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classdef StoreDB < handle_light
% The StoreDB class is a handle class to manage caching in Manopt.
% To create an object, call: storedb = StoreDB();
% Alternatively, call: storedb = StoreDB(storedepth); to instruct
% the database to keep at most storedepth stores in its history.
% (Note that clean up only happens when purge() is called).
% The storedb object is passed by reference: when it is passed to a
% function as an input, and that function modifies it, the original
% object is modified.
% This file is part of Manopt:
% Original author: Nicolas Boumal, April 3, 2015.
% Contributors:
% Change log:
% Aug. 2, 2018 (NB)
% Purge now selects based on time since last access, whether read or
% write. It used to select based on last write. This should allow to
% set a smaller value of storedepth for trustregions (in particular).
% Also added StoreDB.remove(key) which allows to specifically remove
% the store associated to a key. This can be used by a solver when it
% is reasonably certain that the memory associated to a certain key
% is no longer needed (for example, when a step was rejected in
% trustregions or in a line-search algorithm.) Proper usage of this
% feature should allow to set a small value for storedepth.
% Furthermore, getNewKey() now places an empty store at the created
% key. As a result, it is no longer legitimate to call storedb.get on
% an unknown key: this now issues a warning, which should help debug.
% The function removefirstifdifferent(key1, key2) only removes key1
% if it is different from key2, which is helpful when an iteration
% may have failed to move to a distinct point.
% TODO : protect get/setWithShared calls: limit to one, and forbid access
% to shared memory while it has not been returned.
% Do think of the applyStatsFun case : calls a getWithShared, does
% not need a setWithShared. I think for statsfun there should be a
% method "forfeitWithShared".
properties(Access = public)
% This memory is meant to be shared at all times. Users can modify
% this at will. It is the same for all points x.
shared = struct();
% This memory is used by the toolbox for, e.g., automatic caching
% and book keeping. Users should not overwrite this. It is the
% same for all points x.
internal = struct();
% When calling purge(), only a certain number of stores will be
% kept in 'history'. This parameter fixes that number. The most
% recently modified stores are kept. Set to inf to keep all stores.
storedepth = inf;
properties(Access = private)
% This structure holds separate memories for individual points.
% Use get and set to interact with this. The field name 'shared' is
% reserved, for use with get/setWithShared.
history = struct();
% This internal counter is used to obtain unique key's for points.
counter = uint32(0);
% This internal counter is used to time calls to 'set', and hence
% keep track of which stores in 'history' were last updated.
timer = uint32(0);
methods(Access = public)
% Constructor
function storedb = StoreDB(storedepth)
if nargin >= 1
storedb.storedepth = storedepth;
% Returns the store associated to a given key.
% If the key is unknown, issues a warning and returns empty store.
function store = get(storedb, key)
if isfield(storedb.history, key)
% Update access timer.
storedb.history.(key).lastaccess__ = storedb.timer;
% Extract the store.
store = storedb.history.(key);
store = struct();
store.lastaccess__ = storedb.timer;
msg = 'Called storedb.get for a store with unknown key.';
% If the queried key is less than the counter, it must have
% been a valid key at some point. Inform the user that it
% may have been purged (or removed) prematurely.
if str2double(key(2:end)) < storedb.counter
msg = [msg, ' It seems that key was purged or removed.'];
msg = [msg, ' Returned an empty structure.'];
warning('manopt:storedb:get', msg);
storedb.timer = storedb.timer + 1;
% Same as get, but adds the shared memory in store.shared.
function store = getWithShared(storedb, key)
store = storedb.get(key);
store.shared = storedb.shared;
% Save the given store at the given key. If no key is provided, a
% new key is generated for this store (i.e., it is assumed this
% store pertains to a new point). The key is returned in all cases.
% A field 'lastaccess__' is added/updated in the store structure,
% keeping track of the last time that store was accessed.
function key = set(storedb, store, key)
if nargin < 3
key = getNewKey(storedb);
store.lastaccess__ = storedb.timer;
storedb.timer = storedb.timer + 1;
storedb.history.(key) = store;
% Same as set, but extracts the shared memory and saves it.
% The stored store will still have a 'shared' field, but empty.
function key = setWithShared(storedb, store, key)
storedb.shared = store.shared;
store.shared = [];
key = storedb.set(store, key);
% Erases a store from memory, identified by key.
% If the key is unknown, issues a warning.
function remove(storedb, key)
if isfield(storedb.history, key)
storedb.history = rmfield(storedb.history, key);
warning('manopt:storedb:remove', ...
['Attempted to remove store with unknown key.\n' ...
'Perhaps it was purged? Try postponing purge().']);
% Erases store at key1 if it is different from key2.
function removefirstifdifferent(storedb, key1, key2)
if ~strcmp(key1, key2)
% Generates a unique key and returns it. This should be called
% everytime a new point is generated / stored. Keys are valid field
% names for structures. After this call, an empty store is added in
% the cache at the newly generated key. It has minimal priority
% vis-à-vis storedb.purge().
function key = getNewKey(storedb)
key = sprintf('z%d', storedb.counter);
storedb.counter = storedb.counter + 1;
% If we attempt to storedb.remove(key) or storedb.get(key) on
% this newly created key before anything is stored there, we
% will get a warning. Since there are legitimate scenarios for
% this to happen, we place an empty store at the new key
% immediately. Its last-access flag is set to 0 so it would be
% the first to be purged (unless it was later accessed.)
emptystore = struct();
emptystore.lastaccess__ = 0;
storedb.history.(key) = emptystore;
% Clear entries in storedb.history to limit memory usage.
function purge(storedb)
if isinf(storedb.storedepth)
if storedb.storedepth <= 0
storedb.history = struct();
% Get list of field names (keys).
keys = fieldnames(storedb.history);
nkeys = length(keys);
% If we need to remove some of the elements in the database,
if nkeys > storedb.storedepth
% Get the last-access counter of each element:
% A higher number means it was accessed more recently.
% Both read and write operations are considered 'access'.
lastaccess = zeros(nkeys, 1, class(storedb.timer));
for i = 1 : nkeys
lastaccess(i) = storedb.history.(keys{i}).lastaccess__;
% Sort the counters and determine the threshold above which
% the field needs to be removed.
sortlastaccess = sort(lastaccess, 1, 'descend');
minlastaccess = sortlastaccess(storedb.storedepth);
% Remove all fields that are too old.
storedb.history = rmfield(storedb.history, ...
keys(lastaccess < minlastaccess));
end % end of purge()