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A13-SOM-building-latest-Debian
A13_SOM_kernel_3.4.90_building_description
How to make a bootable SD card for A13-OLinuXino-MICRO, A13-SOM-256 and A13-SOM-512 with either sunxi or mainline u-boot, 3.4.x kernel,
and Debian file system.
This guide is NOT suitable for A13-OLinuXino and A13-OLinuXino-WIFI.
*****
1. Setup of the toolchain
You should make sure that you have the software tools required for building the Linux Kernel. Please install the required tools (if you
don't have them already). To install new software you should be logged as super user, so the first thing to do would be to type in the
terminal:
# sudo su
you will be asked for your password and then your prompt will change to # which means you are now the super user, all future commands
should be run in this mode.
At this point update apt-get links by typing:
# apt-get update
Install the toolchain by typing the following:
# apt-get install gcc-4.7-arm-linux-gnueabihf ncurses-dev uboot-mkimage build-essential git
This will install: GCC compiler used to compile the kernel; the kernel config menu uboot creates image which is required to allow the SD
card to boot into the linux image; Git which allows you to download from the github which holds source code for some of the system;
additional other tools for building the kernel.
Note that if the files can't be found you might need to find them from other sources. If you use Debian you might need need to add the
following line in the sources list:
deb http://www.emdebian.org/debian squeeze main
in the file below:
/etc/apt/sources.list
after the installation you now have all tools to make your very own A13 kernel image!
*****
2. Building u-boot
You have two options for u-boot: the first is to use sunxi u-boot and the second is to use mainline u-boot. If you have stability
problems, use mainline u-boot since it has wider support for RAM memories. Note that if you use the sunxi u-boot with some of the
newer RAM memories that we place might face boot or stability problems, some of the memories that we place are not supported in the
sunxi u-boot. The mainline u-boot will be suitable for all DDR3 memories.
If you do not wish to build u-boot you can use the pre-built files from this location and skip to chapter 5:
https://github.com/OLIMEX/OLINUXINO/tree/master/SOFTWARE/A13/A13-SOM-build
First create the directory where we will build the A13-OLinuXino-Micro/SOM linux:
# mkdir a13-micro-SOM-kernel_3.4
# cd a13-micro-SOM-kernel_3.4
After that follow either chapter 2.1 or 2.2 (2.1 is suitable for sunxi u-boot and older RAM memories; 2.2 is suitable for mainline
u-boot and newer RAM memory)
2.1. Building sunxi u-boot If we have a board with HYNIX RAM let's download the uboot sources from GitHub repository, note that
there are lot of branches but you have to use sunxi branch. Note that the u-boot for A13-OLinuXino-MICRO and A13-SOM boards is
tested with the next branch:
# git rev-parse --verify HEAD 78592f1d95cccf329ed515a176c80be5c87827a0
this means after you have download the sources (with git clone) you can switch to the exact commit with:
# git reset --hard 78592f1d95cccf329ed515a176c80be5c87827a0
Download u-boot sources:
# git clone -b sunxi https://github.com/linux-sunxi/u-boot-sunxi.git
After the download you should have a new directory
# cd u-boot-sunxi/
Note that there are 2 versions of A13-SOM boards:
-A13-SOM with 256MB DDR3 memory size -A13-SOM with 512MB DDR3 memory size - need u-boot patch
If you have A13-SOM board with 512MB memory size then first you have to allpy patch for changing DDR3 memory size: download
u-boot_A13_SOM_512MB.patch using wget command
# wget "https://drive.google.com/uc?export=download&id=0BwplT87k9SCgY3lIWVlLd3ZlSEk"
and patch the file board/sunxi/dram_a13_oli_micro.c with the next command
# patch -p0 < u-boot_A13_SOM_512MB.patch
If you have A13-SOM with 256MB memory size you no need from patch. By default u-boot settings are set for 256MB memory size and you
can start building imediately after download u-boot.
You can start uboot building with the next commands:
# make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- A13-OLinuXinoM_config
# make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf-
At the end of the process you can check if everything is OK by
ls u-boot.bin u-boot-sunxi-with-spl.bin spl/sunxi-spl.bin
spl/sunxi-spl.bin u-boot.bin u-boot-sunxi-with-spl.bin
If you got these files everything is complete, well done so far.
# cd ..
You should be in the following directory:
/home/user/a13-micro-SOM-kernel_3.4#
At this point skip 2.2 directly to chapter 3.
2.2. Building mainline u-boot
Note that if you want to use latest mainline u-boot then you have to use linaro toolchain 6.2 and above!
The mainline u-boot in our image is compiled using linaro toolchain version 6.4 from this link
https://releases.linaro.org/components/toolchain/binaries/6.4-2018.05/arm-linux-gnueabihf/gcc-linaro-6.4.1-2018.05-i686_arm-linux-gnueabihf.tar.xz
After you download it, unzip it with with:
# tar xJf gcc-linaro-6.4.1-2018.05-i686_arm-linux-gnueabihf.tar.xz
Download u-boot sources:
# git clone git://git.denx.de/u-boot.git
After the download you should have a new directory our image is tested with tag v2109.01 so if you want to use this tag type:
# git checkout tags/v2019.01
cd u-boot
If we have a board with newer RAM let's download the u-boot sources from GitHub repository, note that the u-boot for
A13-OLinuXino-MICRO and A13-SOM boards is tested with the exact same tag tags/v2019.01
Next load the configuration file. It is the same for A13-SOM and A13-Micro board:
# make CROSS_COMPILE=/path_to_file/arm-linux-gnueabihf- A13-OLinuXinoM_defconfig
you can configure some u-boot settings like DDR3 settings, clocks and other with:
# make menuconfig
It is recommended to choose:
[*]Enable workaround for booting old kernels
the board has stable behaviour with [360] sunxi dram clock speed [300] sunxi mbus clock speed
but you can choose other settings depending on your application
save it the settings and exit
Compile the u-boot
# make CROSS_COMPILE=/path_to_file/arm-linux-gnueabihf-
When the compilation completes, there will be u-boot-sunxi-with-spl.bin available in your u-boot tree.
Now you have to create a new boot.cmd file with the following contain
setenv bootm_boot_mode sec
setenv bootargs console=ttyS0,115200 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootwait panic=10
load mmc 0:1 0x43000000 script.bin || load mmc 0:1 0x43000000 boot/script.bin
load mmc 0:1 0x42000000 uImage || load mmc 0:1 0x42000000 boot/uImage
bootm 0x42000000
convert boot.cmd in boot.scr with the next command
mkimage -C none -A arm -T script -d boot.cmd boot.scr
The result should be a new boot.scr file that you have to copy to the first SD card partition (where uImage and script.bin file are
located).
*****
3. Building kernel sources for A13-SOM
Kernel sources for A13 are available on GitHub. Note that the following building is made with the revision below:
# git rev-parse --verify HEAD e37d760b363888f3a65cd6455c99a75cac70a7b8
You can download the kernel sources using the following command:
# git clone https://github.com/linux-sunxi/linux-sunxi
After the download go to the kernel directory
# cd linux-sunxi/
Note that before compiling kernel you have to do a patch kernel in order to change I2C sped from 200kHz to 100kHz (need for Olimex's
I2C modules) and some other changes related with missing power management with AXP209 chip.
Download the patch a13_micro_SOM.patch using wget command
# wget "https://drive.google.com/uc?export=download&id=0BwplT87k9SCgQ0IxZjRtaHVnMzg"
and apply the patch:
# patch -p1 < a13_micro_SOM.patch
The next step is to configure the system
Here you need from a13 configuration file - a13_micro_SOM_defconfig. The file contains all kernel module settings.
Download a13_micro_SOM_defconfig using wget command
# wget "https://drive.google.com/uc?export=download&id=0BwplT87k9SCgWEdqRGl2amxyd2c"
hen copy a13_micro_SOM_defconfig file to configs directory:
# cp a13_micro_SOM_defconfig /arch/arm/configs/
and make:
# make ARCH=arm a13_micro_SOM_defconfig
The result should be: configuration written to .config
If you wish to make your changes in the kernel configuration do:
# make ARCH=arm menuconfig
The menuconfig changes a .config text file, which you can view/edit even with a text editor like vi,nano. With this command you can
add or remove different modules for the different peripherals in the kernel. Be careful when use this as this may cause the kernel
to not work properly.
Now you can continue with kernel image compiling
# make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- -j4 uImage
when this finish you will have uImage ready and the result should be:
Kernel: arch/arm/boot/Image is ready LD arch/arm/boot/compressed/vmlinux OBJCOPY arch/arm/boot/zImage Kernel: arch/arm/boot/zImage is
ready UIMAGE arch/arm/boot/uImage Image Name: Linux-3.4.79+ Created: Mon May 12 09:22:56 2014 Image Type: ARM Linux Kernel Image
(uncompressed) Data Size: 4612216 Bytes = 4504.12 kB = 4.40 MB Load Address: 40008000 Entry Point: 40008000 Image arch/arm/boot/uImage
is ready
Now you can build the kernel modules:
# make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- -j4 INSTALL_MOD_PATH=out modules
# make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-linux-gnueabihf- -j4 INSTALL_MOD_PATH=out modules_install
DONE! At this point you have uboot and kernel modules.
The uImage file is located in linux-sunxi/arch/arm/boot/
The kernel modules are located in
linux-sunxi/out/lib/modules/3.x.xx where 3.x.xx is kernel version
in our case the directory with modules is:
linux-sunxi/out/lib/modules/3.4.90+
*****
4. Format and setup the SD-card
We suggest 4GB class 10 micro sd-card but you can use any card between 2GB and 16GB.
First we have to make the correct card partitions, this is done with fdisk.
Plug SD card into your SD card reader and enter in the terminal
# ls /dev/sd
Then press two times <TAB> you will see a list of your sd devices like sda sdb sdc note that some of these devices may be your hard
disk so make sure you know which one is your sd card before you proceed as you can damage your HDD if you choose the wrong sd-device.
You can do this by unplugging your sd card reader and identify which of the ?sd? devices disappears from the list.
Once you know which device is your sdcard like sda use this text instead of the sdX name in the references below:
# fdisk /dev/sdX
then do these steps:
1. p will list your partitions
if there are already partitions on your card do:
2. d enter 1 if you have more than one partition press d while delete them all
3. create the first partition, starting from 2048 n enter p enter 1 enter enter +16M
4. create second partition n enter p enter 2 enter enter enter
then list the created partitions: p enter if you did everything correctly on 4GB card you should see something like:
Disk /dev/sdg: 3980 MB, 3980394496 bytes 123 heads, 62 sectors/track, 1019 cylinders, total 7774208 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 =
512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sdg1 2048 34815 16384 83 Linux /dev/sdg2 34816 7774207 3869696 83 Linux
7. w
write changes to sd card
now we have to format the file system on the card:
the first partition should be vfat as this is FS which the Allwinner bootloader understands
# mkfs.vfat /dev/sdX1
the second should be normal Linux EXT3 FS
# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdX2
*****
5. Write the Uboot and sunxi-spl.bin
You should be in /home/user/a13-micro-SOM-kernel_3.4# directory Note that you have to write u-boot-sunxi-with-spl.bin in /dev/sdX (not sdX1 or sdX2)
# dd if=u-boot-sunxi/u-boot-sunxi-with-spl.bin of=/dev/sdX bs=1024 seek=8
Note that if you use mainline u-boot then you have to copy the generated boot.scr file in the first sdcard partition. For example:
# mkdir /mnt/sd
# mount /dev/sdX1 /mnt/sd
# cp /u-boot/boot.scr /mnt/sd/
*****
6. Write kernel uImage you build to the SD-card
copy the Kernel uImage to root directory in partition 1
# cp linux-sunxi/arch/arm/boot/uImage /mnt/sd
*****
7. Write script.bin file
script.bin is a file with very important configuration parameters like port GPIO assignments, DDR memory parameters, Video resolution
etc, download the script.bin using wget command
# wget "https://drive.google.com/uc?export=download&id=0BwplT87k9SCgYXhpQ2djd2hZRDg"
# cp script.bin /mnt/sd
# sync
# umount /dev/sdX1
*****
8. Debian rootfs
The Linux Kernel and Uboot are ready, now we have need from Linux distribution rootfs.
Basically the only difference between the different Linux distributions is the rootfs, so if you put Debian rootfs you will have
Debian, if you put Ubuntu rootfs it will be Ubuntu etc.
How to build one is a long topic, the good thing is that there are many already pre-built so we can just download one and use.
exit the kernel directory
# cd ..
You should be in the directory below
/home/user/a13-micro-SOM-kernel_3.4
download the torrent of the archive with debian rootfs - a13_micro_SOM_debian_FS.tgz using wget command
# wget https://www.olimex.com/wiki/images/1/18/A13_micro_SOM_debian_FS.torrent
Launch a torrent client and download the file.
mount your sd card EXT3 FS partition:
# mount /dev/sdX2 /mnt/sd
and extract the archive containing rootfs:
# tar xzvf a13_micro_SOM_debian_FS.tgz -C /mnt/sd
# ls /mnt/sd
the expected result should be: bin dev home lost+found mnt proc run selinux sys usr boot etc lib media opt root sbin srv tmp var
Now you have to replace the new generated kernel modules from /home/user/a13-micro-SOM-kernel_3.4linux-sunxi/out/lib/modules/ to the
new debian file system:
# rm -rf /mnt/sd/lib/modules/*
# cp -rfv linux-sunxi/out/lib/modules/3.x.xx+/ /mnt/sd/lib/modules/
where x.xx is the kernel version in our case:
# cp -rfv linux-sunxi/out/lib/modules/3.4.90+/ /mnt/sd/lib/modules/
replace /lib/firmware folder with the generated /linux-sunxi/out/firmware
# rm -rf /mnt/sd/lib/firmware/
# cp -rfv linux-sunxi/out/lib/firmware/ /mnt/sd/lib/
# sync
# umount /mnt/sdX2
At this point you have Debian on your SD card second partition and you have an SD card ready to boot debian on A13-OLinuXino-Micro/SOM
Connect USB-SERIAL-CABLE-F to UEXT Tx,Rx, and GND, or connect a HDMI monitor. Put the SD-card in A13-OLinuXino-Micro/SOM and appl
5V power, you should see u-boot and then kernel messages on the serial console.
default username/password is : root / olimex
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