choices and collect the user's input with a disambiguation dialog.

  5. Keep URL handler registrations in sync with the PWA's lifecycle (i.e. during manifest update, uninstall, etc.)

User preferences

If URL handlers are registered and launched at the browser level, the browser should implement a URL handling config page to allow the user to enable/disable URL handlers, set default launch behavior, etc. If URL handlers are registered and launched at the OS level, the browser should implement a config page that redirects to the OS settings.

Handling multiple registrations

The association file is able to contain association objects for multiple PWA handlers. Multiple PWAs are able to request to handle the same URL. In cases where there are multiple registered handlers available, the browser or OS should present options to the user and allow the user to decide which handler to use.

Operating System Changes

To provide OS level registration of URL handlers, browsers' PWA implementations need to integrate more deeply with the OS application platform. This is to allow the OS to recognize PWAs as apps that can be launched and can therefore serve as URL handlers. There may be different approaches to accomplishing this, and they might differ on different OSes. OS changes may be necessary to enable this integration. In OS or browser versions where this integration cannot be implemented, the behavior should default to URL handling by the browser.

Security Considerations

URL handlers, if implemented improperly, can be used to hijack traffic for websites. This is why the pwa to site association mechanism is an important part of the proposed scheme. Associations must be validated when PWAs are installed, and they should be validated again periodically to evaluate any new changes in the association file and web app manifest.

In the case where the browser registers URL handling with the OS on behalf of PWAs, the OS must trust the browser to validate the PWA-to-site association or implement the validation itself. If the OS delegates the validation to browsers, it must be clear which browsers are compliant with the validation requirements.

If an associated site is overtaken by a malicious actor, it is possible for users to be exposed to malicious content through the PWA handling those URLs. To mitigate this risk, the browser may want to suppress the PWA launch or get user confirmation using a security mechanism which detects risky URLs.

Conforming browsers may want to limit the maximum allowed number of url_handlers entries to N and the numbers of paths and exclude_paths each to M. This will limit the amount of work the manifest parser does and further limit the risk of URL hijacking.

URL handler registrations should only be performed for installed PWAs as users expect installed applications to be more deeply integrated with the OS. Furthermore, conforming browsers should not register PWAs as URL handlers for any URL without an explicit user confirmation.

Privacy Considerations

As websites are currently unable to launch URL handlers through normal in-browser navigation, we do not anticipate third-party websites being able to leverage this API to detect which PWAs the user has installed. Although not an immediate privacy concern, fingerprinting risks should be thoroughly examined when designing web APIs that activate URL handlers instead of performing in-browser navigation.

Native applications can already use OS APIs to enumerate installed applications on the user's system. For example, native applications in Windows can use the FindAppUriHandlersAsync API to enumerate URL handlers. If PWAs register as OS level URL handlers in Windows, their presence would be visible to other applications.

OS Specific Implementation Notes


Starting from the Windows 10 Anniversary update, Windows enabled an "Apps for Websites" capability that allowed the registration of apps to handle URLs from associated websites.


Chrome PWAs are installed on Android by downloading a signed WebAPK file generated by a Google service. When a Chrome PWA is installed on Android, it will register a set of intent filters for all URLs within the scope of the app. This means that Chrome PWAs already handle associated URLs on Android at the OS level using intent filters. Google calls this Deep Linking. Additionally, Android apps are also able to register to be URL handlers by using Android App Links. App Links require server side verification of the relationship to the app while Deep Links do not. Deep Linking will show an app picker but App Linking will take the user directly to the app.

Other browsers (e.g., Edge) on Android are able to add PWAs to the home screen but are not able to register intent filters. They likely need to also be able to use a WebAPK implementation or similar to enable URL handling.

iOS, MacOS

iOS allows the association of apps to websites using Universal Links. Some PWA features are also implemented on Safari. There is not currently a way to generate and install a PWA from any other browser. PWA URL handling may not currently be possible on iOS. Newer versions of MacOS also support Universal Links.

Open Questions