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Rails application to create, index, and search text from page images and provide results in IIIF Content Search API format.


  • OCR page images for indexing content.
  • Uses a IIIF Image server for source images.
  • Resque queue for OCR and processing jobs.
  • Provides bounding boxes for hit highlighting.
  • Search suggestions.


This code is being used in production at NCSU Libraries for full text resources on our Rare & Unique Digital Collections site. It was developed quickly to be able to provide improved access to the Nubian Message student newspaper.

The code lacks tests and we have not had feedback on the search experience from users. The suggester could certainly be improved.

Quick start


Development is done in Vagrant. You will need to have Vagrant installed.

Check out the code:

git clone
cd ocracoke

Start vagrant:

vagrant up

While this is installing the appropriate box and provisioning it, you can look through the /ansible directory to get some idea of all the dependencies and how the application gets deployed to a production environment.


On the host visit Solr at http://localhost:8984. You should see the "ocracoke" Solr core under "Core Admin."


SSH to vagrant machine, load the database schema, and start Rails:

vagrant ssh
cd /vagrant
rake db:schema:load
rails s -b

On the host visit Rails: http://localhost:8090/jobs. This route is protected with HTTP Basic Auth. Look in the .env file for the credentials. You should see the Resque jobs page.

Solr Configuration

The Solr config must be updated before indexing documents:

vagrant ssh
cd /vagrant
rake ocracoke:solr:config

You'll see the output of what changes are being made the Solr schema and config.

OCR a Resource

This will show you all the rake tasks available for Ocracoke. In another terminal run the following:

vagrant ssh
cd /vagrant
rake -T ocr

We're going to OCR a single resource from the NCSU Libraries' collection. This is a Commencement program that mentions a graduate from Ocracoke. It also ought to OCR quickly enough.

rake ocracoke:queue_from_ncsu_id[LD3928-A23-1947]

That task will use an NCSU Libraries API to get the list of identifiers for images associated with this resource. You should now see one "resource_ocr" job in the queue. Now we need to run a worker to process the jobs. This is the suggested queue order though you can change it to suit your needs.

QUEUE=ocr,word_boundaries,index,concatenate_txt,annotation_list,pdf,delayed,resource_ocr REDO_OCR=true rake resque:work

You should see output on the console that the jobs are working. The Resque web interface will show that one worker is working, and you can see the status of all the queues.

Search Inside

At this point you ought to be able to see the result for Ocracoke in the search inside results: http://localhost:8090/search/LD3928-A23-1947?q=ocracoke

You may need to run a Solr commit first before you see results:

rake ocracoke:solr:commit

You can also optimize the Solr index:

rake ocracoke:solr:optimize


Suggestions will not work yet until the suggestion dictionary is built. This is a time consuming process so it is something that would be run nightly in a production. You can trigger building the suggester with a rake task:

rake ocracoke:solr:build_suggester

You should now see a suggestion for "ocra" http://localhost:8090/suggest/LD3928-A23-1947?q=ocra

OCRing and Indexing Your Own Content

Ocracoke uses a IIIF Image server to get the images that it OCRs and indexes. You will need image identifiers that can be used in a IIIF Image API URL to grab the images. Currently Ocracoke is configured to only use a single IIIF Image server. Edit ./config/ocracoke.yml to point to a different iiif_base_url.

You will also need a resource identifier to group all the images for search inside.

There is currently no user interface for adding OCR jobs. You may eventually want to add your own Rake tasks to queue OCR jobs.

Or you could use the API for sending OCR jobs in. This is one way that NCSU Libraries can kick jobs off from a separate application.

curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" -H "Accept: application/json" -d '{"resource": "ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008", "images": ["ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008_0001","ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008_0002","ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008_0003"]}' -H  "Authorization: Token token=scams_token, user=scams" http://localhost:8090/api/ocr_resource

You should now see 1 job in the resource_ocr queue. Take a look in ./config/api_tokens.yml for the valid users and tokens.

Indexing Content Without OCR

It also ought to be possible to use Ocracoke without relying on it to create the OCR. You will just need a certain directory structure and the right files to be in place for it to work as expected.

The ocr_directory can be set in config/ocracoke.yml. Under the OCR directory are directories using the first two characters of your resource and image identifiers. For instance if one or more identifiers begins with "LD" then there will be a directory named "LD" under the OCR directory. Within will be directories named after each resource and image identifier. In order to use the OCR index script you will need to have within each directory for an image at minimum a text file with the full text of the page and a JSON word boundaries file. If you are not using the provided scripts for indexing, the minimum will be the JSON word boundaries file if you want hits to be highlighted.

If creating OCR using the scripts given here you will have already created hOCR with Tesseract. The hOCR is used to extract word boundaries, which you could do some other way. There will also be a PDF for each resource available for users to download.

Here's an example directory structure of a single resource with a couple of the pages from the resource after OCR:

└── ocr
    └── LD
        ├── LD3928-A23-1947
        │   ├── LD3928-A23-1947.pdf
        │   └── LD3928-A23-1947.txt
        ├── LD3928-A23-1947_0001
        │   ├── LD3928-A23-1947_0001.hocr
        │   ├── LD3928-A23-1947_0001.json
        │   └── LD3928-A23-1947_0001.txt
        ├── LD3928-A23-1947_0002
        │   ├── LD3928-A23-1947_0002.hocr
        │   ├── LD3928-A23-1947_0002.json
        │   └── LD3928-A23-1947_0002.txt

JSON Word Boundaries File

The JSON word boundaries files allow for hit highlighting. If you have this file present then each canvas in "resources" in the content search response will have a "xywh" hash fragment. Each word boundary file for a page takes the form of a single object where the keys are words and the value is an array of word boundaries.

Here's a short example where the words "Wednesday", "April", and "student" could be highlighted if they matched the user's query. If the word "student" matches it would be highlighted on the page four times.


The coordinates in the file are the bbox from the hOCR. This data is extracted from the hOCR output from .ocrx_word elements during OCR creation, but if you have this information you can create the file yourself. The coordinates are the top-left (x0, y0) and bottom-right (x1, y1) of the bounding box for the word. The height (h) and width (w) are calculated from these points. The "c" value is the confidence level from the OCR engine and currently not used at this point.

If you do not have the JSON word boundaries files then the media fragment will be "xywh=0,0,0,0". This allows universalviewer to work to get the user to the correct page without showing any highlighting on the matching page.

In the future this data might be indexed instead of just present in a JSON file.

Use Search Endpoint in a IIIF Presentation Manifest

You can include the search endpoint in a IIIF Presentation API manifest. If you are working in development you can include it as a service in your manifest like this:

"service": [
    "@context": "",
    "@id": "http://localhost:8090/search/LD3928-A23-1947",
    "profile": "",
    "label": "Search within this thing",
    "service": {
      "@id": "http://localhost:8090/suggest/LD3928-A23-1947",
      "profile": "",
      "label": "Get suggested words"

Indexing Page Text

In some cases you may already have OCR or the text has been transcribed. In these cases you could just index the text directly into Solr. The fields you will want to include in the Solr document you add for each page image are:

  • "id" for the identifier for the page image. This is a single-valued field.
  • "resource" for the identifier for the resource which may have multiple images associated with it. The "resource" field allows for filtering Solr queries for search inside functionality rather than searching across all documents in the index. This is a single-valued field.
  • "txt" for the full text of the page either from OCR or transcription. This is a single-valued field.
  • TODO: are there other fields created in the application now?


A simple suggester is provided. It currently has some limitations where it can only suggest a single word and not a phrase. This example request would return suggested terms like "ocracoke": http://localhost:8090/suggest/LD3928-A23-1947?q=ocra

Solr in Vagrant

Sometimes when Vagrant starts up it seems the synced file system is not present when Solr start, so it is necessary to restart Solr on the guest to pick up the configs:

sudo service solr-ocracoke restart

(Note that there is a bug in Solr 6 where the RELOAD action via the HTTP API fails because of a bug in the particular Suggester implementation used.)


If notifications are turned on then the application will also queue a job to notify an external API that an OCR job for a particular resource has been completed. Currently this job only gets queued if the PDF is successfully created which is the last step in the NCSU Libraries' workflow.

This API is currently under development and it only POSTs the resource identifier via JSON. In the future it may send the image identifiers, size of the resulting PDF, and other data.

In the included ./config/ocracoke.yml file notifications are turned off. Examples are given of how to send a notification to the host machine on port 3000 to the /api_incoming/ocr path. The host_token value can be set if a callback URI with the given host requires a token with the request.

Delivering OCR

It is easy to deliver all of the OCR text and PDFs. One way is to just link the ocr directory into your public directory:

ln -s /access-images/ocr /vagrant/public/ocr

Now visit this page in your browser to download the OCR text for the resource: https://localhost:8443/ocr/LD/LD3928-A23-1947/LD3928-A23-1947.txt


Take a look at the ansible directory for a playbook/recipe for provisioning a machine for this application. All the required dependencies are listed there.

We deploy updates to the application with Capistrano and could share a recipe with you. Main points are that you will want to create your own versions of various configuration files and link to them on deploy rather than using the (insecure) versions that are under version control for development. They all contain configuration or secrets that you must changes.

  • api_tokens.yml
  • database.yml
  • ocracoke.yml
  • secrets.yml
  • .env (or include .env.production that overrides .env)


A basic command line interface is available. This allows for running discrete tasks without rerunning everything. It reuses the ActiveJobs but first sets the job runner to be inline so that you do not need to run a background job worker.

See what tasks are currently available:

bin/rails runner exe/ocracoke

OCR an image from a resource:

bin/rails runner exe/ocracoke ocr -i ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008_0001 -r ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008

Sometimes you may need to redo the OCR step so add an environment variable:

REDO_OCR=true bin/rails runner exe/ocracoke ocr -i ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008_0001 -r ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008

Create the annotation lists.

bin/rails runner exe/ocracoke annotate -i ua102_002-001-bx0012-013-008_0001


  • #TODO:0 Tests
  • #TODO:10 Allow the JSON word boundary file to include x, y, w, h values instead of the hOCR x0, y0, x1, y1 values and work either way.

Ocracoke, North Carolina,_North_Carolina


  • Jason Ronallo




Rails application supporting the creation of OCR and the IIIF Content Search API







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