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The IoTGoat Project is a deliberately insecure firmware based on OpenWrt and maintained by OWASP as a platform to educate software developers and security professionals with testing commonly found vulnerabilities in IoT devices. The vulnerability challenges are based on the OWASP IoT Top 10 noted below, as well as "easter eggs" from project contributors. For a list of vulnerability challenges, see the IoTGoat challenges wiki page.

OWASP IoT Top 10 2018 Description
I1 Weak, Guessable, or Hardcoded Passwords Use of easily bruteforced, publicly available, or unchangeable credentials, including backdoors in firmware or client software that grants unauthorized access to deployed systems.
I2 Insecure Network Services Unneeded or insecure network services running on the device itself, especially those exposed to the internet, that compromise the confidentiality, integrity/authenticity, or availability of information or allow unauthorized remote control.
I3 Insecure Ecosystem Interfaces Insecure web, backend API, cloud, or mobile interfaces in the ecosystem outside of the device that allows compromise of the device or its related components. Common issues include a lack of authentication/authorization, lacking or weak encryption, and a lack of input and output filtering.
I4 Lack of Secure Update Mechanism Lack of ability to securely update the device. This includes lack of firmware validation on device, lack of secure delivery (un-encrypted in transit), lack of anti-rollback mechanisms, and lack of notifications of security changes due to updates.
I5 Use of Insecure or Outdated Components Use of deprecated or insecure software components/libraries that could allow the device to be compromised. This includes insecure customization of operating system platforms, and the use of third-party software or hardware components from a compromised supply chain
I6 Insufficient Privacy Protection User’s personal information stored on the device or in the ecosystem that is used insecurely, improperly, or without permission.
I7 Insecure Data Transfer and Storage Lack of encryption or access control of sensitive data anywhere within the ecosystem, including at rest, in transit, or during processing
I8 Lack of Device Management Lack of security support on devices deployed in production, including asset management, update management, secure decommissioning, systems monitoring, and response capabilities.
I9 Insecure Default Settings Devices or systems shipped with insecure default settings or lack the ability to make the system more secure by restricting operators from modifying configurations.
I10 Lack of Physical Hardening Lack of physical hardening measures, allowing potential attackers to gain sensitive information that can help in a future remote attack or take local control of the device.

Getting started

Several methods exist to get started with hacking IoTGoat.

  1. For those looking to extract the filesystem, analyze configurations and binaries statically, download the latest precompiled firmware release from Refer to OWASP's Firmware Security Testing Methodology to help with identifying vulnerabilities.

  2. For dynamic web testing and binary runtime analysis, the quickest way to get started is downloading the latest "IoTGoat-x86.vmdk" (VMware) and create a custom virtual machine using the IoTGoat disk image. Select the following operating system details Type: Linux Version: Linux 2.6 / 3.x / 4.x (32-bit) and Enable PAE/NX in virtual machine settings. Both the .vmdk and .vdi have been tested in the latest VirtualBox release (April 2020) for Windows 10, Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, and MacOS Mojave. Refer to OWASP's Web Security Testing Guide and ASVS projects for additional guidance on identifying web application vulnerabilities

  3. Emulate firmware with opensource tools (e.g. Firmadyne, ARM-X Framework, and FAT) that leverage QEMU to virtualize IoTGoat locally.

  4. Use the IoTGoat-raspberry-pi2-sysupgrade.img firmware to flash on a Raspberry Pi 2 (BRCM2708 & BRCM2709).

Refer to the Getting started page for additional details and screencaptures.

Building from source

OpenWrt can build many different CPU platforms and boards. Building from source gives users the flexibility to flash IoTGoat on supported OpenWrt hardware. Ensure 10-15GB disk space is available with at least 4GB of RAM and a supported Linux distribution such as Ubuntu 18.04. Use the following steps to get started with building custom firmware.

Do everything as a normal user, don't use root user or sudo when building!

$ git clone
$ cd IoTGoat/OpenWrt/openwrt-18.06.2/
$ ./scripts/feeds update -a
$ ./scripts/feeds install -a
$ make menuconfig # select your preferred configuration for the toolchain, target system & firmware packages.
$ make # Build your firmware with make. This will download all sources, build the cross-compile toolchain and then cross-compile the Linux kernel & all chosen applications for your target system.

The first build will take some time to complete and will vary based on the provided internet connection for downloading the toolchain. Once a successful build is complete, the compiled firmware will be placed in the following directory IoTGoat/OpenWrt/openwrt-18.06.2/bin/targets/ depending on the target selected in menuconfig. For example, IoTGoat Raspberry Pi 2 firmware will be located in the following directory IoTGoat/OpenWrt/openwrt-18.06.2/bin/targets/brcm2708/bcm2709. IoTGoat build configuration files are made availble for x86 (.config-x86) and Raspberry Pi 2 (.config-rpi) platforms.

Project leaders

  • Aaron Guzman (@scriptingxss)
  • Fotios Chantzis
  • Paulino Calderon


  • Parag Mhatre (@paraaagggg)
  • Abhinav Mohanty (cyanide284)
  • Jason Andress (@jandress)
  • @0x48piraj



The MIT License (MIT)