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GRASS GIS Debugging:
See also
At user level:
Print debugging message if variable DEBUG
is set to level equal or greater
g.gisenv set="DEBUG=3"
Levels: (recommended levels)
* 0 - silence
* 1 - message is printed once or few times per module
* 3 - each row (raster) or line (vector)
* 5 - each cell (raster) or point (vector)
Further hints:
> How can I force gcc, to complain about missing header file?
Give a warning (or error) whenever a function is used before being
To make gcc less tolerant in accepting errors and code flaws, compile
with (see also ../INSTALL):
Also nice to emulate gcc/MacOSX compiler:
It is a good idea to use '-Wall -Werror' as gcc options. This means
it treats the warnings as errors, i.e. it stops on them. So you have time
to read them then.
The gcc switch -Wimplicit-function-declaration (implied by -Wall) should
report missing prototypes (use -Werror-implicit-function-declaration to
make it an error rather than a warning).
The linker switch --warn-common (e.g. LDFLAGS='-Wl,--warn-common') might
be useful for catching multiply-defined symbols.
Be sure to compile using debug flags (gcc -g) and don't "strip" the
binaries after compiling.
C Code debugging Software:
1) Debugger (command-line)
gdb `which r.plane`
r <flags> <parameters>
bt full
To debug in a running process, find out the process ID (PID)
ps -aef
and then use
gdb --pid=PID
to attach to running process PID. It will stop, enter 'c'
to continue and so forth (bt full for backtrace).
2a) Graphical front-end for command-line debugger: ddd
ddd `which r.plane`
RUN -> here enter Parameters/Flags
(GNU DDD is a graphical front-end for command-line debuggers such as
GDB, DBX, WDB, Ladebug, JDB, XDB, the Perl debugger, the bash debugger, or the
Python debugger. )
See mini tutorial here:
2b) Graphical front-end for command-line debugger: kdbg
Use the menus
Debugging on Mac OS X
The 'ldd' command doesn't exist, but
otool -L
does almost the same job.
Using valgrind to find memory leaks (
* Memory note for vector modules:
Support structures are not released by default because it take long time
and it is much faster if it is done by system.
You have to call Vect_set_release_support() before
Vect_close() if you want to use valgrind.
* Example (see also
CMD=" -zt z=3 in=lidaratm2_250k.txt out=lidaratm2_250k fs=,"
valgrind -v --tool=addrcheck --leak-check=yes --show-reachable=yes $CMD --o
* On 64bit boxed valgrind is not supported. An alternative is 'memusage':
memusage -t -T -o dsn=clcit2000 layer=LAB,ARC \
type=centroid,boundary output=corine2000_it
Profiling GRASS with GCC:
Profiling allows the compiler to insert code that collects various
statistics for later analysis. Profiling with GCC is particularly
useful for quickly locating bottleneck functions, determining how
much time is spent in a particular function, and how many times that
function was called.
To profile the entire GRASS package, the following steps should be
followed for success:
* Before running 'configure', both the CFLAGS and LDFLAGS environment
variables need to be altered by adding the -pg flag to enable
profiling. This can be accomplished by the following:
CFLAGS='-pg' LDFLAGS='-pg' ./configure ...
CFLAGS and LINK_FLAGS in include/Make/Platform.make can be manually
edited after running 'configure', also.
* 'configure' must be called with --disable-shared if you intend to
profile GRASS libraries (recommended)
* make GRASS as normal
* In order to run GRASS without errors, lib/init must be recompiled
without linking using the -pg flag. Edit include/Make/Platform.make
and remove -pg from LINK_FLAGS. 'cd lib/init; make clean; make'.
GRASS can now be installed as normal.
When running a GRASS C module, a file called gmon.out is created when
the module completes execution. This file can be analyzed with
the GCC tool 'gprof'.
Note that when 'make distclean' is run, the manual changes to
include/Make/Platform.make are also removed.
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