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Transformative Agreements data set

Open APC set up a dedicated collection of data sets comprising articles published under transformative agreements / offsetting deals such as the Springer Compact pilot agreements (Before June 2019 this collection was known as the offsetting data set).

Unlike in the main data set, there is usually no price information included due to the fact that those type of agreements still operate with lump sums and reading fees. This would therefore lead to a biased picture in terms of individual spending per article, at least before the termination of an agreement and when the actual amount of articles published cannot yet be determined.

However, the collection is relevant in view of the discussion on differentiated article prices. Moreover, it provides insights about the allocation of publications over a publisher's journal portfolio which allows predictions on the popularity of journals among researchers.

In order to better identify open access article shares in otherwise subscription journals, universities and research institutions would greatly appreciate any publishers' efforts to comprehensively include open access license information in the CrossRef meta data scheme. As this information is not yet available, the Open APC aggregations of hybrid and offsetting articles may at least provide some insights in this regard.

Universities and research institutions globally are invited to contribute their APC expenditure data to our initiative in order to build up a comprehensive data set that allows for extensive analyses and fosters transparency on the evolving APC market.


This dataset contains information on 34,116 articles, published at 211 institutions under 13 different transformative agreements. The data can also be inspected as a treemap visualisation.

Breakdown by agreement

Agreement Articles
Springer Compact 31763
French EDP Sciences agreement 1300
MPG RSC agreement 246
FWF Transformative Agreement Wiley-Blackwell 188
Austrian Consortium RSC agreement 179
DEAL Wiley Germany 143
FWF Offsetting Agreement T&F 89
FWF Offsetting Agreement IOP 46
MPG Taylor & Francis agreement 46
Austrian Consortium IOP agreement 45
MPG IOP agreement 32
Austrian Consortium Emerald agreement 23
Austrian Consortium Sage agreement 16

Breakdown by institution

Institution Articles
French institutions 1300
University College London 1022
MPG 946
University of Cambridge 912
University of Oxford 883
FWF - Austrian Science Fund 857
Imperial College London 771
King's College London 652
Lund University 652
Medical University of Vienna 591
University of Manchester 585
University of Amsterdam 542
Utrecht University 527
Karolinska Institute 525
University of Groningen 501
University of Edinburgh 495
Delft University of Technology 484
Wageningen University 482
Uppsala University 474
Leiden University 461
Erasmus MC 453
Academic Medical Center (AMC) 447
University of Innsbruck and Medical University of Innsbruck 436
University of Leeds 428
VU University Amsterdam 426
University of Gothenburg 425
University of Southampton 398
Radboud University Medical Center 397
University of Sheffield 387
Maastricht University 382
University of Bristol 378
University of Nottingham 377
University Medical Center Utrecht 375
VU University Medical Center (VUmc) 363
University of Vienna 356
University of Birmingham 355
Royal Institute of Technology 347
Cardiff University 339
University of Warwick 332
Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) 316
Radboud University 309
Stockholm University 309
University of Twente 297
University of Liverpool 289
University of Glasgow 285
Eindhoven University of Technology 283
Erasmus University 283
Newcastle University 275
University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) 270
Linköping University 268
Chalmers University of Technology 264
University of Exeter 262
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences 257
Umea University 254
TU Wien (TUW) 231
University of Reading 226
Medical University of Graz 222
Queen's University of Belfast 217
Tilburg University 208
University of York 205
University of Bath 199
Queen Mary, University of London 192
Maastricht University Medical Center (UMC+) 189
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU) 181
Graz University of Technology 176
Durham University 175
Loughborough University 173
University of St Andrews 168
University of Sussex 168
London School of Economics and Political Science 166
University of East Anglia 164
Lancaster University 155
Nottingham Trent University 154
University of Strathclyde 151
University of Leicester 146
University of Graz 144
Swansea University 142
University of Aberdeen 142
Johannes Kepler University Linz 130
Lulea University of Technology 128
University of Kent 125
Brunel University 124
Paracelsus Medical University 116
University of Dundee 115
Muenchen LMU 113
Northumbria University 109
University of Surrey 107
Montanuniversität Leoben 105
Liverpool John Moores University 102
Heriot-Watt University 98
Örebro University 91
Royal Holloway, University of London 87
City University London 86
Sheffield Hallam University 82
Linnaeus University 80
University of Portsmouth 78
Royal Botanic Gardens 76
Cranfield University 75
Bangor University 72
Paris Lodron University of Salzburg 72
University of Hull 72
University of Ulster 72
Bournemouth University 71
University of Stirling 66
Manchester Metropolitan University 64
The Open University 60
University of Huddersfield 60
Aston University 58
University of Lincoln 57
University of West of England 56
Keele University 54
University of Klagenfurt 51
Karlstad University 49
Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU) 49
St George's, University of London 48
Malmö University 44
Natural History Museum 44
Leeds Beckett University 43
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna 43
Mälardalen University 41
University West 41
Jönköping University 40
University of Salford 40
Edge Hill University 39
University of Bradford 39
University of Greenwich 39
Aberystwyth University 38
Robert Gordon University 36
Netherlands Institute of Ecology 35
Kingston University 34
University of Central Lancashire 32
University of West of Scotland 31
Mid Sweden University 30
Goldsmiths, University of London 29
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) 29
University of Derby 29
Institute of Science and Technology (IST Austria) 28
University of Innsbruck 28
Blekinge Institute of Technology 27
Open University of The Netherlands 27
University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria 25
University of Westminster 25
Glasgow Caledonian University 24
University of Boras 24
Wageningen UR (University & Research Centre) 24
Swedish Museum of Natural History 21
London South Bank University 20
Cardiff Metropolitan University 19
Fungal Biodiversity Center (CBS) 19
University of Skövde 19
Södertörn University 18
University of Bedfordshire 18
University of Gävle 18
Edinburgh Napier University 17
Halmstad University 17
Kristianstad University 16
Stockholm School of Economics 15
Birmingham City University 13
Swedish Defence Research Agency 12
FH Salzburg - University of Applied Sciences 11
Kassel U 11
TU Clausthal 11
University of Chester 11
University of the Highlands and Islands 11
Dalarna University 9
Scotland's Rural College 8
University of Abertay Dundee 8
University of Northampton 8
University of Wales Trinity St David 8
Academisch Centrum Tandheelkunde Amsterdam (ACTA) 7
Anglia Ruskin University 7
FH St. Pölten - University of Applied Sciences 7
Queen Margaret University 7
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) 7
Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH) 7
TiHo Hannover 7
Danube University Krems University for Continuing Education 6
Danube Universtity Krems University for Continuing Education 6
Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience 6
Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI) 6
University of Roehampton 6
University of Worcester 5
Carinthia University of Applied Sciences (CUAS) 3
FH Campus Wien - University of Applied Sciences 3
FH Vorarlberg - University of Applied Sciences 3
Institute for Advanced Studies Vienna 3
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden 3
Scottish Agricultural College (SRUC) 3
FH Joanneum - University of Applied Sciences 2
Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Resea 2
Institute Mittag-Leffler 2
Medical Products Agency 2
Modul University Vienna (MUVIENNA) 2
Public Health Agency of Sweden 2
Rathenau Institute 2
Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) / IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology / Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology 2
University Campus Suffolk 2
AC2T Research GmbH 1
Ferdinand Porsche FernFH 1
FH Kufstein Tirol - University of Applied Sciences 1
FHWien der WKW (FHW) 1
International Institute of Social History (IISH) 1
IPN - Leibniz Kiel 1
Medical University of Innsbruck 1
Meertens Institute 1
Meertens Institute, Netherlands 1
Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (NIAS) 1
Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) / IMBA - Institu 1
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Bureau (KNAW Bure 1
University of Applied Sciences Burgenland 1
University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt for Business and Engineering 1
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