The Extended Hata (eHata) Urban Propagation Model
This source repository contains a C language reference version of the eHata urban propagation model. The model was developed by NTIA and used in NTIA Technical Report TR-15-517, "3.5 GHz Exclusion Zone Analyses and Methodology," June 2015 [TR-15-517] for the 3.5 GHz exclusion zone analysis.
- float pfl : A terrain profile line, from the mobile to the base station. EHata uses the ITM-method of formatting
terrain information, in that:
- float pfl : Number of points + 1
- float pfl : Resolution, in meters
- float pfl[i] : Elevation above sea level, in meters
- float f__mhz : The frequency, in MHz
- float h_m__meter : The height of the mobile, in meters.
- float h_b__meter : The height of the base station, in meters.
- int enviro_code : The NLCD environment code
- float reliability : The quantile percent not exceeded of the signal, range (0, 1)
- float plb: The path loss, in dB.
- InterValues intervalues : [Optional] A data structure containing intermediate values from the eHata calculations.
- void ExtendedHata(float pfl, float f__mhz, float h_b__meter, float h_m__meter, int enviro_code, float reliability, float *plb)
- void ExtendedHata_DBG(float pfl, float f__mhz, float h_b__meter, float h_m__meter, int enviro_code, float reliability, float *plb, InterValues *interValues)
The eHata reference implementation is only dependent on the math.lib library.
When calling the ExtendedHata_DBG() function, the function will populate the InterValues data structure with intermediate values from the eHata calculations. Those values are as follows:
- float d_bp__km: The breakpoint distance, in km.
- float att_1km: Attenuation at 1 km.
- float att_100km: Attenuation at 100 km.
- float h_b_eff__meter: Effective height of the base station, in meters.
- float h_m_eff__meter: Effective height of the mobile, in meters.
- float pfl10__meter: 10% terrain quantile, in meters.
- float pfl50__meter: 50% terrain quantile, in meters.
- float pfl90__meter: 90% terrain quantile, in meters.
- float deltah__meter: Terrain irregularity parameter.
- float d__km: Total path distance, in km.
- float d_hzn__meter: Horizon distances, in meters.
- float h_avg__meter: Average heights, in meters.
- float theta_m__mrad: Slope of the terrain at the at the mobile, in millirads
- float beta: Percentage of path that is sea.
- int iend_ov_sea: Flag specifying which end is over the sea.
- float hedge_tilda: Horizon correction factor.
- bool single_horizon: Flag for specifying number of horizons.
- float slope_max: Intermediate value when calculating the mobile terrain slope.
- float slope_min: Intermediate value when calculating the mobile terrain slope.
- int trace_code: Trace flag showing program flow.
Notes on Code Style
- In general, variables follow the naming convention in which a single underscore denotes a subscript (pseudo-LaTeX format), where a double underscore is followed by the units, i.e. h_m__meter.
- Variables are named to match their corresponding mathematical variables in the underlying technical references, i.e., gamma_1.
- Most values are calculated and stored in the InterValues data structure that is passed between function calls. In general, only the correction factor functions return their result as a value.
- [Okumura, 1968] Okumura, Y., Ohmori, E., Kawano, T., Fukuda, K. "Field Strength and Its Variability in VHF and UHF Land-Mobile Radio Service", Review of the Electrical Communication Laboratory, Vol. 16, Num 9-10. Sept-Oct 1968. pp. 825-873.
- [Hata, 1980] Hata, M. "Empirical Formula for Propagation Loss in Land Mobile
Radio Services", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol VT-29, Num 3.
Aug 1980. pp 317-325. DOI: 10.1109/T-VT.1980.23859
- TR-15-517 Drocella, E., Richards, J., Sole, R., Najmy, F., Lundy, A., McKenna, P. "3.5 GHz Exclusion Zone Analyses and Methodology", NTIA Report 15-517, June 2015.
Configuring and Building
This project was developed and built using Microsoft Visual Studio 2015, using the Visual Studio 2015 (v140) C compiler. By default, the project file is configured to build with Runtime Library set to Multi-threaded (/MT), thus removing the requirement that the target machine have the matching version of the Microsoft C Redistributable installed.
Test and Validation
This code repository contains a representative set of test cases to validate the compiled software against. The /test/ folder contains:
- test-inputs.csv : A csv file containing inputs, locations, and expected path loss. It also contains the name of the corresponding pfl file
- /pfls/ : A directory containing pfls for the test cases
The pfls were generated using the re-sampled terrain data that can be downloaded from here: https://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/resources/radio-propagation-software/resampled-terrain-data/re-sampled-terrain-data.aspx