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Consensus Rules

This document is meant to provide a good high level overview of the Sia cryptosystem, but does not fully explain all of the small details. The most accurate explanation of the consensus rules is the consensus package (and all dependencies).

This document will be more understandable if you have a general understanding of proof of work blockchains, and does not try to build up from first principles.

Cryptographic Algorithms

Sia uses cryptographic hashing and cryptographic signing, each of which has many potentially secure algorithms that can be used. We acknowledge our inexperience, and that we have chosen these algorithms not because of our own confidence in their properties, but because other people seem confident in their properties.

For hashing, our primary goal is to use an algorithm that cannot be merge mined with Bitcoin, even partially. A secondary goal is hashing speed on consumer hardware, including phones and other low power devices.

For signing, our primary goal is verification speed. A secondary goal is an algorithm that supports HD keys. A tertiary goal is an algorithm that supports threshold signatures.

Hashing: blake2b

blake2b has been chosen as a hashing algorithm because it is fast, it has had substantial review, and it has invulnerability to length extension attacks. Another particularly important feature of BLAKE2b is that it is not SHA-2. We wish to avoid merge mining with Bitcoin, because that may result in many apathetic Bitcoin miners mining on our blockchain, which may make soft forks harder to coordinate.

Signatures: variable type signatures

Each public key will have an specifier (a 16 byte array) and a byte slice containing an encoding of the public key. The specifier will tell the signature verification which signing algorithm to use when verifying a signature. Each signature will be a byte slice, the encoding can be determined by looking at the specifier of the corresponding public key.

This method allows new signature types to be easily added to the currency in a way that does not invalidate existing outputs and keys. Adding a new signature type requires a soft fork, but allows easy protection against cryptographic breaks, and easy migration to new cryptography if there are any breakthroughs in areas like verification speed, ring signatures, etc.

Allowed algorithms:

ed25519: The specifier must match the string "ed25519". The public key must be encoded into 32 bytes. Signatures and public keys will need to follow the ed25519 specification. More information can be found at

entropy: The specifier must match the string "entropy". The signature will always be invalid. This provides a way to add entropy buffers to SpendCondition objects to protect low entropy information, while being able to prove that the entropy buffers are invalid public keys.

There are plans to also add ECDSA secp256k1 and Schnorr secp256k1. New signing algorithms can be added to Sia through a soft fork, because unrecognized algorithm types are always considered to have valid signatures.


The Sia cryptosystem has two types of currency. The first is the Siacoin. Siacoins are generated every block and distributed to the miners. These miners can then use the siacoins to fund file contracts, or can send the siacoins to other parties. The siacoin is represented by an infinite precision unsigned integer.

The second currency in the Sia cryptosystem is the Siafund, which is a special asset limited to 10,000 indivisible units. Each time a file contract payout is made, 3.9% of the payout is put into the siafund pool. The number of siacoins in the siafund pool must always be divisible by 10,000; the number of coins taken from the payout is rounded down to the nearest 10,000. The siafund is also represented by an infinite precision unsigned integer.

Siafund owners can collect the siacoins in the siafund pool. For every 10,000 siacoins added to the siafund pool, a siafund owner can withdraw 1 siacoin. Approx. 8790 siafunds are owned by Nebulous Inc. The remaining siafunds are owned by early backers of the Sia project.

There are future plans to enable sidechain compatibility with Sia. This would allow other currencies such as Bitcoin to be spent in all the same places that the Siacoin can be spent.


Many of the Sia types need to be hashed at some point, which requires having a consistent algorithm for marshalling types into a set of bytes that can be hashed. The following rules are used for hashing:

  • Integers are little-endian, and are always encoded as 8 bytes.
  • Bools are encoded as one byte, where zero is false and one is true.
  • Variable length types such as strings are prefaced by 8 bytes containing their length.
  • Arrays and structs are encoded as their individual elements concatenated together. The ordering of the struct is determined by the struct definition. There is only one way to encode each struct.
  • The Currency type (an infinite precision integer) is encoded in big endian using as many bytes as necessary to represent the underlying number. As it is a variable length type, it is prefixed by 8 bytes containing the length.

Block Size

The maximum block size is 2e6 bytes. There is no limit on transaction size, though it must fit inside of the block. Most miners enforce a size limit of 16e3 bytes per transaction.

Block Timestamps

Each block has a minimum allowed timestamp. The minimum timestamp is found by taking the median timestamp of the previous 11 blocks. If there are not 11 previous blocks, the genesis timestamp is used repeatedly.

Blocks will be rejected if they are timestamped more than three hours in the future, but can be accepted again once enough time has passed.

Block ID

The ID of a block is derived using: Hash(Parent Block ID + 64 bit Nonce + Timestamp + Block Merkle Root)

The block Merkle root is obtained by creating a Merkle tree whose leaves are the hashes of the miner outputs (one leaf per miner output), and the hashes of the transactions (one leaf per transaction).

Block Target

For a block to be valid, the id of the block must be below a certain target. The target is adjusted once every 500 blocks, and it is adjusted by looking at the timestamps of the previous 1000 blocks. The expected amount of time passed between the most recent block and the 1000th previous block is 10e3 minutes. If more time has passed, the target is lowered. If less time has passed, the target is increased. Each adjustment can adjust the target by up to 2.5x.

The target is changed in proportion to the difference in time (If the time was half of what was expected, the new target is 1/2 the old target). There is a clamp on the adjustment. In one block, the target cannot adjust upwards by more more than 1001/1000, and cannot adjust downwards by more than 999/1000.

The new target is calculated using (expected time passed in seconds) / (actual time passed in seconds) * (current target). The division and multiplication should be done using infinite precision, and the result should be truncated.

If there are not 1000 blocks, the genesis timestamp is used for comparison. The expected time is (10 minutes * block height).

Block Subsidy

The coinbase for a block is (300,000 - height) * 10^24, with a minimum of 30,000 * 10^24. Any miner fees get added to the coinbase to create the block subsidy. The block subsidy is then given to multiple outputs, called the miner payouts. The total value of the miner payouts must equal the block subsidy.

The ids of the outputs created by the miner payouts is determined by taking the block id and concatenating the index of the payout that the output corresponds to.

The outputs created by the block subsidy cannot be spent for 50 blocks, and are not considered a part of the consensus set until 50 blocks have transpired. This limitation is in place because a simple blockchain reorganization is enough to invalidate the output; double spend attacks and false spend attacks are much easier to execute.


A Transaction is composed of the following:

  • Siacoin Inputs
  • Siacoin Outputs
  • File Contracts
  • File Contract Revisions
  • Storage Proofs
  • Siafund Inputs
  • Siafund Outputs
  • Miner Fees
  • Arbitrary Data
  • Transaction Signatures

The sum of all the siacoin inputs must equal the sum of all the miner fees, siacoin outputs, and file contract payouts. There can be no leftovers. The sum of all siafund inputs must equal the sum of all siafund outputs.

Several objects have unlock hashes. An unlock hash is the Merkle root of the 'unlock conditions' object. The unlock conditions contain a timelock, a number of required signatures, and a set of public keys that can be used during signing.

The Merkle root of the unlock condition objects is formed by taking the Merkle root of a tree whose leaves are the timelock, the public keys (one leaf per key), and the number of signatures. This ordering is chosen specifically because the timelock and the number of signatures are low entropy. By using random data as the first and last public key, you can make it safe to reveal any of the public keys without revealing the low entropy items.

The unlock conditions cannot be satisfied until enough signatures have provided, and until the height of the blockchain is at least equal to the value of the timelock.

The unlock conditions contains a set of public keys which can each be used only once when providing signatures. The same public key can be listed twice, which means that it can be used twice. The number of required signatures indicates how many public keys must be used to validate the input. If required signatures is '0', the input is effectively 'anyone can spend'. If the required signature count is greater than the number of public keys, the input is unspendable. There must be exactly enough signatures. For example, if there are 3 public keys and only two required signatures, then only two signatures can be included into the transaction.

Siacoin Inputs

Each input spends an output. The output being spent must exist in the consensus set. The 'value' field of the output indicates how many siacoins must be used in the outputs of the transaction. Valid outputs are miner fees, siacoin outputs, and contract payouts.

Siacoin Outputs

Siacoin outputs contain a value and an unlock hash (also called a coin address). The unlock hash is the Merkle root of the spend conditions that must be met to spend the output.

File Contracts

A file contract is an agreement by some party to prove they have a file at a given point in time. The contract contains the Merkle root of the data being stored, and the size in bytes of the data being stored.

The Merkle root is formed by breaking the file into 64 byte segments and hashing each segment to form the leaves of the Merkle tree. The final segment is not padded out.

The storage proof must be submitted between the 'WindowStart' and 'WindowEnd' fields of the contract. There is a 'Payout', which indicates how many siacoins are given out when the storage proof is provided. 3.9% of this payout (rounded down to the nearest 10,000) is put aside for the owners of siafunds. If the storage proof is provided and is valid, the remaining payout is put in an output spendable by the 'valid proof spend hash', and if a valid storage proof is not provided to the blockchain by 'end', the remaining payout is put in an output spendable by the 'missed proof spend hash'.

All contracts must have a non-zero payout, 'start' must be before 'end', and 'start' must be greater than the current height of the blockchain. A storage proof is acceptable if it is submitted in the block of height 'end'.

File contracts are created with a 'Revision Hash', which is the Merkle root of an unlock conditions object. A 'file contract revision' can be submitted which fulfills the unlock conditions object, resulting in the file contract being replaced by a new file contract, as specified in the revision.

File Contract Revisions

A file contract revision modifies a contract. File contracts have a revision number, and any revision submitted to the blockchain must have a higher revision number in order to be valid. Any field can be changed except for the payout - siacoins cannot be added to or removed from the file contract during a revision, though the destination upon a successful or unsuccessful storage proof can be changed.

The greatest application for file contract revisions is file-diff channels - a file contract can be edited many times off-blockchain as a user uploads new or different content to the host. This improves the overall scalability of Sia.

Storage Proofs

A storage proof transaction is any transaction containing a storage proof. Storage proof transactions are not allowed to have siacoin or siafund outputs, and are not allowed to have file contracts.

When creating a storage proof, you only prove that you have a single 64 byte segment of the file. The piece that you must prove you have is chosen randomly using the contract id and the id of the 'trigger block'. The trigger block is the block at height 'Start' - 1, where 'Start' is the value 'Start' in the contract that the storage proof is fulfilling.

The file is composed of 64 byte segments whose hashes compose the leaves of a Merkle tree. When proving you have the file, you must prove you have one of the leaves. To determine which leaf, take the hash of the contract id concatenated to the trigger block id, then take the numerical value of the result modulus the number of segments:

Hash(file contract id + trigger block id) % num segments

The proof is formed by providing the 64 byte segment, and then the missing hashes required to fill out the remaining tree. The total size of the proof will be 64 bytes + 32 bytes * log(num segments), and can be verified by anybody who knows the root hash and the file size.

Storage proof transactions are not allowed to have siacoin outputs, siafund outputs, or contracts. All outputs created by the storage proofs cannot be spent for 50 blocks.

These limits are in place because a simple blockchain reorganization can change the trigger block, which will invalidate the storage proof and therefore the entire transaction. This makes double spend attacks and false spend attacks significantly easier to execute.

Siafund Inputs

A siafund input works similar to a siacoin input. It contains the id of a siafund output being spent, and the unlock conditions required to spend the output.

A special output is created when a siafund output is used as input. All of the siacoins that have accrued in the siafund since its last spend are sent to the 'claim spend hash' found in the siafund output, which is a normal siacoin address. The value of the siacoin output is determined by taking the size of the siacoin pool when the output was created and comparing it to the current size of the siacoin pool. The equation is:

((Current Pool Size - Previous Pool Size) / 10,000) * siafund quantity

Like the miner outputs and the storage proof outputs, the siafund output cannot be spent for 50 blocks because the value of the output can change if the blockchain reorganizes. Reorganizations will not however cause the transaction to be invalidated, so the ban on contracts and outputs does not need to be in place.

Siafund Outputs

Like siacoin outputs, siafund outputs contain a value and an unlock hash. The value indicates the number of siafunds that are put into the output, and the unlock hash is the Merkle root of the unlock conditions object which allows the output to be spent.

Siafund outputs also contain a claim unlock hash field, which indicates the unlock hash of the siacoin output that is created when the siafund output is spent. The value of the output that gets created will depend on the growth of the siacoin pool between the creation and the spending of the output. This growth is measured by storing a 'claim start', which indicates the size of the siafund pool at the moment the siafund output was created.

Miner Fees

A miner fee is a volume of siacoins that get added to the block subsidy.

Arbitrary Data

Arbitrary data is a set of data that is ignored by consensus. In the future, it may be used for soft forks, paired with 'anyone can spend' transactions. In the meantime, it is an easy way for third party applications to make use of the siacoin blockchain.

Transaction Signatures

Each signature points to a single public key index in a single unlock conditions object. No two signatures can point to the same public key index for the same set of unlock conditions.

Each signature also contains a timelock, and is not valid until the blockchain has reached a height equal to the timelock height.

Signatures also have a 'covered fields' object, which indicates which parts of the transaction get included in the signature. There is a 'whole transaction' flag, which indicates that every part of the transaction except for the signatures gets included, which eliminates any malleability outside of the signatures. The signatures can also be individually included, to enforce that your signature is only valid if certain other signatures are present.

If the 'whole transaction' is not set, all fields need to be added manually, and additional parties can add new fields, meaning the transaction will be malleable. This does however allow other parties to add additional inputs, fees, etc. after you have signed the transaction without invalidating your signature. If the whole transaction flag is set, all other elements in the covered fields object must be empty except for the signatures field.

The covered fields object contains a slice of indexes for each element of the transaction (siacoin inputs, miner fees, etc.). The slice must be sorted, and there can be no repeated elements.

Entirely nonmalleable transactions can be achieved by setting the 'whole transaction' flag and then providing the last signature, including every other signature in your signature. Because no frivolous signatures are allowed, the transaction cannot be changed without your signature being invalidated.