mod_execdir: jailed system function. Run only the shell command in the specified directory
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README.md

PHP execdir extension

PHP license GitHub download GitHub last release GitHub closed issues GitHub closed pull requests

1. License

Copyright (c) 2018 JoungKyun.Kim <http://oops.org> All rights reserved.

This program is under PHP License.

2. Description

If you use mod_execdir extension, you can run only the shell command in the specified directory. And this means that possible to fundamentally protect the web shell and system shell injection attacks.

This feature is an implementation to improve safe_mode_exec_dir before PHP 5.4.

safe_mode_exec_dir function can be used only in SAFE MODE state, and it was removed from PHP 5.4. Also, the parser of safe_mode_exec_dir was written too simple and it has many restrictions in order to use.

The execdir exntesion is to complement the such disadvantages of safe_mode_exec_dir, and support non SAFE MODE and over PHP 5.4.

This featurhe was made for highlight syntax security hole of PHPBB in May 2005. Also, it has been applied to large business site and AnNyung LInux distribution and verified more than 10 years.

This feature is provided as the source patch or php dynamic extension, and affects follow PHP functions:

  • exec
  • system
  • passthru
  • shell_exec
  • popen
  • proc_open
  • pcntl_exec
  • shell_exec
  • backtick operator

3. Installation

3.1. Requirement

Over PHP 5 and PHP 7. But, it is tested on PHP 5.1 and after.

For this features, we support 2 building method.

  1. build with direct patch on PHP source code
    • support from PHP 4.3 and later
    • better performance than mod_execdir.
  2. build with mod_execdir extension
    • support PHP 5 and later
    • verified test on PHP 5.5 and later
    • if failed call pcntl_exec, can not use pcntl_get_last_error function. Need to modify your code.

3.2. PHP source patch

This feature can be used as a PHP extension, or you can patch it directly to the PHP source. If you prefer to patch your PHP directly rather than using it as an extension, see the description of the patch file.

3.3. mod_execdir dynamic extension

[root@host mod_execdir]$ phpize
[root@host mod_execdir]$ ./configure --with-execdir=/var/lib/php/bin
[root@host mod_execdir]$ make test PHP_EXECUTABLE=/usr/bin/php
[root@host mod_execdir]$ make install

At configure time, you can use the --with-execdir option to specify the default directory for jail

4. Usage

4.1. Configuraions

4.1.1 module loading

If build with PHP dynamic extension, you will need to load execdir.so file in php.ini. Add follow configuration in th php.ini.

; for php 7.1 and before
extension = execdir.so

; for php 7.2 and after
; default extension dir
extension = execdir
; use absolute path
extension = /path/execdir.so

This extension replaces the existing functions, so it is recommended that you last loaded.

4.1.2 ini settings

Add directory for restricted shell command.

; only executables located in the exec_dir will be allowed to be executed
; via the exec family of functions. This is only AnNyung LInux patch
; see also https://github.com/OOPS-ORG-PHP/mod_execdir/
exec_dir = /var/lib/php/bin

If the exec_dir option is not set as follows, the --with-execdir value that specified at the configure time is used. If you did not provied the --with-execdir option at the configure time, then tme value of exec_dir will be empty.

; only executables located in the exec_dir will be allowed to be executed
; via the exec family of functions. This is only AnNyung LInux patch
; see also https://github.com/OOPS-ORG-PHP/mod_execdir/
;exec_dir =

If you do not want to restrict, you have to specify an empty value like this:

; only executables located in the exec_dir will be allowed to be executed
; via the exec family of functions. This is only AnNyung LInux patch
; see also https://github.com/OOPS-ORG-PHP/mod_execdir/
exec_dir =

4.1.3 Settings per Apache VirtualHost

If you use PHP as an apache module, you can use the php_admin_value directive to make different settings for each virtual host.

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName domain.com
    DocumentRoot /var/www/domain.com

    <IfModule php7_module>
        php_admin_flag exec_dir /var/php/domain.com/bin
    </IfModule>
</VirtualHost>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName domain-other.com
    DocumentRoot /var/www/domain-other.com

    <IfModule php7_module>
        php_admin_flag exec_dir /var/php/domain-other.com/bin
    </IfModule>
</VirtualHost>

This setting can be applied in <Directory>, <Location> and other blocks.

The exec_dir option is assigned to PHP_INI_SYSTEM, so it can not be used with .htaccess.

4.1.4 Settgins per PHP FPM pool

If you use PHP as fpm mode, you can set different for each FPM pool.

[www]
php_admin_flag[exec_dir] = /var/php/pool/www/bin

[www1]
php_admin_flag[exec_dir] = /var/php/pool/www1/bin

4.2. Command parser format

Supported formats are as follows:

command
$(command)
`command`
command; command
command $(command)
command $(command $(command))
command $(command `command`)
command `command`
command | command
command && command
command || command

Example of applied parser is follows:

exec ('ls -al /etc/hosts', $o, $r);
exec ('ls -al /etc/ | grep hosts', $o, $r);
exec ('/bin/ls /etc/ | grep hosts', $o, $r);
exec ('cat $(echo "/etc/passwd") | grep root; ls -al', $o, $r);
exec ('cat `echo "/etc/passwd"` | grep root; ls -al', $o, $r);
exec ("echo '$(ls -l | grep abc)' | grep abc");
exec ('echo "$(ls -l | grep abc)" | grep abc');

If execdir is set, The above code will actually be run in the following manner:

exec ('/var/lib/php/bin/ls -al /etc/hosts', $o, $r);
exec ('/var/lib/php/bin/ls -al /etc/ | /var/lib/php/bin/grep hosts', $o, $r);
exec ('/var/lib/php/bin/ls -al /etc/ | /var/lib/php/bin/grep hosts', $o, $r);
exec ('/var/lib/php/bin/cat $(/var/lib/php/bin/echo "/etc/passwd") | /var/lib/php/bin/grep root; /var/lib/php/bin/ls -al', $o, $r);
exec ('/var/lib/php/bin/cat $(/var/lib/php/bin/echo "/etc/passwd") | /var/lib/php/bin/grep root; /var/lib/php/bin/ls -al', $o, $r);
exec ("/var/lib/php/bin/echo '$(ls -l | grep abc)' | /var/lib/php/bin/grep abc");
exec ('/var/lib/php/bin/echo "$(/var/lib/php/bin/ls -l | /var/lib/php/bin/grep abc)" | /var/lib/php/bin/grep abc');

4.3. APIs

The following case is applied with building in mod_execdir as PHP dynamic extension.

4.3.1. Original functions

You can call original functions with _orig postfix.

<?php
exec_orig ('ls /etc/hosts', $o, $r);
var_dump ($o);
?>

The list of original functions is follow:

  • exec_orig
  • system_orig
  • passthru_orig
  • shell_exec_orig
  • popen_orig
  • proc_open_orig
  • proc_close_orig
  • proc_terminate_orig
  • proc_get_status_orig

These functions can be called from 1.0.2 only by giving --enable-execdir-addon option at configure.

4.3.2. mod_execdir APIs

  • exec_re : mapping exec function

  • system_re : mapping system function

  • passthru_re : mapping passthru function

  • shell_exec_re : mapping shell_exec function

  • popen_re : mapping popen function

  • popen_re : mapping popen function

  • proc_open_re : mapping proc_open function

  • proc_close_re : mapping proc_close function

  • proc_terminate_re : mapping proc_terminate function

  • proc_get_status_re : mapping proc_get_status function

  • pcntl_exec_re : mapping pcntl_exec function
    Can not use pcntl_get_last_error() fucntion, if call failed pcntl_exec, so Need to modify your code as follows:
    Before:

    <?php
    if ( ($r = @pcntl_exec ('/bin/cat', array ('/etc/hosts')) === false ) {
        echo pcntl_strerror (pcntl_get_last_error ()) . "\n"
    }
    ?>

    After:

    ini_set ('track_errors', true);
    if ( ($r = @pcntl_exec ('/bin/cat', array ('/etc/hosts')) === false ) {
        echo $php_errormsg . "\n";
    }
  • jailed_shellcmd : return jailed shell command strings

    Prototype: (string) jailed_shellcmd (string path)
    
    <?php
    # Follow codes has same operation with "system(command)"
    $jcmd = jailed_shellcmd ('/bin/ls');
    system_orig ($jcmd);
    ?>

5. Contributors

JoungKyun.Kim