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URL Routes
Calling your actions from custom URL schemes or deep linking is just a matter of defining the mappings and moving to the correct UI state to perform the action.

In this article:


  • TOC {:toc}


Most apps need to handle some URLs, whether for e-mail sign-in confirmations, deep linking or custom workflow URL schemes.

Flint’s Routes feature makes it easy to implement these. You have only three steps to carry out in code. What this will do is take a URL like:


…and route that to the appropriate Action in your app, pull out the information from the URL to create an instance of the InputType required for the Action, and then perform the action for you. The same Action that you use to perform the code internally in your app, that has its availability controlled by the Feature it is bound to.

So for example if you have an in-app purchase to unlock advanced workflow features, there's nothing more to do other than make sure the workflow URLs are defined on the conditional feature. The URLs will not work unless they have paid for the feature.

Flint's Routes support:

  • Multiple custom app URL schemes
  • Multiple associated domains
  • Multiple URL paths to the same action
  • URL wildcards
  • Custom marshalling of URL arguments from query parameters
  • Named parameters extracted from the URL path itself
  • Named routes to allow your input type to alter decoding behaviour based on the triggering URL
  • Reuse of existing app Actions — URLs are just another way to perform them

Routes can also work automatically behind the scenes with the Activities feature so that you get NSUserActivity support for free for URL mapped actions.

Declaring the URL routes for your Feature’s actions

URL routes for actions are declared on the Feature, so that actions can be reused across features without fixing the mappings in the action. This also means the availability of the URLs is controlled by the Feature's availability.

All you need to do is add conformance to the URLMapped protocol to your Feature and add an implementation of the urlMappings function:

/// Add the `URLMapped` conformance to get support for Routes
class DocumentManagementFeature: Feature, URLMapped {

    static let createNew = action(DocumentCreateAction.self)
    static let openDocument = action(DocumentOpenAction.self)

    /// Add the URL mappings for the actions.
    static func urlMappings(routes: URLMappingsBuilder) {
        routes.send("create", to: createNew)
        routes.send("open", to: openDocument)
        routes.send("open-document", to: openDocument, in: [.universalAny], name: "from-web")

That's all — you have now defined some URLs that will invoke actions for all custom URL schemes and associates domains. If your app has configured a custom URL scheme x-your-app and an associated domain, your URLs might look like this:

  • x-your-app://create?name=MyFile1
  • x-your-app:create?name=MyFile1

Creating advanced URL patterns using wildcards and named parameters

The route's URL matching pattern supports multiple path components and basic wildcards. Generally, patterns can contain any number of path components separated by /. The path component itself can be:

  • A string literal such as account
  • A single-component wildcard *
  • A "rest of path" wildcard **
  • A named parameter $(id), with optional prefix and suffixes e.g. product-$(post-id)-view that are matched but not extracted

Any combination of these is supported, with the exception of ** which must be the last component.


  • account/profile/view
  • account/*/view — match anything at the 2nd path component
  • account/** — match everything after account/
  • account/$(id) — extract the second path component as "id" for parameters, matching only two-component urls
  • account/$(id)/view — extract the second path component as "id" for parameters, matching only three-component urls
  • account/junk$(id)here/view — extract the second path component part between "junk" and "here" as "id" for parameters, matching only three-component urls
  • account/junk$(id)here/*/view — combining some of the above
  • */$(id) — any two-component path, with the second part used as "id" parameter
  • */$(id)/view — any three-component path, with the second part used as "id" parameter, only matching when followed by "/view"

Any trailing query parameters on the URL following the optional ? in the URL will be extracted first as route parameters. Any named path parameters in the route pattern will supercede these. You can have as many named parameters as you require, and they are passed to your RouteParametersDecodable conforming input type on your action.

Adding the code your app needs to handle URLs and present the UI

To actually make this work, there are a few more one-off things to do:

  1. If you haven't done so already you have to declare your App's custom URL schemes in your Info.plist
  2. For universal link or associated domains you need to set up the entitlements and a file on your server. See the Apple docs for this.
  3. You need your application delegate to handle requests to open URLs and pass them to Flint.
  4. Implement an object to get your UI ready and return a presenter.

This application delegate part is very simple – add this to your UIApplicationDelegate, for example:

func application(_ app: UIApplication, open url: URL, options: [UIApplicationOpenURLOptionsKey : Any] = [:]) -> Bool {
     let result: URLRoutingResult = url, with: presentationRouter)
     return result == .success

The PresentationRouter component needs to look at your current UI's state and do any work required to shuffle around view controllers to achieve the behaviour you want when your app receives a request for an action when it is already in a different UI state. This can be tricky, but it's the nature of the beast. You can make it simple in many cases – the key is to make clear decisions about how you want the app to behave for each kind of action that it can receive from an external stimulus like this.

An example strategy is that maybe for all actions you want to present the view controller modally, unless there is already a modally presented view controller in which case you would fail the routing request rather than interrupt the user again.

Here's a simple example PresentationRouter implementation from the FlintDemo-iOS sample project, which only supports presenting actions if the app's main UINavigationController has a specific MasterViewController at the top of its view controller list:

/// A presentation router for setting up the UI and returning the appropriate presenter instance for
/// an action request that has come from outside the app, e.g. an `openURL` request.
class SimplePresentationRouter: PresentationRouter {
    let mainNavigationController: UINavigationController
    /// We instantiate this in our `AppDelegate` and pass it our primary navigation controller
    init(navigationController: UINavigationController) {
        mainNavigationController = navigationController
    /// Set up the UI for unconditional feature actions
    func presentation<FeatureType, ActionType>(for actionBinding: StaticActionBinding<FeatureType, ActionType>, with state: ActionType.InputType) -> PresentationResult<A.PresenterType> {
        // Switch (not literally, we can't do that sadly), on the expected presenter type
        // and return `.appReady` with the main navigation controller as presenter if
        // it is one of the supported types, but only if the user is currently on the master view
        // This will silently ignore requests for actions that come in if the user is on the detail view controller
        if ActionType.PresenterType.self == DocumentCreatePresenter.self ||
                A.PresenterType.self == DocumentPresenter.self {
            if let masterVC = mainNavigationController.topViewController as? MasterViewController {
                return .appReady(presenter: masterVC as! ActionType.PresenterType)
            } else {
                return .appCancelled
        } else {
            // The presentation router doesn't know how to set up the UI for this action.
            // This is probably a programmer error.
            return .unsupported
    /// Set up the UI for conditional feature actions. We don't support any of these in the demo app.
    func presentation<FeatureType, ActionType>(for conditionalActionBinding: ConditionalActionBinding<FeatureType, ActionType>, with state: A.InputType) -> PresentationResult<A.PresenterType> {
        return .unsupported

Now the app will respond to and be able to generate URLs referring to those actions, including arguments. So for example the Flint Demo app has this code and could respond to flint-demo://open? as well as

Creating the Input for your Action from the URLs

In order to respond to URLs and perform the Action defined by your routes, Flint needs to be able to create an instance of your InputType type from the URL.

Flint provides three protocols to support this:

You need to make your action's InputType conform to one or both of these protocols as appropriate for your needs. If you never create URL links in your app but only have to handle them, you can conform to just RouteParametersDecodable. If you need to create links you can conform to RouteParametersDecodable or RouteParametersCodable.

It is nice to do this in an extension separate from your InputType definition. So for an InputType of DocumentRef we might have something like this:

extension DocumentRef: RouteParametersCodable {
    init?(from routeParameters: RouteParameters?, mapping: URLMapping) {
        guard let name = routeParameters?["name"] else {
            return nil
        } = name
    func encodeAsRouteParameters(for mapping: URLMapping) -> RouteParameters?
        return ["name": name]

Note that the RouteParameters give you convenient access to the query parameters as strings directly, and include the results of any named parameters parsed out of the incoming URL. The supplied mapping allows your code to alter behaviour based on which mapping triggered the creation of the link or the parsing of the URL.

This example will allow the DocumentRef to be used to create links and to parse them to create an instance of DocumentRef to pass to the Action (that is the part that the RoutesFeature of Flint does for you).

Customising the URL schemes and Associated Domains per-Action

The urlMappings(routes:) function is passed a builder that you use to set up the routes. The build supports a single send function that takes a URL path and a to: argument of the action binding to use. It has an optional in: argument for the scopes:

func send(_ path: String,
          to actionBinding: binding type ,
          in scopes: Set<RouteScope> = [.appAny, .universalAny],
          name: String? = nil)

There is full support for mapping to specific app URL schemes and specific universal link domains using the scopes. By default it maps to the all app schemes and associated domains handled by your app. To route differently, say to some legacy URLs you would write something like this:

class DocumentManagementFeature: Feature, URLMapped {


    /// Add the URL mappings for the actions.
    static func urlMappings(routes: URLMappingsBuilder) {
        // Legacy URL action
        routes.send("create", to: createNew, in: [
	        .app(scheme: "x-test"),
	        .universal(domain: "")])
        // Current URL action
        routes.send("create-document", to: createNew)

        // Current URL action, with just legacy domain
        routes.send("open", to: openDocument, in: [
	        .universal(domain: ""),
	        .universal(domain: FlintAppInfo.urlSchemes.first)])

See FlintAppInfo for access to the known domains and schemes for the app.

As you can see there is support for declaring multiple scopes, and you can declare the same route multiple times to different destinations if need be, so long as the scopes differ. The URL mapping will choose the most specific match, so an explicit scheme or domain match wins even if you have .appAny or .universalAny defined.

Your app won't invoke URLs you have defined yet, as you need to tell Flint when URLs are received and allow it to perform the action for you, and you need to make sure your app is configured to receive the custom URL scheme and associated domains.

How to test URL routes

The easiest way to test URL routes manually is to create a suitable URL and paste it into Safari on the device where the app is installed. You should be prompted to open your app. If you press OK it should then open the app and invoke your action. If you did all the PresentationRouter stuff right you should see the correct UI!

Typing URLs is particularly painful on iOS devices, so other alternatives include:

  • sending yourself the URL via iMessage or by Email
  • storing the URLs you want to test in a note in the Notes app, using iCloud sync, and just tap them to test them again
  • build an internal HTML page somewhere describing all the URLs your app should support, so they can easily be tested by tapping one after another

Testing associated domains is harder. You must have the server set up correctly for the associated domain and be running the app on a real device. You will need to take care to avoid clashing with production releases of your app, so you must either remove the production apps or use subdomains for each flavour of your app build (e.g. development vs. beta vs. production).

💡 TIP: You should test the case where your app is not already running on the device. In Xcode you can do this by terminating the app first, and then in the "Run" options for your app's scheme, set the "Launch" option to "Wait for executable to be launcher". Then when you open a URL from Safari Xcode will be able to stop on breakpoints you set in your PresentationRouter so you can debug any issues there.

Deep linking using Universal Link URLs with Associated Domains

Depending on where the user interacts with an associated website URL, you may receive a call to application:openURL:… or application:continueActivity:….

For deep linking that works with the continueActivity variant you will need to also enable the Activities feature of Flint and add the required call to your app delegate.

Updating your Info.plist and Entitlements for URL schemes and Associated Domains

For custom URL schemes to work, you must list each scheme in the "URL Types" section of your Info.plist (or the "Info" tab of your app target in Xcode). The schemes must go in the "Schemes" box.

Associated domains on the other hand require entitlements. You must go to the "Capabilities" tab and open the "Associated Domains" section. There you can add the domains you require, with the applinks: prefix e.g. You must also create and upload the apple-site-association file to your server on that domain.

💡 TIP: Do your users a favour while you are here — if you have website logins that the users require in the native app, add webcredentials: associations at the same time as this!

For more details see Supporting Universal Links on the Apple documentation site.

Creating links to your Actions

Sometimes you want to create a URL that will invoke your app and perform an action, or generate the equivalent Universal Link so that you can share content with other users from the app.

To do this you use the LinkCreator protocol. An object that implements this is provided in Flint.linkCreator if you called Flint.quickSetup at startup. Flint.quickSetup chooses the first custom URL scheme and the first associated domain as the scopes to use when creating links. You can create your own LinkCreator instances using other schemes and domains if you require it.

The LinkCreator creates app or universal links like so:

let appUrl = Flint.linkCreator.appLink(to: MyFeature.someAction, with: someInput)
let webUrl = Flint.linkCreator.universalLink(to: MyFeature.someAction, with: someInput)

💡 TIP: You can use links for other things like Home Screen Quick Actions. Anywhere you might need to open your app in a specific state, creating links is a great solution. This what the Activities feature takes advantage of.


  • Set up Activities handling for Handoff, deep linking and more
  • Add Analytics tracking
  • Use the Timeline to see what is going on in your app when things go wrong
  • Start using Focus to pare down your logging