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function checkgradient(problem, x, d)
% Checks the consistency of the cost function and the gradient.
% function checkgradient(problem)
% function checkgradient(problem, x)
% function checkgradient(problem, x, d)
% checkgradient performs a numerical test to check that the gradient
% defined in the problem structure agrees up to first order with the cost
% function at some point x, along some direction d. The test is based on a
% truncated Taylor series (see online Manopt documentation).
% It is also tested that the gradient is indeed a tangent vector.
% Both x and d are optional and will be sampled at random if omitted.
% See also: checkdiff checkhessian
% This file is part of Manopt:
% Original author: Nicolas Boumal, Dec. 30, 2012.
% Contributors:
% Change log:
% April 3, 2015 (NB):
% Works with the new StoreDB class system.
% Nov. 1, 2016 (NB):
% Now calls checkdiff with force_gradient = true, instead of doing an
% rmfield of problem.diff. This became necessary after getGradient
% was updated to know how to compute the gradient from directional
% derivatives.
% Verify that the problem description is sufficient.
if ~canGetCost(problem)
% The call to canGetPartialGradient will readily issue a warning if
% problem.ncostterms is not defined even though it is expected.
if ~canGetPartialGradient(problem)
error('getCost:checkgradient', 'It seems no cost was provided.');
error('getCost:stochastic', ['It seems no cost was provided.\n' ...
'If you intend to use a stochastic solver, you still\n' ...
'need to define problem.cost to use checkgradient.']);
if ~canGetGradient(problem)
warning('manopt:checkgradient:nograd', ...
'It seems no gradient was provided.');
x_isprovided = exist('x', 'var') && ~isempty(x);
d_isprovided = exist('d', 'var') && ~isempty(d);
if ~x_isprovided && d_isprovided
error('If d is provided, x must be too, since d is tangent at x.');
% If x and / or d are not specified, pick them at random.
if ~x_isprovided
x = problem.M.rand();
if ~d_isprovided
d = problem.M.randvec(x);
%% Check that the gradient yields a first order model of the cost.
% Call checkdiff with force_gradient set to true, to force that
% function to make a gradient call.
checkdiff(problem, x, d, true);
title(sprintf(['Gradient check.\nThe slope of the continuous line ' ...
'should match that of the dashed\n(reference) line ' ...
'over at least a few orders of magnitude for h.']));
ylabel('Approximation error');
%% Try to check that the gradient is a tangent vector.
if isfield(problem.M, 'tangent')
storedb = StoreDB();
key = storedb.getNewKey();
grad = getGradient(problem, x, storedb, key);
pgrad = problem.M.tangent(x, grad);
residual = problem.M.lincomb(x, 1, grad, -1, pgrad);
err = problem.M.norm(x, residual);
fprintf('The residual should be 0, or very close. Residual: %g.\n', err);
fprintf('If it is far from 0, then the gradient is not in the tangent space.\n');
fprintf('In certain cases (e.g., hyperbolicfactory), the tangency test is inconclusive.\n');
fprintf(['Unfortunately, Manopt was unable to verify that the '...
'gradient is indeed a tangent vector.\nPlease verify ' ...
'this manually or implement the ''tangent'' function ' ...
'in your manifold structure.']);
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