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Pentesting Cloud Sandboxes in the wild

Created and collected content for BSides Munich August 2020

Slides

Abstract

Building on last year’s explanation of container workings under the hood (F***ing Containers - how do they work?), we explain several techniques for breaking out of misconfigured containers/container hosts. We will discuss the most common misconfigurations (such as extensive container privileges, exposed network services, mounted sockets, internal cluster privileges) and how to test for them. For each discussed attack vector, we will show how it can be automated (and integrated into build pipelines) using a tool of choice. Finally, a comparison of the well known container execution platforms (AWS, Azure, fly.io, GCP, Heroku) will be presented.

Collected data

The tools genuinetools/amicontained and brompwnie/botb have been executed on multiple cloud container runtimes. The results are summarized in the following tables. The scan output itself is collected in the sub-directoty scanresults. The data collection have been performed on 06/08/2020.

Comparison Cloud Container hoster

Service PID Namesace User Namespace AppArmor Profile/ SELinux Available Capabilities Filtered Seccomp Metadata-Service Remark
AWS ECS Yes No unconfined 14 0 http://169.254.169.254/ Custom Cluster
AWS Fargate Yes No unconfined 14 65 None -/-
Azure Container Instances Yes No unconfined 14 65 None -/-
Docker local Yes No docker-default 13 62 None Docker Engine
fly.io No No kernel 38 disabled None Firecracker
Google Cloud Run No No unconfined 38 disabled http://169.254.169.254/ http://metadata.google.internal/ gVisor
Heroku Yes No lxc-container-default 23 47 None LXC

Capabilities Comparison

AWS ECS AWS Fargate Azure Container Instances Docker local fly.io Google Cloud Run Heroku
chown chown chown chown chown chown
dac_override dac_override dac_override dac_override dac_override dac_override dac_override
dac_read_search dac_read_search
fowner fowner fowner fowner fowner fowner fowner
fsetid fsetid fsetid fsetid fsetid fsetid fsetid
kill kill kill kill kill kill kill
setgid setgid setgid setgid setgid setgid setgid
setuid setuid setuid setuid setuid setuid setuid
setpcap setpcap setpcap setpcap setpcap setpcap setpcap
linux_immutable linux_immutable linux_immutable
net_bind_service net_bind_service net_bind_service net_bind_service net_bind_service net_bind_service net_bind_service
net_broadcast net_broadcast net_broadcast
net_admin net_admin
net_raw net_raw net_raw net_raw net_raw net_raw
ipc_lock ipc_lock ipc_lock
ipc_owner ipc_owner ipc_owner
sys_module sys_module
sys_rawio sys_rawio
sys_chroot sys_chroot sys_chroot sys_chroot sys_chroot sys_chroot
sys_ptrace sys_ptrace
sys_pacct sys_pacct sys_pacct
sys_admin sys_admin
sys_boot sys_boot
sys_nice sys_nice
sys_resource sys_resource sys_resource
sys_time sys_time
sys_tty_config sys_tty_config sys_tty_config
mknod mknod mknod mknod mknod mknod
lease lease lease
audit_write audit_write audit_write audit_write audit_write audit_write audit_write
audit_control audit_control audit_control
setfcap setfcap setfcap setfcap setfcap setfcap setfcap
mac_override mac_override
mac_admin mac_admin
syslog syslog syslog
wake_alarm wake_alarm wake_alarm
block_suspend block_suspend block_suspend
audit_read audit_read audit_read

Seccomp Filter Comparison

AWS ECS AWS Fargate Azure Container Instances Docker local fly.io Google Cloud Run Heroku
MSGRCV MSGRCV
PTRACE PTRACE PTRACE
SYSLOG SYSLOG SYSLOG
SETUID
SETGID
SETSID SETSID SETSID SETSID
SETREUID
SETREGID
SETGROUPS
SETRESUID
SETRESGID
PERSONALITY
USELIB USELIB USELIB
USTAT USTAT USTAT
SYSFS SYSFS SYSFS
VHANGUP VHANGUP VHANGUP VHANGUP
PIVOT_ROOT PIVOT_ROOT PIVOT_ROOT PIVOT_ROOT
_SYSCTL _SYSCTL _SYSCTL
CHROOT
ACCT ACCT ACCT ACCT
SETTIMEOFDAY SETTIMEOFDAY SETTIMEOFDAY SETTIMEOFDAY
MOUNT MOUNT MOUNT
UMOUNT2 UMOUNT2 UMOUNT2 UMOUNT2
SWAPON SWAPON SWAPON SWAPON
SWAPOFF SWAPOFF SWAPOFF SWAPOFF
REBOOT REBOOT REBOOT REBOOT
SETHOSTNAME SETHOSTNAME SETHOSTNAME SETHOSTNAME
SETDOMAINNAME SETDOMAINNAME SETDOMAINNAME SETDOMAINNAME
IOPL IOPL IOPL
IOPERM IOPERM IOPERM
CREATE_MODULE CREATE_MODULE CREATE_MODULE
INIT_MODULE INIT_MODULE INIT_MODULE INIT_MODULE
DELETE_MODULE DELETE_MODULE DELETE_MODULE DELETE_MODULE
GET_KERNEL_SYMS GET_KERNEL_SYMS GET_KERNEL_SYMS
QUERY_MODULE QUERY_MODULE QUERY_MODULE
QUOTACTL QUOTACTL QUOTACTL QUOTACTL
NFSSERVCTL NFSSERVCTL NFSSERVCTL
GETPMSG GETPMSG GETPMSG
PUTPMSG PUTPMSG PUTPMSG
AFS_SYSCALL AFS_SYSCALL AFS_SYSCALL
TUXCALL TUXCALL TUXCALL
SECURITY SECURITY SECURITY
LOOKUP_DCOOKIE LOOKUP_DCOOKIE LOOKUP_DCOOKIE LOOKUP_DCOOKIE
CLOCK_SETTIME CLOCK_SETTIME CLOCK_SETTIME CLOCK_SETTIME
VSERVER VSERVER VSERVER
MBIND MBIND MBIND
SET_MEMPOLICY SET_MEMPOLICY SET_MEMPOLICY
GET_MEMPOLICY GET_MEMPOLICY GET_MEMPOLICY GET_MEMPOLICY
KEXEC_LOAD KEXEC_LOAD KEXEC_LOAD KEXEC_LOAD
ADD_KEY ADD_KEY ADD_KEY ADD_KEY
REQUEST_KEY REQUEST_KEY REQUEST_KEY REQUEST_KEY
KEYCTL KEYCTL KEYCTL KEYCTL
MIGRATE_PAGES MIGRATE_PAGES MIGRATE_PAGES
FUTIMESAT
UNSHARE UNSHARE UNSHARE UNSHARE
MOVE_PAGES MOVE_PAGES MOVE_PAGES MOVE_PAGES
PERF_EVENT_OPEN PERF_EVENT_OPEN PERF_EVENT_OPEN PERF_EVENT_OPEN
FANOTIFY_INIT FANOTIFY_INIT FANOTIFY_INIT FANOTIFY_INIT
NAME_TO_HANDLE_AT NAME_TO_HANDLE_AT NAME_TO_HANDLE_AT NAME_TO_HANDLE_AT
OPEN_BY_HANDLE_AT OPEN_BY_HANDLE_AT OPEN_BY_HANDLE_AT OPEN_BY_HANDLE_AT
CLOCK_ADJTIME CLOCK_ADJTIME CLOCK_ADJTIME CLOCK_ADJTIME
SETNS SETNS SETNS SETNS
PROCESS_VM_READV PROCESS_VM_READV PROCESS_VM_READV PROCESS_VM_READV
PROCESS_VM_WRITEV PROCESS_VM_WRITEV PROCESS_VM_WRITEV PROCESS_VM_WRITEV
KCMP KCMP KCMP KCMP
FINIT_MODULE FINIT_MODULE FINIT_MODULE FINIT_MODULE
KEXEC_FILE_LOAD KEXEC_FILE_LOAD KEXEC_FILE_LOAD KEXEC_FILE_LOAD
BPF BPF BPF BPF
USERFAULTFD USERFAULTFD USERFAULTFD
MEMBARRIER MEMBARRIER MEMBARRIER
PKEY_MPROTECT PKEY_MPROTECT PKEY_MPROTECT
PKEY_ALLOC PKEY_ALLOC PKEY_ALLOC
PKEY_FREE PKEY_FREE PKEY_FREE
IO_PGETEVENTS IO_PGETEVENTS
RSEQ

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Created and collected content for BSidesMUC2020

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