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5.1.0 Release Notes
o Function proj_errno_string() added to proj.h API (#847)
o Validate units between pipeline steps and ensure transformation
sanity (#906)
o Print help when calling cct and gie without arguments (#907)
o CITATION file added to source distribution (#914)
o Webmercator operation added (#925)
o Enhanced numerical precision of forward spherical Mercator near
the Equator (#928)
o Added --skip-lines option to cct (#923)
o Consistently return NaN values on NaN input (#949)
o Removed unused src/org_proj4_Projections.h file (#956)
o Java Native Interface bindings updated (#957, #969)
o Horizontal and vertical gridshift operations extended to
the temporal domain (#1015)
o Handle nan float cast overflow in PJ_robin.c and nad_intr.c (#887)
o Avoid overflow when Horner order is unreasonably large (#893)
o Avoid unwanted NaN conversions in etmerc (#899)
o Avoid memory failure in gie when not specifying x,y,z in gie files (#902)
o Avoid memory failure when +sweep is initialized incorrectly in geos (#908)
o Return HUGE_VAL on erroneous input in ortho (#912)
o Handle commented lines correctly in cct (#933)
o Avoid segmentation fault when transformation coordinates outside grid
area in deformation (#934)
o Avoid doing false easting/northing adjustments on cartesian
coordinates (#936)
o Thread-safe creation of proj mutex (#954)
o Avoid errors when setting up geos with +lat_0!=0 (#986)
o Reset errno when running proj in verbose mode (#988)
o Do not interpolate node values at nodata value in vertical
grid shifts (#1004)
o Restrict Horner degrees to positive integer values to avoid
memory allocation issues (#1005)
All bug fix numbers refer to issues or pull requests indexed at
Version 5.1.0 is made possible by the following contributors:
Kristian Evers
Even Rouault
Kurt Schwehr
Mike Toews
Martin Desruisseaux
Charles Karney
Thomas Knudsen
Javier Goizueta
Bas Couwenberg
Adam Wulkiewicz
Aaron Puchert
5.0.1 Release Notes
All bug fix numbers refer to issues or pull requests indexed at
o Handle ellipsoid change correctly in pipelines when
+towgs84=0,0,0 is set #881
o Handle the case where nad_ctable2_init returns NULL #883
o Avoid shadowed declaration errors with old gcc #880
o Expand +datum properly +datum in pipelines #872
o Fail gracefully when incorrect headers are encountered in grid
files #875
o Improve roundtrip stability in pipelines using +towgs84 #871
o Fixed typo in gie error codes #861
o Numerical stability fixes to the geodesic package #826 #843
o Make sure that transient errors are returned correctly #857
o Make sure that locally installed header files are not used when
building PROJ #849
o Fix inconsistent parameter names in proj.h/proj_4D_api.c #842
o Make sure +vunits is applied #833
o Fix incorrect Web Mercator transformations #834
Version 5.0.1 is made possible by the following contributors:
Mike Toews
Kurt Schwehr
Even Rouault
Charles Karney
Thomas Knudsen
Kristian Evers
5.0.0 Release Notes
This version of PROJ introduces some significant extensions and
improvements to (primarily) the geodetic functionality of the system.
The main driver for introducing the new features is the emergence of
dynamic reference frames, the increasing use of high accuracy GNSS,
and the related growing demand for accurate coordinate
transformations. While older versions of PROJ included some geodetic
functionality, the new framework lays the foundation for turning PROJ
into a generic geospatial coordinate transformation engine.
The core of the library is still the well established projection code.
The new functionality is primarily exposed in a new programming
interface and a new command line utility, "cct" (for "Coordinate
Conversion and Transformation"). The old programming interface is
still available and can - to some extent - use the new geodetic
transformation features.
The internal architecture has also seen many changes and much
improvement. So far, these improvements respect the existing
programming interface. But the process has revealed a need to simplify
and reduce the code base, in order to support sustained active
!!! Therefore we have scheduled regular releases over the coming years
!!! which will gradually remove the old programming interface.
!!! This will cause breaking changes with the next two major version
!!! releases, which will affect all projects that depend on PROJ
!!! (cf. section "deprecations" below).
The decision to break the existing API has not been easy, but has
ultimately been deemed necessary to ensure the long term survival of
the project. Not only by improving the maintainability immensely, but
also by extending the potential user (and hence developer) community.
The end goal is to deliver a generic coordinate transformation
software package with a clean and concise code base appealing to
both users and developers.
For the first time in more than 25 years the major version number of
the software is changed. The decision to do this is based on the many
new features and new API. While backwards compatibility remains -
except in a few rare corner cases - the addition of a new and improved
programming interface warrants a new major release.
The new major version number unfortunately leaves the project in a bit
of a conundrum regarding the name. For the majority of the life-time
of the product it has been known as PROJ.4, but since we have now
reached version 5 the name is no longer aligned with the version
Hence we have decided to decouple the name from the version number and
from this version and onwards the product will simply be called PROJ.
In recognition of the history of the software we are keeping PROJ.4 as
the *name of the organizing project*. The same project team also
produces the datum-grid package.
In summary:
o The PROJ.4 project provides the product PROJ, which is now at
version 5.0.0.
o The foundational component of PROJ is the library libproj.
o Other PROJ components include the application proj, which provides
a command line interface to libproj.
o The PROJ.4 project also distributes the datum-grid package,
which at the time of writing is at version 1.6.0.
o Introduced new API in proj.h.
- The new API is orthogonal to the existing proj_api.h API and the
internally used projects.h API.
- The new API adds the ability to transform spatiotemporal (4D)
- Functions in the new API use the "proj_" namespace.
- Data types in the new API use the "PJ_" namespace, with a few
historic exceptions such as XY, XYZ, LP and LPZ.
o Introduced the concept of "transformation pipelines" that makes it
possible to do complex geodetic transformations of spatiotemporal
coordinates by daisy chaining simple coordinate operations.
o Introduced cct, the Coordinate Conversion and Transformation
o Introduced gie, the Geospatial Integrity Investigation Environment.
- Selftest invoked by -C flag in proj has been removed
- Ported approx. 1300 built-in selftests to gie format
- Ported approx. 1000 tests from the gigs test framework
- Added approx. 200 new tests
o Adopted terminology from the OGC/ISO-19100 geospatial standards
series. Key definitions are:
- At the most generic level, a *coordinate operation* is a change
of coordinates, based on a one-to-one relationship, from one
coordinate reference system to another.
- A *transformation* is a coordinate operation in which the two
coordinate reference systems are based on different datums, e.g.
a change from a global reference frame to a regional frame.
- A *conversion* is a coordinate operation in which both
coordinate reference systems are based on the same datum,
e.g. change of units of coordinates.
- A *projection* is a coordinate conversion from an ellipsoidal
coordinate system to a plane. Although projections are simply
conversions according to the standard, they are treated as
separate entities in PROJ as they make up the vast majority
of operations in the library.
o New operations:
- The pipeline operator (pipeline)
- Transformations:
+ Helmert transform (helmert)
+ Horner real and complex polynomial evaluation (horner)
+ Horizontal gridshift (hgridshift)
+ Vertical gridshift (vgridshift)
+ Molodensky transform (molodensky)
+ Kinematic gridshift with deformation model (deformation)
- Conversions:
+ Unit conversion (unitconvert)
+ Axis swap (axisswap)
- Projections:
+ Central Conic projection (ccon)
o Significant documentation updates, including
- Overhaul of the structure of the documentation
- A better introduction to the use of PROJ
- A complete reference to the new proj.h API
- a complete rewrite of the section on geodesic calculations
- Figures for all projections
o New "free format" option for operation definitions, which
permits separating tokens by whitespace when specifying key/value-
pairs, e.g. "proj = merc lat_0 = 45".
o Added metadata to init-files that can be read with the
proj_init_info() function in the new proj.h API.
o Added ITRF2000, ITRF2008 and ITRF2014 init-files with ITRF
transformation parameters, including plate motion model
o Added ellipsoid parameters for GSK2011, PZ90 and "danish". The
latter is similar to the already supported andrae ellipsoid,
but has a slightly different semimajor axis.
o Added Copenhagen prime meridian.
o Updated EPSG database to version 9.2.0.
o Geodesic library updated to version 1.49.2-c.
o Support for analytical partial derivatives has been removed.
o Improved performance in Winkel Tripel and Aitoff.
o Introduced pj_has_inverse() function to proj_api.h. Checks if an
operation has an inverse. Use this instead of checking whether
P->inv exists, since that can no longer be relied on.
o ABI version number updated to 13:0:0.
o Removed support for Windows CE.
o Removed the VB6 COM interface.
All bug fix numbers refer to issues indexed at
o Fixed incorrect convergence calculation in Lambert Conformal
Conic. #16.
o Handle ellipsoid parameters correctly when using +nadgrids=@null.
o Return correct latitude when using negative northings in
Transverse Mercator (tmerc). #138.
o Return correct result at origin in inverse Mod. Stererographic
of Alaska. #161.
o Return correct result at origin in inverse Mod. Stererographic
of 48 U.S. #162.
o Return correct result at origin in inverse Mod. Stererographic
of 50 U.S. #163.
o Return correct result at origin in inverse Lee Oblated
Stereographic. #164.
o Return correct result at origin in inverse Miller Oblated
Stereographic. #164.
o Fixed scaling and wrap-around issues in Oblique Cylindrical
Equal Area. #166.
o Corrected a coefficient error in inverse Transverse Mercator. #174.
o Respect -r flag when calling proj with -V. #184.
o Remove multiplication by 2 at the equator error in Stereographic
projection. #194.
o Allow +alpha=0 and +gamma=0 when using Oblique Mercator. #195.
o Return correct result of inverse Oblique Mercator when alpha is
between 90 and 270. #331.
o Avoid segmentation fault when accessing point outside grid. #369.
o Avoid segmentation fault on NaN input in Robin inverse. #463.
o Very verbose use of proj (-V) on Windows is fixed. #484.
o Fixed memory leak in General Oblique Transformation. #497.
o Equations for meridian convergence and partial derivatives have
been corrected for non-conformal projections. #526.
o Fixed scaling of cartesian coordinates in pj_transform(). #726.
o Additional bug fixes courtesy of Google's OSS-Fuzz program:
o The projects.h header and the functions related to it is
considered deprecated from version 5.0.0 and onwards.
!!! WITH VERSION 6.0.0 !!!
o The nmake build system on Windows will not be supported from
version 6.0.0 on onwards. Use CMake instead.
!!! WITH VERSION 6.0.0 !!!
o The proj_api.h header and the functions related to it is
consided deprecated from version 5.0.0 and onwards.
!!! WITH VERSION 7.0.0 !!!
Version 5.0.0 is made possible by the following contributors:
Lukasz Komsta
Maxim Churilin
Zoltan Siki
Tom Fili
Nicolas David
Mike Toews
Micah Cochran
Luke Campbell
Ilya Oshchepkov
Adam Wulkiewicz
Jonas Tittmann
Mateusz Loskot
Etienne Jacques
Bas Couwenberg
Elliott Sales de Andrade
Charles Karney
Aaron Puchert
Julien Moquet
Charles Karney
Howard Butler
Even Rouault
Thomas Knudsen
Kristian Evers
4.9.3 Release Notes
o UTM now uses etmerc, following NGA recommendations. Tests adjusted
for tiny changes in values.
o new projections: Times, Natural Earth II, Compact Miller, Patterson
Cylindrical, and inverse for Hammer and Eckert-Greifendorff.
o runtime self tests are now opt-in instead of opt-out
o math constants moved to projects.h
o bugfixes
o New (optional) runtime self tests added to proj
4.9.2 Release Notes
o proj_def.dat was missing from source distribution
see for more detail
o Update Geodesic library from GeographicLib
o Remove setlocale() use in pj_init_ctx()
o Renamed PVALUE in pj_param.c to prevent clash with Windows
4.9.1 Release Notes
o 4.9.0RC2 release was abandoned because it was not promoted in a
timely fashion. Subsequent maintenance of tickets has continued,
and a new 4.9.1 release was issued in its place.
o Implement inverse solution for Winkel Tripel from Drazan Tutic #250
o More CMake configuration tweaks. The CMake configuration is probably
not at feature parity with the autotools builds at this point but it
is converging #256
o Tweak initialization ordering around setlocal which may have caused
issues #237
o Support out-of-tree autoconf builds more completely #247
o Fix NaN handling by geod_inverse and geod_polygon_addedge #251 & #253
o Update config.sub and config.guess #257
o Adapt Charles Karney's CMake patches for smoother build #258
o Define default PROJ_LIB location for CMake compilation #261
o Fix Windows compilation on PJ_aitoff.c
o Align CMake SOVERSION with autotools #263
o Regenerate nad/epsg with GDAL r28536 to avoid precision loss in TOWGS84
parameters, e.g. on Amersfoort / RD EPSG:4289 (#260)
o Add CMake project-config.cmake scripts (#264 from Charles Karney)
o Dial back test sensitivity #255
4.9.0 Release Notes
o Implement CMake as an option for building PROJ.4
o Implement new virtual file api (projFileAPI) so that all access to grid
shift and init files can be hooked.
o Replace geodesic implementation with one from Charles Karney and add a
supported public interface (geodesic.h).
o Upgraded to EPSG 8.5.
o Removed old (deprecated) Java bindings in favor of the new api introduced
in 4.8.0.
o Implement the calcofi (Cal Coop Ocean Fish Invest Lines/Stations) projection
o Install projects.h again for applications that want access to internal
structures and functions despite the inherent fragility.
o Various bug fixes and cleanup.
o Added the CalCOFI pseudo-projection, #135
4.8.0 Release Notes
o Added the Natural Earth projection.
o Added HEALPIX, rHEALPIX and Icosahedral Snyder Equal Area projections.
o nad2bin now produces "CTable2" format grid shift files by default which
are platform independent.
o nad2nad removed, use cs2cs for datum shift operations.
o projects.h no longer installed as a public include file. Please try to
only use proj_api.h.
o Add pj_get_spheroid_defn() accessor.
o Added an alternate version of pj_init() that takes a projCtx (execution
context) structure to address multithreading issues with error management
and to provide a support for application hookable error reporting and
o Upgrade to EPSG 7.9. Some changes in ideal datum selection.
o JNI bindings reworked, org.proj4.Projections deprecated in favor of
o Added preliminary vertical datum support.
o Fix various multithreading issues, particular in datum grid handling code.
o Added support for the +axis= option for alternate axis orientations as
part of a coordinate system (used for TM South Orientated support).
o +proj=omerc implementatioin replaced with code from libproj4. +rot_conv
flag no longer works, and some coordinate systems (ie. Malaysian) will
need to use +gamma instead. "epsg" init file updated accordingly.
4.7.0 Release Notes
o Added in memory caching of init file search results for substantial
acceleration in some application environments (like MapServer).
o Regenerated nad/epsg init file with EPSG 7.1 database, including new
support for Google Mercator (EPSG:3857).
o Various thread safety improvements, including preliminary support for
a mutex lock around some operations, like grid loading.
4.6.1 Release Notes
o Upgraded to EPSG 6.17 version for nad/epsg. Also corrected the precision
problem introduced in the last version.
o Added logic for tmerc projection to fail rather than return crazy results
if more than 90 degrees away from the central meridian (#5). This change
may only be temporary till a more comprehensive solution is found.
o Fixed handling of extra text in cs2cs.
o The eqc projection has been generalized to include a latitude of origin.
o Added the glabsgm (Gauss Laborde / Sphere Geometric Mean) projection,
and gstmerc variation.
o nad/IGNF init catalogue created.
o added the ntf_r93.gsb datum shift file.
o Add /Op in nmake.opt compile options to avoid VC7 optimization bug (#12)
o Fix testvarious test script so it works properly when grid files available
4.6.0 Release Notes
o MAJOR: Rework pj_transform() to avoid applying ellipsoid to ellipsoid
transformations as a datum shift when no datum info is available.
o Avoid applying "change of ellipsoid" during datum shifting based on
ellipsoids getting changed to spheres for spherical projections.
o Upgrade to EPSG 6.13
o Added "900913" "Google Mercator" code in nad/esri.extra.
o Avoid some static variable based multi-threading problems.
o Improve error recovery if ctable style datum shift grid fails to load.
o Support drive letters properly in PROJ_LIB paths for win32.
o Fix occasional problem with DMS parsing.
o Removed non-functional mpoly projection.
o add lonlat, and latlon as aliases for longlat.
4.5.0 Release Notes
o Microsoft Visual Studio 8 compatibility changes.
o Upgraded to EPSG 6.11.1 database.
o Several bug fixes to pj_transform() to handle transient errors properly.
o Fix Krovak projection (include +czech flag)
o Added Roussilhe Stereographic projection from libproj4 (proj=rouss).
o Added experimental +lon_wrap flag for alternate pj_transform() longitude
wrapping behavior on output.
4.4.9 Release Notes
o Win32 build uses proj.dll by default now.
o Added accessor functions for the datums, ellps, prime_meridians, units and
main projection definition lists so they can be used on windows where
data objects exported from the DLL don't work easily.
o Added JNI (Java Native Interface) support within the jniwrap directory,
and some supporting entry points directly in the proj dll/so. See
--with-jni configure switch, and jniwrap/README.
o Added the proj=stereoa and proj=geos projections, incorporated from
Gerald's libproj4.
o A few other bug fixes.
4.4.8 Release Notes
o Updated epsg file to EPSG 6.5, added other.extra pseudo-EPSG WMS definitions
o Made significant fixes to prime meridian support.
o Substantially change pj_datum_transform(), so it and pj_transform() will
work between coordinate systems with different ellipsoids but no datum
shift information (assume +towgs84=0,0,0).
o Added pj_get_release() function.
o Ensure pj_transform() will try to transform all points in provided list if
even some might transform properly.
o Improved the accuracy of Geocentric_To_Geodetic() via an iterative
o Various other bug fixes.
4.4.7 Release Notes
o Added NTv2 (.gsb) grid shift file support.
o Modified datum shift support so that data file data is only loaded if
needed. Also added 'null' grid as a fallback option, and support for
making grids optional (prefix with '@' in +nadgrids).
o Regenerated nad/epsg file with towgs84 parameters for non-greenwich prime
o Updated nad/esri file with better generated form from Paul Ramsey.
o Various bug fixes.
4.4.6 Release Notes
o Incorporated new lcca (Lambert Conformal Conic Alternate) projection from
o Updated 'espg' translation file for EPSG 6.2.2 with better support for
prime meridians.
o Added Prime Meridians via +pm command switch to cs2cs (and pj_transform).
o Fixed bug with 7 parameter transforms.
o Added 'esri' pseudo-epsg coordinate system file.
o Cleanup so that PROJ.4 compiles clean as C++ code.
o Added pj_get_def() to expand definitions of stuff like +init clauses.
o Added a Krovak implementation (proj=krov). Note this may change again
in the next release.