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"""Detect peaks in data based on their amplitude and other features."""
from __future__ import division, print_function
import numpy as np
__author__ = "Marcos Duarte, https://github.com/demotu/BMC"
__version__ = "1.0.4"
__license__ = "MIT"
def detect_peaks(x, mph=None, mpd=1, threshold=0, edge='rising',
kpsh=False, valley=False, show=False, ax=None):
"""Detect peaks in data based on their amplitude and other features.
Parameters
----------
x : 1D array_like
data.
mph : {None, number}, optional (default = None)
detect peaks that are greater than minimum peak height.
mpd : positive integer, optional (default = 1)
detect peaks that are at least separated by minimum peak distance (in
number of data).
threshold : positive number, optional (default = 0)
detect peaks (valleys) that are greater (smaller) than `threshold`
in relation to their immediate neighbors.
edge : {None, 'rising', 'falling', 'both'}, optional (default = 'rising')
for a flat peak, keep only the rising edge ('rising'), only the
falling edge ('falling'), both edges ('both'), or don't detect a
flat peak (None).
kpsh : bool, optional (default = False)
keep peaks with same height even if they are closer than `mpd`.
valley : bool, optional (default = False)
if True (1), detect valleys (local minima) instead of peaks.
show : bool, optional (default = False)
if True (1), plot data in matplotlib figure.
ax : a matplotlib.axes.Axes instance, optional (default = None).
Returns
-------
ind : 1D array_like
indeces of the peaks in `x`.
Notes
-----
The detection of valleys instead of peaks is performed internally by simply
negating the data: `ind_valleys = detect_peaks(-x)`
The function can handle NaN's
See this IPython Notebook [1]_.
References
----------
.. [1] http://nbviewer.ipython.org/github/demotu/BMC/blob/master/notebooks/DetectPeaks.ipynb
Examples
--------
>>> from detect_peaks import detect_peaks
>>> x = np.random.randn(100)
>>> x[60:81] = np.nan
>>> # detect all peaks and plot data
>>> ind = detect_peaks(x, show=True)
>>> print(ind)
>>> x = np.sin(2*np.pi*5*np.linspace(0, 1, 200)) + np.random.randn(200)/5
>>> # set minimum peak height = 0 and minimum peak distance = 20
>>> detect_peaks(x, mph=0, mpd=20, show=True)
>>> x = [0, 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 2, 0, 1, 0]
>>> # set minimum peak distance = 2
>>> detect_peaks(x, mpd=2, show=True)
>>> x = np.sin(2*np.pi*5*np.linspace(0, 1, 200)) + np.random.randn(200)/5
>>> # detection of valleys instead of peaks
>>> detect_peaks(x, mph=0, mpd=20, valley=True, show=True)
>>> x = [0, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0]
>>> # detect both edges
>>> detect_peaks(x, edge='both', show=True)
>>> x = [-2, 1, -2, 2, 1, 1, 3, 0]
>>> # set threshold = 2
>>> detect_peaks(x, threshold = 2, show=True)
"""
x = np.atleast_1d(x).astype('float64')
if x.size < 3:
return np.array([], dtype=int)
if valley:
x = -x
# find indexes of all peaks
dx = x[1:] - x[:-1]
# handle NaN's
indnan = np.where(np.isnan(x))[0]
if indnan.size:
x[indnan] = np.inf
dx[np.where(np.isnan(dx))[0]] = np.inf
ine, ire, ife = np.array([[], [], []], dtype=int)
if not edge:
ine = np.where((np.hstack((dx, 0)) < 0) & (np.hstack((0, dx)) > 0))[0]
else:
if edge.lower() in ['rising', 'both']:
ire = np.where((np.hstack((dx, 0)) <= 0) & (np.hstack((0, dx)) > 0))[0]
if edge.lower() in ['falling', 'both']:
ife = np.where((np.hstack((dx, 0)) < 0) & (np.hstack((0, dx)) >= 0))[0]
ind = np.unique(np.hstack((ine, ire, ife)))
# handle NaN's
if ind.size and indnan.size:
# NaN's and values close to NaN's cannot be peaks
ind = ind[np.in1d(ind, np.unique(np.hstack((indnan, indnan-1, indnan+1))), invert=True)]
# first and last values of x cannot be peaks
if ind.size and ind[0] == 0:
ind = ind[1:]
if ind.size and ind[-1] == x.size-1:
ind = ind[:-1]
# remove peaks < minimum peak height
if ind.size and mph is not None:
ind = ind[x[ind] >= mph]
# remove peaks - neighbors < threshold
if ind.size and threshold > 0:
dx = np.min(np.vstack([x[ind]-x[ind-1], x[ind]-x[ind+1]]), axis=0)
ind = np.delete(ind, np.where(dx < threshold)[0])
# detect small peaks closer than minimum peak distance
if ind.size and mpd > 1:
ind = ind[np.argsort(x[ind])][::-1] # sort ind by peak height
idel = np.zeros(ind.size, dtype=bool)
for i in range(ind.size):
if not idel[i]:
# keep peaks with the same height if kpsh is True
idel = idel | (ind >= ind[i] - mpd) & (ind <= ind[i] + mpd) \
& (x[ind[i]] > x[ind] if kpsh else True)
idel[i] = 0 # Keep current peak
# remove the small peaks and sort back the indexes by their occurrence
ind = np.sort(ind[~idel])
if show:
if indnan.size:
x[indnan] = np.nan
if valley:
x = -x
_plot(x, mph, mpd, threshold, edge, valley, ax, ind)
return ind
def _plot(x, mph, mpd, threshold, edge, valley, ax, ind):
"""Plot results of the detect_peaks function, see its help."""
try:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
except ImportError:
print('matplotlib is not available.')
else:
if ax is None:
_, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1, figsize=(8, 4))
ax.plot(x, 'b', lw=1)
if ind.size:
label = 'valley' if valley else 'peak'
label = label + 's' if ind.size > 1 else label
ax.plot(ind, x[ind], '+', mfc=None, mec='r', mew=2, ms=8,
label='%d %s' % (ind.size, label))
ax.legend(loc='best', framealpha=.5, numpoints=1)
ax.set_xlim(-.02*x.size, x.size*1.02-1)
ymin, ymax = x[np.isfinite(x)].min(), x[np.isfinite(x)].max()
yrange = ymax - ymin if ymax > ymin else 1
ax.set_ylim(ymin - 0.1*yrange, ymax + 0.1*yrange)
ax.set_xlabel('Data #', fontsize=14)
ax.set_ylabel('Amplitude', fontsize=14)
mode = 'Valley detection' if valley else 'Peak detection'
ax.set_title("%s (mph=%s, mpd=%d, threshold=%s, edge='%s')"
% (mode, str(mph), mpd, str(threshold), edge))
# plt.grid()
plt.show()
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