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Platform contracts

Contract structure

Platform Contracts Diagram

ICBM Contracts Diagram


Snapshot Token Extensions

Please read here.

Neumark issuance algorithm.

Please read on the issuance curve in our whitepaper, you may also refer to curve models in doc.

Smart Contract and Legal Contract Parity

Mechanism is explained in source code here and on diagram below.


You may also check fork arbitrage mechanism here.

Running locally

Without container:

yarn          # installs all dependencies
yarn testrpc  # run testnet

# open new terminal window
yarn deploy localhost

Within container:

docker build . -t neufund/platform-contracts
docker run -it -p 8545:8545 --name platform-contracts --rm neufund/platform-contracts yarn testrpc

# open new terminal window
docker exec platform-contracts yarn deploy localhost

Obtaining artifacts

Global deployments

We keep current artifacts here: Artifacts are updated on each merge to master and deployed to Neufund private network (see networks below.). For each deployed network we preserve Truffle build artifacts and provide additional deployment metadata file (see artifacts repo above for details).

Local deployments

You can easily export build artifacts for your local deployment (like you want to test platform-frontend).

  1. select a directory for artifacts. Easiest way is to use platform-contracts-artifacts folder by issuing git clone
  2. run deploy script in the container mapping chosen host folder
  3. you have your artifacts platform-contracts-artifacts/<network name> when deploy command completes
docker build . -t neufund/platform-contracts
docker run -it -p 8545:8545 --name platform-contracts --rm -v $(pwd)/platform-contracts-artifacts:/usr/src/platform-contracts/platform-contracts-artifacts neufund/platform-contracts yarn testrpc
docker exec --user $(id -u):$(id -g) platform-contracts yarn deploy localhost

Predefined accounts

yarn testrpc will launch ganache-cli with 9 pre-defined Ethereum accounts. We keep the same set of accounts for our parity dev and parity test networks. You can find our parity dev node here ( and use it as alternative to ganache-cli. See description of Truffle networks below. We have BIP32 restore codes for those accounts (see below).


Please do not develop inside container!

Supported compiler: Version: 0.4.23+commit.124ca40d.Linux.g++ Always use

yarn truffle compile --all


yarn build

Truffle is not able to track dependencies correctly and will not recompile files that import other files

Use cpp colc instead of ECMA for 10x speedup.

You should consider replacing javascript compiler with solc, this will increase your turnover several times. Use following patches over cli.bundle.js (into which truffle is packed)

curl -L --fail -o solc4.23
chmod +x solc4.23
sudo cp solc4.23 /usr/bin/
yarn solctruffle

Build statically linked solc that runs on alpine

In the cloned repo do the following

mkdir build
cd build
make -j2

Make sure that z3lib-dev is not installed otherwise linker will try to statically link it and fail.

More tips

you can count current LOC with sloc

find contracts -path contracts/test -prune -a -path contracts/Snapshot/Extras -prune  -a -path contracts/SnapshotToken/Extensions -prune  -o -name *.sol | xargs sloc -a sol=js

Auto fixing linting problems

yarn format:fix


You can flatten your smart contract and create one large .sol file using

yarn truffle-flattener <smart-contract-path> <target directory>


yarn truffle-flattener ./contracts/Eurotoken.sol ./postFlatten


yarn flatten

in order to flatten all smart contracts included in the deployment processes

Verifying Smart Contracts on Etherscan

In order to verify a smart-contract on Etherscan you will have to provide a:

  • flattened version of the smart contract source code
  • bytecode string with deployed constructor Arguments.

The verification processes can be done here


In order to give an in-depth walkthrough, this section will explain the processes of verifying the Neumark smart contract

  1. Run yarn flatten in order to flatten all smart contracts up for deployment and output to ./build/flatten
  2. Run the Smart-Contract-Watch from moe/coded-constructor branch and start from the contract creation block. If done correctly this will return the used constructor arguments needed. In the case of Neumark it was 00000000000000000000000088144fa49c6b97b845c4eb7a1f61c52f49303210 00000000000000000000000038e0e54c1c7c405cec81c6ad66aff65700be5951 Currently, this processes works only if all variables were static.
  3. Open etherscan
  4. Enter smart-contract address for the case of Neumark 0xd8f36d2de608987a8b6e19016a20645032ae6647
  5. Enter smart contract name as written in the .sol file in this case Neumark
  6. Choose the correct compiler in our case solc 0.4.26+commit with Optimization enabled
  7. Copy the flattened source code from ./build/flatten/Neumark.sol and paste in the source code section.
  8. Copy the constructor arguments and paste in the relative sections
  9. Verify and Publish

Byzantium and pre-byzantium error handling for calls and transaction

Calling constant method that reverts

  • pre-byzantium and post byzantium parity will return result: 0x (0x in result field of JSON-RPC response). Clearly it does not look as the error code ;> and if you are using web3, it will try to decode and fail specific expection per expected data type returned (like invalid BigNumber or address), some types will just succeed so BEWARE
  • testrpc will return exception string invalid opcode and stack trace in error field of JSON-RPC response
  • ganache will return exception string VM Exception ... and stack trace in error field of JSON-RPC response

Executing transactions that revert

  • pre-byzantium parity - normal transaction object and transaction receipt are returned (just with all gas used). there is no other way to detect revert besides generating and checking events in case of success (so lack of event is error situation). this is very weak
  • post-byzantium parity and other nodes - there is status field in transaction receipt! use this. use Neufund modified truffle that recognize this situation (, neufund branch.
  • testrpc will return exception string invalid opcode and stack trace in error field of JSON-RPC response
  • ganache will return exception string VM Exception ... and stack trace in error field of JSON-RPC response

Executing transactions that revert with status string

Ganache-cli finally returns revert codes in exception string, this also applies to reverts in eth_call. Parity however has undefined behavior on eth_call with revert - AFAIK it returns whole EVM stack frame

Test coverage

yarn test:coverage

you will find coverage report in coverage/index.html. We are using version custom version of solidity-coverage. Versions later than 0.2.2 introduce a problem as described in which results in balances increasing due to code execution and basically the result balance is unpredictable due to returned stipend. This issue prevents test that check balances to run properly.

Custom version fixes two other bugs:

  1. For large trace files, readFileSync will fail silently, stream is used to read lines instead
  2. exec on child process will kill child if stdout buffer overflows, buffer was increased to 10MB
  3. It refers to testrpc 4.0.1 that has stipend not modified.

Solidity code coverage runs own testrpc node (modified). You can run this node via

./node_modules/ethereumjs-testrpc-sc/build/cli.node.js --gasPrice 1 --gasLimit 0xfffffffffff -v

and execute tests via coverage network to check coverage behavior.


To run all tests, use the following

yarn test

To run single test, use following syntax

yarn truffle test --network inprocess_test test/LockedAccount.js test/setup.js

To run single test case from a test use following syntax

it.only('test case', ...

There are simulated commitments in ICBM/Commitment.js which are very long. Execute those with special truffle network inprocess_massive_test

yarn truffle test test/Commitment.js test/setup.js --network inprocess_massive_test

Remarks on current state of tests in truffle and testrpc

Applies to truffle 3.4.9 with ganache 2.1.0.

Truffle uses snapshotting mechanism (evm_snapshot and evm_revert) to revert to clean state between test suites. Current version of ganache does not handle it correctly and will fail on revert with some probability. This makes running large test suites hard as there is high chance of ganache to crash.

As snapshotting is used to recover blockchain state after deployment scripts, we have no use of that mechanism and it can be disabled. Here is a patch to test runner

TestRunner.prototype.resetState = function(callback) {

Snapshotting has other problems that also makes it useless for state management in our tests. Hopefully PRs solving this are pending.

Remarks on non-ganache testing You are able to run test on parity nodes, evm_increaseTime is not supported so those tests will fail. Here is dockerized node that works.

Neufund modified Truffle

Modified version of truffle is referenced for running test cases.

  1. Revert and snapshot are removed from truffle-core (
  2. is fixed as testing overloaded transfer is impossible (
  3. Works with byzantium enabled Parity nodes


Networks defined in truffle

There are several conventions in naming truffle networks used for deployment. Network with names ending with _live will be deployed in production mode which means that:

  1. Live accounts addresses as specified in config.js will be assigned to roles.
  2. Live smart contracts parameters as specified in config.js will be deployed
  3. Agreements will not be attached.
  4. Deployer will set ACCESS_CONTROLLER as secondary access control admin address and will remove itself as global ACCESS_CONTROLLER (see 6_relinquish_control.js)

Other networks will be deployed in test mode which means that:

  1. All roles are assigned to accounts[0] or from (if specified in truffle network), which is also deployer. This account controls everything.
  2. Modify config.js as you wish to deploy with custom smart contract parameters.
  3. Everything is deployed and set up. Commitment contract should be ready to go after deployment.
  4. Fixtures will be deployed in test mode.

Special networks

  1. simulated_live will be deployed as live network but is intended to be used against ganache. Roles will be assigned to ganache provided accounts. It is intended to test various administrative operations (like enabling/disabling transfers) before live deployment.
  2. all networks ending with test and _coverage will not deploy anything. They are intended to be used by test runner
yarn truffle migrate --reset --network simulated_live

Below are important networks from truffle.js |Network|Mode|Description| |-------|----|-----------| |localhost|test|will attach to anything at port 8545 and set deployer to 0x8a194c13308326173423119f8dcb785ce14c732b, intended to run with yarn testrpc or with parity instant seal| |inprocess|test|will use in-process ganache so you do not have to run anything| |nf_private|test|will deploy to neufund private network where 0x8a194c13308326173423119f8dcb785ce14c732b is the deployer|

Deployed contracts (2_deploy_contracts.js)

Contracts are deployed in following order

  1. RoleBasedAccessControl - used to set up access permissions in other contracts, see below
  2. EthereumForkArbiter - used to indicate fork that is actually supported (legally and technically),
  3. Neumark - ERC20/223 and snapshotable token representing Neumark reward to investors,
  4. EtherToken - encapsulates Ether as a token
  5. EuroToken - represents Euro as a token (EUR-T), see below,
  6. LockedAccount(EtherToken) - represents investor's individual investment account with unlock date, for Ether investment,
  7. LockedAccount(EuroToken) - represents investor's individual investment account with unlock date, for EUR-T investment,
  8. Commitment - represents ICBM process with pre-ICO, and ICO stages, whitelisting, possibility to invest in Ether/EUR-T and other features.

Commitment contracts currently serves as a 'Universe'. All contracts, agreements and parameters we officially support during ICBM may be found in it or in other aggregated contracts.

Contracts parameters (2_deploy_contracts.js and config.js)

Several contracts require parameters to be set in constructors as specified below. Once set those parameters cannot be changed.


  1. LOCK_DURATION - duration of lock after which unlock comes without penalty, in seconds
  2. PENALTY_FRACTION - unlock penalty as fraction of investment amount, where 10**18 is 100%, 10**17 is 10% etc.


  1. START_DATE - start date of ICBM (see StateMachine contract for process details), as Unix/Ethereum timestamp (UTC),
  2. CAP_EUR - safety cap (in EUR-T) which corresponds to maximum number of Neumarks that may be issued during ICBM, in "wei" (10**-18 parts of EUR-T).
  3. MIN_TICKET_EUR - minimum ticket in EUR-T, represented as above
  4. ETH_EUR_FRACTION - EUR-T to ETH rate used during whole ICBM. we use constant rate to compute Neumark reward, there's no oracle.


  1. RESERVATION_AGREEMENT - ipfs link to Reservation Agreement, attached to Commitment contract
  2. NEUMARK_HOLDER_AGREEMENT - ipfs link to Neumark Token Holder Agreeement attached to Neumark contract

Please note that several ICBM duration parameters are encoded in StateMachine contract. You may choose to change them form test deployments.

Roles and Accounts (3_deploy_permissions.js, config.js)

Several accounts are required to deploy on mainnet due to many roles with specific permissions that are required to control ICBM and Neumark token. Below is a list of those roles.

Role Description Mainnet account Scope
LOCKED ACCOUNT ADMIN May attach controller, set fee disbursal pool and migration in Locked Account contract PO Admin LockedAccount
WHITELIST ADMIN May setup whitelist and abort Commitment contract with curve rollback PO Admin Commitment
NEUMARK ISSUER May issue (generate) Neumarks (only Commitment or ETOs contract may have this right) N/A Commitment
TRANSFER ADMIN May enable/disable transfers on Neumark (Commitment contract to enable trading after ICBM) Neumark
RECLAIMER may reclaim tokens/ether from contracts PO Admin global role
PLATFORM OPERATOR REPRESENTATIVE Represents legally platform operator in case of forks and contracts with legal agreement attached PO Management global role
EURT DEPOSIT MANAGER Allows to deposit EUR-T and allow addresses to send and receive EUR-T PO Admin EuroToken
ACCESS CONTROLLER Assigns permissions to addresses and may change access policy for a contract PO Admin global role
PLATFORM OPERATOR WALLET Stores Platform Operator Neumark reward and (temporarily) unlock penalties PO Wallet N/A

Please note that ACCESS CONTROL role is initially assigned to an address of the deploying account (like in Ownable pattern). This permission is then relinquished to PO Admin account. Accounts are separate physical devices (Nano Ledger S). Please note that account used to deploy has no other uses and its private key can be safely destroyed after control is relinquished.

Euro Token transfer permissions (3_deploy_permissions.js)

Euro Token is heavily policed token, where only holders with permission may receive or send EUR-T. Transfer permissions are managed by EURT DEPOSIT MANAGER role which also is the sole issuer of EUR-T. Issue EUR-T operation enables issued address to receive EUR-T (and is done only against KYCed accounts) so after deployment no further changes to transfer permissions are necessary. Please note that permission to transfer from enables such address to act as a broker (transferFrom) which may be used by addresses without such permission to send EUR-T to other address. This property is used by Commitment and LockedAccount contracts to deposit EUR-T during ICBM process.

EURT DEPOSIT MANAGER issues to -> investor (has transfer to) which approves -> Commitment contract (has transfer from and to) to -> transfer to LockedAccount contract (transfer from and to)

Full list of transfer permission is as follows.

who transfer to transfer from
EUR-T investor Y N
Commitment Y Y
LockedAccount Y Y
EquityTokenC... Y Y

Linking LockedAccount (4_link_contracts.js)

Both LockedAccount instances must be linked to Commitment contract (which becomes their controller) to be able to store investor's assets and provide unlock mechanism. Both LockedAccount must also have unlock penalty disbursal pool set for unlock operation to work. Per whitepaper, until platform is deployed, penalties are stored in Platform Operator wallet (however LockedAccount supports disbursal contracts as well). Linking requires LOCKED ACCOUNT ROLE.

Amend legal agreements (5_amend_agreements.js)

Neumark and Commitment contracts need to be provided ipfs link to legal agreement. Otherwise all functions of those contracts that require it will revert. In case of main network this must happen via transaction from PLATFORM OPERATOR REPRESENTATIVE using its respective Nano S and it's not done in deployment scripts in this repo. In case of other networks, mock legal agreements will be immediately attached.

Setting whitelist

Whitelist may be set during Before state of Commitment contract. This is not part of deployment script in this repo. Setting whitelist requires WHITELIST ADMIN role.