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Welcome to the OARC-Glossary-draft wiki!

Glossary of Terms

A. Draft Definitions of terms used in this report

AR Cloud: A 3D digital copy (representation) of the physical world that enables persistent overlays of augmented reality experiences that can be shared with many users and devices.

A one or multi-tiered layer of digital constructs that can exist as many composite bits and bytes of information architecture. By linking this data to the real world spaces, and places we can accurately represent the world and objects around us in digital formats desired by the system designer.

From VRARA whitepaper :

The AR Cloud is a continuously updated collection of machine-readable datasets, primarily sparse or dense point clouds plus a feature descriptor and other meta-data for each point or groups of points. AR Cloud data is any dataset which can aid in accurately determining the position and pose of AR-enabled devices, semantically understanding the scene and positioning digital content in physical spaces (this can include polygonal geometry, visual descriptors, images, video, ‘simple geographic features’, etc). Because of the ever-changing nature of real-world spaces, the AR Cloud must constantly be updated with new data to enable AR devices to accurately localize within these dynamically changing environments. AR Cloud data is crowdsourced from an array of technologies (sparse slam maps, point clouds, occlusion meshes, photorealistic textures, BIM data) and versioned to reflect multiple states including time of day, environment changes, weather or lighting changes.

Open AR Cloud: An organization dedicated to promoting the development of open and interoperable spatial computing standards.

Digital Thread - describes the framework which connects data flows and produces a holistic view of an asset's data across its product lifecycle. This framework addresses protocols, security, and standards. Typically, the digital thread connects digital twins, digital models of physical assets, or groups of assets. [source]

Digital Transformation - is the novel use of digital technology to solve traditional problems. These digital solutions enable inherently new types of innovation and creativity, rather than simply enhance and support traditional methods. [source]

Industry 4.0 : term for current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It includes cyber-physical systems (CPS), the Internet of things (IoT), cloud computing and cognitive computing. Industry 4.0 is commonly referred to as the fourth industrial revolution. [source]

Reality- In the instance of ARcloud reality is defined as objects that have physical substance and existence in the world

Real Object - A real object or a marker is a feature or artefact in the real world that is used to anchor an augmentation in a composed scene. This includes natural features such as buildings and landmarks, artefacts such as posters, book covers or pictures, and markers such as barcodes, 2d matrix codes and other machine readable patterns.

Spatial Mapping - The process of capturing the physical structures and the spatial relationships between these structures of a real space into a spatial map. (as defined by OARC)

Spatial Map - A data structure representing the physical structures contained in a real space and the spatial relationships between them. Usually in the form of a three-dimensional point cloud or a three-dimensional mesh. (as defined by OARC)

Semantic Network (Graph)- a knowledge base that represents semantic relations between concepts in a network. This is often used as a form of knowledge representation. It is a directed or undirected graph consisting of vertices, which represent concepts, and edges, which represent semantic relations between concepts,[1] mapping or connecting semantic fields. [source]

Semantic Scene Understanding - Scene understanding, in contrast to object recognition, attempts to analyze objects in context with respect to the 3D structure of the scene, its layout, and the spatial, functional, and semantic relationships between objects. [source]

Reality Mapping - The process of combining Spatial Maps and Semantic Scene Understanding into an indexed data collection. See Reality Graph (as defined by OARC)

Reality Graph - A graph data structure, in which the state and positions of objects and the geometric and semantic relationships between those objects located in reality are described. (as defined by OARC)

Cognitive Map - is a type of mental representation which serves an individual to acquire, code, store, recall, and decode information about the relative locations and attributes of phenomena in their everyday or metaphorical spatial environment. [source]

Spatial Analysis - includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. [source]

Spatial Index - lets define it :)

Visual Inertial Odometry (VIO) - a method for determining a devices pose in a physical space using a combination of cameras and motion sensors.

Universal Scene Description - is an efficient, scalable system for authoring, reading, and streaming time-sampled scene description for interchange between graphics applications. [source]

Terms that are sometimes used synonymously when referring to AR Cloud

  1. Cloud AR
  2. Cyberspace
  3. Digital Reality/Reality
  4. Digital Twin
  5. Enabled Landscape
  6. Internet of Places
  7. Magicverse
  8. Matrix
  9. Metaverse
  10. MirrorVerse
  11. MirrorWorld
  12. Multiverse
  13. Real World Spatial Computing
  14. Spatial Computing
  15. Spatial Web
  16. Superverse
  17. Web 3.0.

C. Related Terminology That Describes Or Relates To Elements In The Cloud

  1. Geo Spatial Pose: [ please define ]
  2. Pose: [please define ]
  3. Position: [please define]
  4. State

MISC TERMS:

  1. terms related to goals:
    like, “the group will try to create:”

policies procedures best practices recommendations standards guidelines Manifesto Prototype

  1. Sources for terms about AR (not exclusively on AR Cloud)

In 2010 a group of ~50 people convened to discuss activities towards open and interoperable AR and brainstormed a set of AR “word clouds” (terms that were/are thematically related in AR).

The traces of that exercise are found here: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1WsrUOkwNscJ3DB0NK0Zaa37coLUjALba322R_Nv4ASs/edit?authkey=CLvx3LkK#gid=0

We kept working on it in 2011 and eventually (May 2012) published this https://www.perey.com/ARStandards/ar-glossary-v-2-2/ Unfortunately, the domain models map which connects all the terms, is no longer available.

In 2014 there was an analysis of the differences between the May 2012 glossary and the terms proposed for use in the MAR Reference Model. The results of that exercise are here http://www.perey.com/ARStandards/ar-terminology-and-glossaries/

We may want to review this (and to refer to the author of the post as a source, if any of the definitions there are used): https://next.reality.news/how-to/quick-dirty-guide-augmented-reality-terms-you-need-know-0182665/

  • This page is a good reference and does indeed maintain close to current understanding of related terminology. Recommend we add to a more complete repository for the core site. We should also attempt to locate original authors.

Here are a couple of existing glossaries published with a VR angle https://imm3rsive.com/en/glossary/ http://www.vrglossary.org/

  1. Terms to Be Reviewed/Placed by Glossary editors in Appropriate Category:

In addition to terms (don't know who submitted them) under the section heading "Related Terminology That Describes Or Relates To Elements In The Cloud") other terms Christine proposes to be added to the glossary PLEASE ADD YOUR DEFINITION if you have one!:

  • In Real Life (IRL) -

  • In Digital Life (IDL)

Composed Scene: A composed scene is produced by a system of sensors, displays, and interfaces that creates a perception of reality where augmentations are integrated into the real world.

In an augmented reality system a composed scene is a manifestation of a real-world environment and one or more rendered digital assets. It does not necessarily involve 3D objects or even visual rendering. The acquisition of the user (or device) ’s current pose is required to align the composed scene to the user’s perspective. Examples of composed scenes with visual rendering (AR in camera view) include a smartphone application that presents a visualisation through the handheld video display, or a webcam-based system where the real object and augmentation are displayed on a PC monitor. Note: A composed scene is different from the terminology used in 3D modeling, where the 3D scene simply describes camera angle and lighting but is often divorced entirely from a real-world environment.

Visual localization (as another sub-term in the broader "Localization" section)

Indoor- could define it as a spatial volume that is characterized by planar surfaces without texture (but that would not work for a mine shaft), also, for indoors we can generalize about some cellular and satellite services (GPS) not being consistently available? Semantically, having a roof above you that obstructs access to satellites (eg., in a mine shaft, in a train station, under surface of a body of water)

Indoor Localization - The user’s AR device cannot rely exclusively or consistently on GPS for position and so there are other methods for localization.

Outdoor - a space which can be private or public (shared, multipurpose) and which can use cellular and satellite services (GPS) consistently (except where not available). Does it make sense to define

Urban Canyon (as a subtype of both indoor and outdoor types of spaces)

Private Digital Model - this is a case in which the spatial index or model is not public (indoors a home or a factory floor)

Visual Inertial Odometry: Visual Odometry means estimating the 3D pose (translation + orientation) of a moving camera relative to its starting position, using visual features.

Scene Parsing: [ Definition Needed. Is this different from scene segmentation?]

Real World Target: This typically refers to a real object that exists in the physical world and on or near which a digital object can be placed in the space using the target as positional placement.

Edge Computing

Decentralized or distributed spatial index (are they different and if so, how?)

Decentralized or distributed processing, data storage

Spatial History or Spatial Memory refers to tracking what was there in the real world before

Geospatial Anchors (should be with Spatial Anchors section in Michael's list)

Geographic coverage (e.g., of a network for connectivity)

Bandwidth (as in for connectivity) should be somehow related to latency (on which there is a lot to say)

These proposed definitions for "Semantic segmentation" and "Scene segmentation" are currently in WG1 chapter draft (sources for these are cited there). I just pasted them in here:

  • Semantic segmentation is a process performed on images to recognize and understand the image’s content at the pixel-level. (CP: doesn’t define what the terms “recognize” and “understand” mean)
  • The definition of Scene segmentation is the task of splitting a scene into its various object components.

Outside-in tracking: using external cameras or sensors to detect motion and track positioning. This method offers more precision tracking, but a drawback is the external sensors lower the portability. Example: HTC Vive

Inside-out tracking: uses cameras or sensors located within the device itself to track its position in the real world space. This method requires more hardware in the AR device, but offers more portability. Example – Microsoft HoloLens

Breaking immersion: when the sense of realism has been broken; in AR this is usually by an object behaving in a way that does not match our expectations.

Placing: when the tracking of a digital object is fixed, or anchored, to a certain point in the real world.

Scaling: when a placed AR object changes size and/or dimension relative to the AR device's position. For example, when a user moves away or towards an AR object, it feels like the object is getting larger or smaller depending on the distance of the phone in relation to the object. AR objects further away from the phone look smaller and objects that are closer look larger. This should mimic the depth perception of human eyes.

Feature points: Visually distinct features in the environment, like the edge of a chair, a light switch on a wall, the corner of a table, or any other object that will stay visible and in the same consistent location during an AR experience

Pose / GeoPose: the position and orientation of any object in relation to the world around it. Everything has its own unique pose, from the AR device to the augmented 3D asset that is seen on the display.

Occlusion: when one object (3D or real world) blocks another object from a user’s field of view or camera perspective

Spatial mapping: the ability to create a 3D map of the environment and helps establish where assets can be placed.

Anchors - user-defined points of interest upon which AR objects are placed. Anchors are created and updated relative to real world geometry (planes, points, etc.) detected in the environment

Light estimation: the process that allows the AR device to estimate the environment's current lighting conditions for sharing AR assets appropriately

Light field rendering techniques focus on the reconstruction of complex lighting and material attributes from a set of input images rather than the exact reconstruction of geometric details. The light field is a vector function that describes the amount of light flowing in every direction through every point in given space.

SLAM, Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping (SLAM) is a series of complex computations and algorithms which use sensor data to construct a map of an unknown environment while using it at the same time to identify where it is located. SLAM algorithms combine data from sensors to determine the position of each sensor OR process data received from it and build a map of the surrounding environment.

ORB-SLAM is a versatile and accurate SLAM solution for Monocular, Stereo and RGB-D cameras. It is able to compute in real-time the camera trajectory and a sparse 3D reconstruction of the scene in a wide variety of environments, ranging from small hand-held sequences of a desk to a car driven around several city blocks. It is able to close large loops and perform global relocalisation in real-time and from wide baselines. It includes an automatic and robust initialization from planar and non-planar scenes.

Surface detection developed for smartphones relies on algorithms, libraries, and drivers that combine specific feature sets and vision sensors on each device. Higher-end CV approaches can include infrared and LIDAR which send out a light beam and time its return to create a 3D map of real-world space.

Layers A shared open spatial web where any user can find content demands many new conventions of sorting. Users will need methods for filtering what they want to see follow or avoid in the AR society.

Latency is the delay between action and reaction. Having low latency is crucial when using a Head-mounted Display for AR. As you move your head, your HMD should display the resulting changes immediately.

High Latency in AR can cause virtual content to be misaligned with real life features.

Digital Twin as a bridge between the physical and digital world. Simply put, a digital twin can be best described as a ‘Virtual model of a product, service or a process’.

Snapping refers to automatically aligning. Or referring to a guide. ● Snap to object ( a couch fits evenly next to the edge of a table) ● Snap to environment ( a couch sits even on top of a rug) ● Snap to guide ( a table is entered in the middle of a rug)

Guides: Cage: A 3D boundary that references the volume, scale, and shape of something Shadow: Represents proximity and how far or close something is. Guide: Lines or cues that reprints alignment and proximity. Gizmo: A visual indicator for movement rotation or scale – useful for when A user can only do a single action. Parameter: A reference to the degree and value of change.

Spatial Sound/Audio When objects are out of our line of sight, one of the ways that we can perceive what's going on around us is through sound. Given that are hologram objects made of light and sometimes sound, the sound component helps ground holograms making them more believable and creating a more immersive experience. By analysing how sound reaches both our ears, our brain determines the distance and direction of the object emitting the sound. An HRTF (or Head Related Transfer Function) simulates this interaction by modelling the spectral response that characterises how an ear receives sound from a point in space. The spatial audio engine uses personalised HRTFs to expand the mixed reality experience, and simulate sounds that are coming from various directions and distances.

Black Mirror Scenario the morality tales of Black Mirror tend to shine a light on the darker corners of technology and the sociological risks hidden therein. How can we prevent a future which seems to be taken Straight out of the. Netflix Science Fiction show Black Mirror we don't want to wake up and find ourselves in an Spatial Web nightmare. Thin line to walk will we find our AR devices that could benefit from real time visual censoring of content in live video streams.

Hyper Reality In its original context, hyperreality has connotations of a dystopian future - one in which we crave reality, but in the attempt to achieve it, we fabricate a false version and consume that as real instead ( by French sociologist Jean Baudrillard and further explored by Italian Author Umberto Eco)

Eye Tracking Eye Tracking is the measurement of eye activity. While there are many different types of non-intrusive eye trackers, they generally include two common components: a light source and a camera. The light source is directed towards the eye. The camera tracks the reflection of the light source along with visible ocular features such as the pupi. This data is used to extrapolate the rotation of the eye and ultimately the direction of gaze.

Facial Tracking Facial tracking is a computer vision technology designed to obtain data from still images and video sequences by tracking certain facial features in real-time. While this technology has been used in motion capturing using facial markers, currently it is widely implemented in augmented reality (AR) experiences using a marker less mode. For example, face tracking can be used to perceive head poses and facial expressions, rendering the information obtained to an application that applies specific face filters. A camera is used to map and track facial landmarks in real-time.

3D reconstruction The process of capturing the shape and appearance of real objects. This process can be accomplished either by active or passive methods.If the model is allowed to change its shape in time, this is referred to as non-rigid or spatio-temporal reconstruction

Autonomous vehicles are vehicles capable of sensing their environment and navigating without human input.

Accessible design allows users of all abilities to navigate, understand, and use your UI successfully.

**Accessibility **provides access to a system or experience to all people, regardless of disability type or severity of impairment. When necessary, modifications should be considered to accommodate all major categories of disabilities: visual, hearing, motor, cognitive and emotional.

Barrier (needs to be paraphrased) Disablility Barriers The social model of disability suggests disability is caused by the way society is organized, rather than by a person’s impairment. This model suggests barriers in society are created by ableism. When barriers are removed, people with disabilities can be independent and equal in society. There are three main types of barriers:[5]

  1. Attitudinal barriers: are created by people who see only disability when associating with people with disabilities in some way. These attitudinal barriers can be witnessed through bullying, discrimination, and fear. These barriers include low expectations of people with disabilities. These barriers contribute to all other barriers.[5][6][7] Attitudes towards people with disabilities in low and middle-income countries can be even more extreme.[8]
  2. Environmental barriers: inaccessible environments, natural or built, create disability by creating barriers to inclusion.
  3. Institutional barriers: include many laws, policies, practices, or strategies that discriminate against people with disabilities. For example, a study of five Southeast Asian countries found that electoral laws do not specially protect the political rights of persons with disabilities, while ‘some banks do not allow visually disabled people to open accounts, and HIV testing centers often refuse to accept sign language interpreters due to confidentiality policies’.[9] Restrictive laws exist in some countries, particularly affecting people with intellectual or psychosocial disabilities.[10] Other barriers include: internalised barriers (low expectations of people with disabilities can undermine their confidence and aspirations), inadequate data and statistics, lack of participation and consultation of disabled people.

Billboarding is a behavioral concept that can be applied to objects in mixed reality. Objects with billboarding always orient themselves to face the user, by can rotating freely in the user's environment. [ from Microsoft Hololens Documentation ]

Constructivism is basically a theory -- based on observation and scientific study -- about how people learn. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.

Contextual inquiry is an interview method used to obtain information about the context of a given use case. The practice is to engage with users while they work naturally in their environment. Much can be observed about the user, both intended and unintended who may be affected by the augmentation, as well as physical characteristic and qualities of the environment itself.

** The Curb-Cut Effect** Laws and programs designed to benefit vulnerable groups, such as the disabled or people of color, often end up benefiting all of society. (more info https://ssir.org/articles/entry/the_curb_cut_effect) The lessons learned from the Curb-Cut Effect are invaluable for the future of immersive technologies. By prioritising accessibility in this generation of AR, developers and creatives alike can ensure that those concepts are firmly rooted in the medium pushing forward.

Disability The ADA defines a person with a disability as a person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity. This includes people who have a record of such an impairment, even if they do not currently have a disability. It also includes individuals who do not have a disability but are regarded as having a disability. The ADA also makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person based on that person’s association with a person with a disability. https://adata.org/faq/what-definition-disability-under-ada

Embodiment A tangible or visible form of an idea, quality, or feeling (Oxford Dictionary)

Fiducial marker used as a fixed standard of reference for comparison or measurement

Haptic The use of technology that stimulates the senses of touch and motion, especially to reproduce in remote operation or computer simulation the sensations that would be felt by a user interacting directly with physical objects.

Human Factors deal with trying to successfully engineer a system with the user and their needs in mind. The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society defines Human Factors as a “scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system and the profession that applies theory, principle, data and other methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance” (Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2000) Human Factors uses various methods to understand what the user needs from a system.

Human-centered design (HCD) is a term product creators use to describe a process of designing for people. HCD develops solutions to problems by involving the human perspective in all steps of the problem solving process. (4 fundamental principles of HCD) ● Focus upon the people ● Find the right problem ● Think of everything as a system ● Always test your design decisions

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) are activities related to independent living and are valuable for evaluating persons with early-stage disease, both to assess the level of disease and to determine the person's ability to care for himself or herself.

Immersion is achieved by removing as many real world sensations as possible, and substituting these with the sensations provided by the techmnology.

Inclusion ensures that we understand and account for diverse user needs, and make no assumptions about an average user. That we are designing for differences in: ● Access to information and technology ● Language and cultural understanding ● Socio-economic standing ● Age, gender, and identity ● Experience and ability ● Location

Journey Map (User Journey Map) is a visualization of an individual’s relationships with a product/experience/brand over time and across different channels. While user journey maps come in all shapes and formats, commonly it’s represented as a timeline of all touch points between a user and a product. This timeline contains information about all channels that users use to interact wiht a product. User Journey maps are an excellent tool for UX designers because they visualize how a user interacts with a product/experience and allows creatives to see a product/experience form a user’s perspective/point of view. This fosters a more user-centric approach to product design, which ultimately lead to better user experience.

Hologram, Holographic A 3-dimensional data set that is either animated or volumetrically captured intended to mimic reality. It is a visual phenomenon experienced through a special holographic projector or is played via in a real-time game engine and displayed in a virtual, mixed or augmented reality experience be realistically viewed from any angle or location.

Mental Model A mental model is a way to enhance your cognitive apparatus in order to make more intelligent and strategic decisions. (Why Model)

Multisensory Experience

Personas are fictional characters, which you create based upon your research (user research) in order to represent the different user types that might be used in a similar way. Personas can support achieving the goal of creating a good user experience for the target user group.

Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs. It is used to create a 3-dimensional model of a real-world object or scene from a series of 2 dimensional images. If the scale of the image is known, the distance between two points that lie on a plane parallel to the photographic image plane, can be determined by measuring their distance on the image.

Presence indicates how much the user feels engaged with a virtual experience, how much they feel that experience as a real experience.

Ready Player One

Safety The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury. (Oxford Dictionary)

Safety in the Term of AR Users can get too immersed in an AR experience and can get distracted from/ignore real world hazards around them if not properly alerted. Think about where your app/experience is directing the user’s attention.

Screen door effect Is a visual artifact that has a mesh-like appearance. It occurs where visible gaps, appearing as fine lines, between pixels are seen on a display. These usually arise when viewing at close proximity. The artifcat becomes much less significant as display resolutions increase.

SDF Signed-Distance Field, which is a precomputed representation of a font atlas that stores the glyph outlines implicitly. Distance fields are useful in a variety of graphics applications, including antialiasing, ray marching, and texture synthesis. Sometimes they are computed analytically from functions, but often they are generated from voxelized meshes or 2D bitmaps.

Smart Cities use information and communication technology (ICT) to enhance livaiblity, workability and sustainablility

Tag-along is a behavioral concept that can be added to holograms, including billboarded objects. This interaction is a more natural and friendly way of achieving the effect of head-locked content. A tag-along object attempts to never leave the user's view. This allows the user to freely interact with what is front of them while also still seeing the holograms outside their direct view. [ from Microsoft Hololens Documentation]

Task analysis is the process of learning about users by observing them in action to understand in detail how they perform their tasks and achieve their intended goals. Tasks analysis helps identify the tasks that your website, application and experience must support and can also help you refine or re-define your site's/experience navigation or search by determining the appropriate content scope Purpose of Task Analysis are? (content from Book User and Task Analysis for Interface Design, JoAnn Hackos and Janice Redish) ● What your users’ goals are; what they are trying to achieve ● What users actually do to achieve those goals ● What experiences (personal, social and cultural) users bring to the tasks ● How users are influenced by their physical environment ● How users’ previous knowledge and experience influence:

  • How they think about their work
  • The workflow they follow to perform their tasks

Tesla Suit

Transformative Technologies are medically and scientifically validated technologies supporting mental health, wellbeing and thriving that leverage technology to expand human joy and possibility.

Unity

Usability Usability is part of the brader term “user experience” and refers to the ease of access and/or use of a product or website. The official ISO 9241-11 definition of usability is. “The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals effectiveness, efficiencx and satisfaction in a specified context of use.”

Use Case A use Case is a written description of how users will perform tasks in your Experience/Product. It outlines from a user’s point of view, a system’s behavior as it responds a request. Each use case is represented as a sequence of simple steps, beginning with a user’s goal and ending when that goal is fulfilled. ● Who is using the Experience/Product ● What does the user want to do ● The user’s goal ● The steps the user takes to accomplish a particular task ● How the website should respond to an action

User/End User In IT, the term end user is used to distinguish the person for whom a hardware or software product is designed from the developers, installers and services of the experience/product. The term end user thus distinguishes the uses for which the experience/product is designed from other users who are making the experience/product possible for the enc user. Often the term user would suffice.

User Experience (UX) It’s the overall experience a person has while interacting with a product such as a website, or application. It’s part of everything you interact with. UX supports the entire Customer Experience (CX). We measure user experience by how easy, intuitive, seamless, pleasant or frictionless it is.

User Experience Principle ● Hierarchy ● Consistency ● Confirmation ● User Control ● Accessibility

User Flow A user flow is a series of steps a user takes to achieve a meaningful goal.

User Interface An interface is a mechanism of the interaction of the two systems. From this point a User Interface is an interface created for facilitating direct interaction between a system and a user. On the display device, there are two common types of User interfaces ● The command line interface (CLI), that contains text only and is used mostly by programmers ● The graphical User Interface (GUI) which includes images, windows, icons, menus … .

User Interface Design UI or User Interface design is a discipline of designing user interfaces for machines and software, with the focus on responsiveness and aesthetics, maximizing usability to foster a good user experience. UI design is typically a combination of ● Visual Design (the look and feel) ● Interaction Design (how it works)

User Research Understanding user behaviors needs motivation through observation techniques, task analysis and other feedback methodologies. User research also defines your audience and provides essential insights on how to best meet their needs. In that term there are some questions that need to be ask to gather User Information ● Who will use it? ● What are they trying to accomplish? ● What might get in their way? ● What are their primary needs?

Vergence-accommodation conflict (needs to be paraphraed) To view objects clearly, humans must accommodate, or adjust their eyes’ focus, to the distance of the object. At the same time, the rotation of both eyes must converge to the object’s distance to avoid seeing double images. In natural viewing, vergence and accommodation are linked. When you view something near (e.g. a housefly close to your nose) your eyes cross and accommodate to a near point. Conversely, if you view something at optical infinity (roughly starting at 6m or farther for normal vision), your eyes’ lines of sight become parallel and your eyes’ lenses accommodate to infinity.

In most head-mounted displays users will always accommodate to the focal distance of the display (to get a sharp image), but converge to the distance of the object of interest (to get a single image). When users accommodate and converge to different distances, the natural link between the two cues must be broken and this can lead to visual discomfort or fatigue.

Volumetric Video looks like standard video from a given viewpoint or projected onto a 2D surface, but exists volumetrically in 3D space. It is generally played back in a real-time game engine to produce a holographic effect in a virtual, mixed or augmented reality experience where it can be realistically viewed from any angle or location.

Volumetric Video Capture Volumetric Video Capture is a technique that uses multiple cameras to capture 3D data of a physical location or performance in the form of volumetric video. It is the motion capture of photogrammetry and uses computer graphic imaging, computer vision, motion capture tracking techniques to generate volumetric data in 3D space.

VR/AR/MR/XR

Simply a start... Augmented reality(AR)is an enhanced version of reality created by the use of digital overlays on something in the real world, being viewed through a device (such as a smartphone camera) that responds dynamically to its changes. It is a technology that incorporates real time inputs from the existing world to create an output that combines both real world data and digital, interactive elements.

It is distinct from virtual reality(VR), which isolates users and shows them a fully simulated environment, comprised of entirely fabricated elements and possibly 360 degree video or other photographic imagery.

However, both virtual and augmented reality have in common the real time, contextual response to users’ actions and interactions with the environment. (adapted from Nielsen Norman Group) Example of helping to clarify, more on the consumer side, it’s messy so I suggest me may have an opportunity to lead here.

https://medium.com/@northof41/what-really-is-the-difference-between-ar-mr-vr-xr-35bed1da1a4e

https://www.forbes.com/sites/charliefink/2017/10/20/war-of-arvrmrxr-words/#5e716b98d074 WG11 Glossary

companies glossary

created by charlie, blessed by companies he included. (i think)

6D.ai is building an augmented reality solution that works with any smartphone camera to map real-world objects and surfaces allowing both visual occlusion and physics interactions between real and digital objects. 8th Wall Web created an AR solution that works via internet browsers and was first presented widely to the public via a SpiderMan - Into the Spider Verse AR experience viewable through mobile web browsers. Aris MD is an immersive reality company using augmented and virtual reality technology to enhance surgery, save lives, and avoid complications. Amazon Web Services (AWS) ( NASDAQ: AMZN) is Amazon’s cloud computing solution available for developers at all levels to lease both for processing and storage. Amazon’s Sumerian XR publishing platform is built on top of AWS. Balti Virtual is a Baltimore based studio with twenty years of experience focused on VR and AR experiences. Their HoloTats are marker based AR experiences activated by tattoos. Happy Giant is a creative studio that builds games and immersive AR and VR experiences. The company created UNtamed ARena in partnership with the toy company WowWee and its Fingerlings line of toys. Happy Giant is responsible for many of the AR activations in this book. HP (NYSE: HP) Famously founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto, CA in 1939, HP is a worldwide leader in computer hardware company with multiple lines of business, including computers, home, office, and industrial scale printers, and VR headsets. Imitera is the creator of “Magic Chess” and other AR experiences, including interactive product demos. The company was founded by John Nilsson, the creator of jDome, an exercise bike with a dome-shaped projector screen which creates immersive experiences. Brighter acquired jDome, where Nilsson subsequently developed “Magic Chess” in 2018. Kopin (NASDQ: KOPN) creates innovative technology that has enhanced the way people see, hear, and communicate for three decades. Kopin company develops and manufactures technologies required for wearable computing headsets for the military, consumers, or industry. The company has contributed to the development of head- mounted displays for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, created the Golden-i, a wearable headset reference design for industry, and collaborated on wearable products for AR hardware makers like Vuzix, Motorola Solutions and Recon Instruments.

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Magic Leap was founded by serial entrepreneur Rony Abovitz in 2011, and launched its first AR headset, the Magic Leap One Creators Edition, in August 2018. Magic Leap has raised 3.4 billion dollars, 37% of all money invested in AR in the past five years. In order to create multi-planar spatial computing, Magic Leap had to develop their own optical system, chipset, and operating system. MERGE is the creator of the MERGE Cube and MERGE VR goggles, the only VR headset for kids, as it is made of soft, flexible foam. MERGE is focused on developing Cube-based education experiences for the classroom. Mozilla is the creator of the Firefox web browser, the first browser to support WebVR. The WebVR team began at Mozilla and is housed there. The team is now tackling WebXR, to bring both AR and VR to web browsers everywhere. Penrose Studios was founded by Eugene Chung in 2015 to produce virtual and augmented reality storytelling experiences. Their volumetric animated shorts have received critical acclaim at the Sundance, Tribeca and Venice Film Festivals. Wired called “Allumette” the first VR masterpiece. Charlie Fink calls Chung “the D.W. Griffith of VR.” PTC (NASDAQ: PTC) is a software company which got their start in the 90s with Computer Assisted Design software. They were a first mover in internet-enabled maintenance tracking. PTC doubled down on its commitment to AR with the acquisition of Vuforia from Qualcomm in 2015. Since then, Vuforia has tripled in size. PTC is rolling out Vuforia Studio, which will allow non-programmers to develop AR content. RE’FLEKT is a Munich-based AR and MR enterprise applications developer focusing on training and maintenance of factories, aircraft, and complex machines. RE’FLEKT has developed a SaaS platform, REFLEKT ONE, which allows companies to transform existing CAD data into AR applications for maintenance, training, and operations. Rokid is a Chinese startup founded in 2014 by computer science Ph.D. and serial entrepreneur Mingming Zhu. Before starting Rokid, Zhu was head of M-team for Alibaba Group, leading the company’s deep learning, natural language processing, and vision development efforts. In addition to AR glasses, the company is focused is on the research and developm ent of speech and imaging technology and a line of products that include smart speakers, and digital assistants that integrate AI and computer vision. The company has raised over 158 million dollars. Rovio Entertainment (OTC: Oyj) develops mobile and media games, and broadcast media, resulting in additional revenues from merchandising, publishing, and licensing. 79% of Rovio’s revenue is generated by their premier title, Angry Birds, which with its sequel Angry Birds Two, is one of the most popular mobile games of all time, w ith over 50 million downloads and 200 million minutes of gameplay each day. In 2018 Rovio launched Angry Birds for AR and VR, and as the first third-party game for Magic Leap. 338 Scope AR was founded in 2011 and builds AR software solutions for enterprise customers focusing on frontline workers. The company’s solutions include AR-enabled maintenance diagrams, animated CAD models, and remote assistance. Streem builds object recognition based AR to help connect customers with professionals. Need a plumber? Scan your sink with the Streem app and a professional who understands your specific piping can be contacted and even help guide you through the app. Ubimax is a wearable computing company founded in 2014 creating both hardware and software for augmented reality. Their Ubimax Frontline software suite is a collection of their four AR-enabled services: X-pick, X-make, X-inspect, and X-assist which provide AR-enabled warehouse picking, assembly instructions, data interfaces, and remote assistance respectively. Ubiquity6 founded in 2017, uses computer vision to enable massively multiplayer, persistent AR experiences on top of the physical world. The company focuses on multi- user AR experiences shared across devices. Ubiquity6 is working on some of the hardest challenges in computer vision, augmented reality and mapping. Visulix is a computer vision company creating spatial mapping accurate to centimeters. Their solution works with smartphone cameras to record spatial data to an AR Cloud. The cloud handles most of the computation while the phone displays AR content anchored to the real world. The world’s spatial map is stored on the cloud. Vuzix (NASDAQ: VUSI) is a supplier of Smart-Glasses and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies and products for the consumer and enterprise markets. The Company’s current products include the M-300 for enterprise and a cross-over with potential consumer appeal, the $999 Vuzix Blade, launched in February 2019. The Company’s products have won Consumer Electronics Show (CES) awards for innovation for the years 2005 to 2018 and several wireless technology innovation awards among others. Xperiel was founded in 2013 and aims to build what they call the Real World Web(RWW), which would make the entire world clickable. The company has partnerships with major sporting venues, where they create custom AR experiences to increase audience engagement. YOUAR is based in Portland Oregon and came out of stealth in early 2018. The team there is focused on creating global AR Cloud solutions that run on the devices we all have today: smartphones. Zappar was founded in 2011 and has created AR experiences that elevate marketing with innovative and engaging content. Their ZapWorks toolkit puts the power of AR in the hands of designers and developers, enabling them to push the boundaries of interactive creativity, both with and without code. The company also created ZapBox, a low-cost cardboard HMD for a mobile AR. 339 zSpace is an education technology creator and was founded in 2003 as a data visualization company. The principals came out of education software, and the company pivoted to serve the K-12 market in 2009. zSpace computers are used by a million students a day in classrooms and computer labs around the world. The company was named “Best in Show at ISTE” by Tech & Learning Magazine for three consecutive years and was ranked two years in a row on the Inc. 500 list of fastest growing companies.

  EXTRA:


FYI, - dave lorenzini note….this won’t be included but fyi, here’s the index to fink’s book for ideas of what to define + fast way to see what was written on it.

19 Crimes wine 224 1964 World’s Fair in New York 19, 201 1984 (book) 237 1G 159 2001: A Space Odyssey 19, 166 2005 World’s Fair in Alchi, Japan 92 2G 159 3D Printing 301 3G 159 4D 262 4G 159, 160, 161, 163 5G 9, 12, 13, 17, 19, 72, 107, 109, 113, 114, 140, 144, 155, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 172, 188, 193, 202, 296, 302, 305 6D.ai 16, 126, 136, 137, 143, 150, 180, 318, 328 7-Eleven 236, 239 8th Wall Web 156, 184, 278, 318, 328 8VC 273 A A-Frame 153 Aaron Luber 123 AccuVein 209, 210 Acer 125 Actiste 287 Adam (short film) 179 Adjacency, Inc. 149 Adobe 58, 129, 182, 318 Adobe Flash 29 Adobe Sensei 182 Advantix 258 AG Interactive 310 AGCO 194 AI 9, 17, 35, 38, 43, 44, 56, 72, 85, 93, 123, 142, 144, 148, 150, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 182, 188, 202, 210, 236, 253, 254, 258, 293, 297, 298, 299, 300, 302, 304, 311 Aikuma Hikari 168 Aira 209, 210 AirPods 57, 59, 60, 61, 80, 122 AlanEustace 108,109 Alan Smithson 188, 322 Albert Schmidt 33 Alberta University 197 Alex Hertel 234 Alex Kipman 94, 96, 97, 99, 101 Alexa 10, 17, 21, 54, 168, 304 Alexa Skills Store 62, 167 Alibaba 83, 93, 109, 226 Alice Hines 226 Alicia Vikander 273 Allied Health 220 Allumette 273 Allure Systems 225 Altered Carbon 166, 172, 253 AltSpaceVR 202 AmalgamatedVision 209,210 Amazon 9, 21, 54, 61, 115, 118, 123, 167, 183, 222, 246, 297, 298 Amazon Alexa 78, 167, 237 Amazon DynamoDB 183 Amazon Echo 167 Amazon Sumerian 183, 184 Amazon’s Alexa Fund 78 Ambisonics 58 AMC 233 America’s Cup 28 American Greeting Interactive 310 Amit Mahajan 150

Amy LaMeyer 56, 315 Amy Peck 72, 320 Anand Agarawala 203 AnatomyAR+ 282 Andreessen Horowitz 83, 109 Andrew Blake 96 Andrew Deutch 230 Android 30, 76, 85, 89, 90, 92, 149, 178, 279, 283 Andy Lowery 88 Andy Serkis 271 Angry Birds 110, 116 Angry Birds Star Wars 116 Anjney Midha 80, 139, 146, 317 Ankit Kumar 139 Anne Belova 284 Anne McKinnon 260, 270, 281, 317 Anon (Movie) 255, 256 Anorak Ventures 150 Anthony Cortez 204 AOL 310 Aparna Chennapragada 122, 138 Apollo 112 Apple 9, 17, 28, 31, 52, 54, 61, 73, 80, 89, 91, 92, 108, 110, 112, 114, 118, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 134, 142, 148, 149, 156, 167, 180, 181, 182, 228, 249, 288, 303, 313 Apple Maps 121 Applied Research Associates, Inc. 67 Aptos 222, 310 Aquafina 234 AR Cloud 17, 107, 123, 125, 126, 134, 135, 137, 139, 140, 141, 144, 145, 148, 149, 150, 180, 193, 234, 302, 304 AR Cloud Foundation 149 AR Foundation (Unity) 178 AR in Action 14 AR Insider 118, 311 AR Kit 14 ARC4 67, 70 ARCore 14, 31, 142, 143, 149, 178, 180, 181, 197, 228, 279 Arden’s Wake 273 Arden’s Wake: The Prologue 273 ARIA 54, 55, 81, 123 Aris MD 191, 208, 209, 210, 312, 328 ARKit 31, 120, 121, 125, 134, 142, 149, 178, 180, 181, 197, 218, 228, 232, 239, 279 ARPANET 16 ARQuake 27 ARShow 275 ARtGlass 265 ARtGlasses 59 Arthur Kobrine104 Artificial Intelligence 12 ARtillery 120, 186, 311 ArtLens 265 ARToolKit 27, 28, 29 ARToolworks 28 Arup 204, 205 ARVIKA 28 ARVR Academy 315 Aryzon 76 Asad Malik 263 ASICS Studio 62 ASOS 225 Assisted Reality 15 AT&T 107, 109, 110, 111, 161, 263, 311 Atari 276 Atari 2600 94

Index

325

Atheer 186, 209, 211 Atlanta, Georgia 300 Atrium 150 AttentivU 36 Aug-Mentors 259 Auggie Awards 259 Augmen.tv 261 Augmented Audio 57 Augmented Reality for Enterprise Alliance (AREA) 294, 295, 314 Augmented World Expo 201815 AugmentedReality.org 313, 316 AutoCAD 206 Autodesk 97 Automated Serious Game Scenario Generator for Mixed Reality Training (AUGGMED) 69 Avatar Chat 110 AWE 81, 101, 134, 239, 259, 310, 311, 313 AWE 2017 50 AWS 115, 123, 124, 125, 150, 183, 184, 222, 278, 328 AWS IoT 183 AWS Lambda 183 Ayzenberg Group 283 Azure 125 Azure AI 99 B BAE Systems 65, 70, 101, 191, 194 Balboa Park Online Collaborative 264 Balti-Virtual 14, 223, 235, 284, 328 Baobab Studios 270 Baraboo 96, 97 BASF Venture Capital 192 Battlefield Augmented Reality System 67 Beam 112 Beat Saber 53 Beatles 112 Beijing 93 Bejeweled 277 Benchmark 139 Benefit 250 Bent Image Labs 140, 149, 312 Best Buy 53, 313 Betsy Sparrow 32 Billboard 62 BillionaireSingapore 244 Bimber 27 BioEssence 33, 36 Black Magic AR kiosk 28 Black Mirror 254 Blackberry 32, 92 Blackburn Buccaneer 65 Blade Runner 252 Blair Macintyre 155 Blippar 241, 242 Bluetooth 59, 61, 77, 78, 90, 114 BMT 69 Bob Ross 148 Bob Sproull 25 Bobbi Brown 231 Boeing 26, 128, 187, 193, 195, 196, 197 Bonnier’s Popular Science 241 Book of the Dead 175, 176, 178 Bose 34, 62, 247 Bose Sunglasses 236 Boxcar (Children’s book series) 259 Bradwell Institute 216

Bragi 60 Brain Power 209, 211 BrainLab 209 Brainwaive 290, 294, 314 Brendan Cieko 264 Brian Ferren 103 Brian Hui 249 Brian Millins 76 Brighter 287 Bristol Old Vic Theater 271 British Royal Navy 65 British Telecom 311 Broadway 310 Bruce Corporation 293 Bruce Thomas 26 Bud Light 234 Building Information Modeling (BIM) 206, 207 Business Insider 118, 281, 311 Buy+ 226 Byte Dance 249 C C-3PO 232 C# 178 CAD 27, 97, 192, 194, 197, 198 California Institute of Technology 105 CalTech 60 Cambridge 8 Candy Crush Saga 277 Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity 181 Cannondale 191 Canon 28, 48 Capitol Records 262 Capitol Royale hackathon 262 Cariolens 308 Carl Brockmeyer 192 Carlo Calica 149 Carolina Arguelles 247, 248 Case Western Reserve University 17, 98, 213 Caspar Thykier 239 CAT S61 65 Caterpillar 65, 128, 197 Cathy Hackl 246, 314 CAVEs 269 CDMA 159 CES 17, 73, 88, 93, 218, 310 CES 2017 206 CES 2018 60, 85, 89, 93 CES 2019 93, 110, 167, 193, 232 Chandra Devam 208, 312 Chappie 179 Charles Geschke 182 Charles Nduka 212 Charlie Fink 137, 146, 166, 186, 206, 230, 247, 255, 257, 261, 310 Charlie Fink’s Metaverse 259, 310 Charlotte Tilbury 233 Cheryl Bayer 259 Chris Bobotis 58 Chris Conner 172 Chris Parkinson 88 Chris Pickett 77 Christa Fink 248 Chrome 153 Cinemascope 86 Circular Review System 67 Cisco 202, 203, 259

326 Cleveland Museum of Art 265 Clicks on Bricks 135 Clifford Still Museum 266 CNET 93 Co-Made 273 Coachella 48 Coca Cola 30, 252 Colors (magazine) 30 Columbia University 26, 32, 74 Columbia Ventures Corporation 88 Comcast 74 Computer Vision 140, 141, 142, 143, 145, 150, 167, 169, 312 Conference on the Future of Engineering Software 106 Connell Gauld 239 CONTENT 274 Convergence 12, 91, 144, 148 Converse 247 Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum 207 Cortana 96 CoSpaces EDU 218 Cover Girl 225 Creator (Ubimax) 189 Creo Illustrate (PTC) 194 Crunchbase 109 CTV’s Canada AM 313 Curitiba, Brazil 94 Curiosity Rover 97 Cuseum 264, 266 Custom Speech Service 171 CyberCode 27 CyberDisplay 81 D D.W. Griffith 273 Daimler 195 Dalmore Whisky 225 Daniel Wagner 27 DAQRI 28, 70, 76, 77, 88 Daqri Smart Helmet (DSH) 76 Darius Pajouh 193 DARPA 69, 81 DataGlove 25 Dave Cannington 60 Dave Lorenzini 148, 316 Dave Mizell 26 Dave Ranyard 283 David Daniels 140, 149 David Helgason 174, 175 David Lerman 265 David Thompson 235 Deep learning 34, 93, 210 Dell 75 Deloitte 186, 310 Denmark LEGO museum LEGO house 285 DepthKit 257, 258 Devar 253, 284 DHL 189 DigiLens 77 DigiLens Crystal 77 Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) 209, 210 Dimenco 87 Dimenco Simulated Reality 87 Diminished Reality 15 DirectX 94, 177 Disney 58, 83, 103, 109, 288, 310 Disney Lenovo Star Wars “Jedi Challenge” 281 Disney Research 169 Disneyland 273 DisneyQuest 268 Disrupt You! (book) 310 District 9 179 Domino’s Pizza 233 Don Mattrick 95, 96

Dormio 36, 37 Dow Jones 243 Downsizing 85 Dr. Grordbort’s Invaders 102, 104, 110, 111, 263 Dragon Duel AR 284 Dream Reality Interactive 283 Dreamcast 94 DreamGlass 77 DreamWorld 77 DRS 55 Dubai 301 Dunkin Donuts 231 Dysonics 60 E E-sports 10, 261, 268 EchoPixel 209, 211, 212 EDA 36 EdCampOKC 218 Edward Saatchi 172 EEG 35, 36 Elbit 55, 70 Electronic Arts 95 Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3) 96 Elements of OZ 275 Ellen Einarson 260 eMarketer 230 Emblematic Group 243 EMI 310 Empatica 35 EmTeq 209, 212 EndeavorVR 320 Engadget 85 EnteringVR.com 315 Entourage 105 Envisioning Holograms 38 EOG 35, 36 Epcot 112, 268 Epson 74, 78 Epson Moverio BT-300 78 Ericsson Mobility Report 161 Erik Murphy-Chutorian 184, 318 Escher Reality 147 Esquire 30, 241, 244 Estee Lauder 250 Euclid’s Shapes 220 Eugene Chung 273 Evan Spiegel 313 EVDO 159 Evena Medical 129 Exovite 98 Experience on Demand 217 Eye of Judgment 28 Eyecandylab 232, 260, 261 EyeClick 269 EyePhone 25 Eyes-On 129 F F35 25, 55, 66, 67, 70, 81 F8 248, 249 Fable (Studio) 171, 172 Face Lens 250 Facebook 9, 17, 50, 54, 73, 89, 91, 108, 109, 118, 119, 120, 124, 125, 126, 130, 140, 143, 150, 156, 184, 218, 231, 233, 246, 247, 248, 249, 306 Facebook Messenger 184 Facebook Spaces 53, 202 Facebook Spark 247, 249 Facetime 203 Falcon Creative 269 Fantasia 58 Fantastic Beasts 110

327

Farhad Manjoo 126 Farmville 139 Felice Grodin 266 Fremantle Media 260 Fidelity 83, 109 Fidelity Investments Canada 78 Field of view 50 Filippos Tzortzoglou 216 Firefox 89, 153 FLIR Lepton thermal camera 65 Floodgate 150 Flyby Media 315 Focals by North 61, 78, 82, 121, 236 Foot Locker 225 Forbes 108, 222, 246, 261, 310, 311, 313 Ford 30 Ford Sync 96 Forte Technologies 92 Fortune 310 Fortune 500 310 Four Thirty Three 279 Fox Broadcasting Network 259 Frames by Bose 61 Frank Sinatra 23 Fred Brooks 26 Fred Edman 196 Friendster 119 Frontline (Ubimax) 189, 190 Fujitsu 55 Fulton Center 204 Fumio Kishino 22 Future Lab 206 FWA 159, 161 G Gallup 215 Game of Thrones 107 GameCrate 260 Gamecube 95 Garmin 55 Gartner 60 Gatebox 168 Gatwick airport 63 GDP 135 GE 128 GE Smart Grid 29 Geek & Sundry 288 Gemini 112 General Catalyst Ventures 150 General Motors 19, 298 Generation Z 247, 300 George Lucas 56 George Orwell 237 Getinge 192, 195 Gey’s Anatomy 214 Ghostbusters 279 Giambattista della Porta 23 GIF 184 Gizmodo 241 Global Editors Network 244 GMA Games 171 Golden Gate Bridge 261 Golden-i 81 Golden-i Infinity 79 Goldman Sachs 217 GOLOBO 281 Google 9, 16, 31, 54, 55, 61, 73, 83, 105, 107, 108, 109, 112, 118, 122, 123, 125, 134, 136, 142, 146, 147, 149, 150, 156, 180, 181, 182, 184, 205, 228, 234, 306, 311 Google Assistant 92, 122, 167, 246, 304 Google Cardboard 76, 91, 239 GoogleEarth 147 Google Earth VR 53

Google Expeditions 216 Google Glass 14, 48, 49, 50, 52, 73, 79, 82, 121, 128, 147, 187, 190, 212, 262 Google Glass Enterprise Edition 79 Google I/O 122, 138 Google Lens 122, 123, 152 Google Maps 51, 92, 123, 138, 147, 150, 233 Google Maps Street View 122, 123, 138 Google Pixel Buds 60 Google Play 76 GoPro 48 GPS 16, 26, 30, 61, 63, 68, 108, 141, 149, 154, 156, 182, 290 Gradient Ventures 139 Graeme Cox 212 Graham Macnamara 105,106 Graham Roberts 242 Grand Theft Auto (Video game) 171 Grateful Dead 112 Greg Broadmore 104, 111 Greg Castle 150 GSI 194 GSM 81, 159 GTAFF Automotive 220 Guandong Science and Technology Center 28 Guggenheim Museum of Art 216 GUI 21, 46 GuidiGO 265, 266 Guitar Hero 281 Gunnery System Augmented Reality( GUNNAR) 69 Guru 266 H H&M 247 HADO (Game) 268 HAL 9000 166 Halo 2 95 Hans Christian Andersen 273 Happy Feet 2 239 Happy Giant 278, 284, 288, 328 Harlem Globetrotters 235 Harman 48 Harry Potter: Wizard’s Unite 278 Harry Potter: Wizards Unite 147, 181 Harvard Business Review 100, 186, 310 Harvard Business School 135 Harvard University 25 Hasbro 239, 288 Hassan 108 HBO 109, 252 Head Related Transfer Functions 58 Heads Up Displays 13, 24 HeadSight 24 Hearables 59, 60, 63 HearPhones 34 HeartBit 36 Helen Papagiannis 56 Helsinki University of Science and Technology 116 Hendrik Witt 189 Henry Dircks 23 Henry Ford 303 Her(movie) 253 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) 81 High Fidelity 53, 202 Himan Interact Labs 171 HIT Lab NZ 28, 30, 311 Hollywood 48, 105, 106, 252 HoloPopUps 235,284 HoloAnatomy 98 HoloBeam 203 HoloChess 288 Holographic Processing Unit (HPU) 84, 97, 99 HoloGrid Monster Battle 278, 288 Hololens 2, 14, 50, 52, 67, 68, 73, 74, 83,

328 84, 88, 96, 98, 99, 101, 108, 109, 110, 124, 140, 178, 179, 180, 191, 195, 197, 202, 205, 263, 268, 308 HoloTats 14, 235 HoloTour 132 Home Depot 233 Houzz 131 HP 296, 300, 301, 323, 328 HSPA 159 HTC 83 HTC Vive 69, 120, 239, 246, 314 HTML 148, 153, 155 Huawei 17, 54, 89, 91, 126 HUD 65, 66, 70, 80, 128 Huffington Post 222, 310, 311 Human Anatomy Atlas 220 Human Interface Technology Lab 26 HybriDrive (buses) 194 Hyper-Reality 137 Hyperloop One 306 Hypertext 134 Hypervsn 224 HypeVR 257, 258 Hypnagogia 37 I iBasis 311 IBM 81, 126, 170 ICANN 148 iCOM personal internet browser 92 IEEE 28, 291, 293, 311 IEEE/ACM International Workshop on Augmented Reality (IWAR) 28 Ignacio Rodriguez 205, 206 IKEA 57, 131, 181, 225, 247 IKEA Place 131, 181, 232 ILMxLAB 113 IMAX 262 Imitera 282, 287, 328 Immersion 41 Immersive Web Working Group 157 Independent Creator Program 111 Index Ventures 139 Influx Reality Mixer 283 Information Objects 43, 45 Ingress 147 Insomniac Games 110, 285 Instagram 89, 130, 231, 246, 249 Integrated Developer Environment (IDE) 177, 180 Integrated Visual Augmented System (IVAS) 99 Intel 74, 90, 92, 257, 258, 271 Intel Capital 78 Interactive Imaging Systems 92 International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR) 28

International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (IS- MAR) 28

International Symposium on Mixed Reality (ISMR) 28 International Telecommunications Union 159 Internet-of-Things 9 iOS 92, 149, 178, 243, 244, 283 iOS App Store 76, 120 IoT 161, 162, 198, 234, 237, 293 iPad 50, 84, 98, 195, 205 iPhone 8, 14, 32, 76, 92, 121, 132, 241, 279 iPhone X 132 IQ Buds 60 IR Architects 205 Israeli army 67 Israeli Defence Force 74 iTunes 120 Ivan Sutherland 25 J J-Source 241

J.K. Rowling 283 Jacob Lowenstein 200, 316 Jacob Mullins 150 James Cameron 312 James George 257 Jamie Dixon 259 Jamie Shotton 96 Japan 28 Jaron Lanier 25, 103 Jason Yim 285 Javascript 157, 184 Jay Samit 8, 310 jDome 287 Jeff Norris 97 Jeff Seibert 150 Jeremy Bailenson 217, 219 Jeremy Kenisky 218 Jesse Damiani 62 Jim Heppelmann 198, 199 Jinha Lee 203 Joachim Ante 174 Joe Kraus 150 Joe Parlier 214, 320 Joel Orr 106 John Fan 79 John Gordon 62 John Pepper 23 Johan Huizinga 279 John Deere 198 John Fan 54, 55, 81 John Gaeta 103, 105, 107, 108, 112, 113 John Hanke 147, 280, 281 John Nilson 283, 287 John Peters 135 John Warnock 182 Jon Fortt 101 Jonathan Gagne 58 JP Morgan 83, 109 Jun Rekimoto 21, 27 Junaio 30 JunoVR 308 Jurassic World 181 Jurassic World Alive 224, 229 K Kabaq 233 Kalman Tihanyi 64 Kantara Initiative 291 KAPI Award 288 Karel Capek 166 Keiichi Matsuda 137 Kent Bye 304 Kevin Kelley 137 Kevin Williams268, 323 Kevin Zhong 77 Keyhole 147 Kickstarter 74, 76, 91, 239 Kindle 115 Kinect 96, 99, 258 Kirk Ewing 239 Kiwi 181 Kleiner Perkins 83, 109, 139 Knowledge Graph 122 Konstantinos Rematas 257, 258 Kopin 55, 79, 81, 82, 88, 329 Korea Telecom 273 Kudan 156 KWP 323 Kyle Roche 124, 183 L L. Frank Baum 24 L.A. Dodgers 234

329

L.E.A.O. Conference 110 L’arrivée d’un train en gare de La Ciotat 240 L’Oreal 132, 225, 233 LAScienceMuseum 111 Lacoste 233, 250 Land Warrior 66 Lars Bergstrom 154 Lars Muckli 169 Layar 30 LeapCon 110, 263, 274 Learning Virtual Reality (Book) 174 LeBron 16 King Court Purpleshoes 225 Lego 247, 285 Leila Amirsadeghi 274 Lenovo 74, 82, 247 Lenovo New Vision 55 Leopoly 220 Lewis Packwood 147, 166, 240, 280, 319 Lex 183 Lexus 176 Leybold 192, 194 LIDAR 143 Lifebeam Vi 61 Lightpack 109, 162 Lilley Coney 293 Limpid Armor 67 LinkedIn 73, 122 LIV 269 LiveWorx 18 101 Living Labels 59 Living Popups 259, 329 Livio AI 61 Lockheed Martin 67, 70, 128, 196, 197 Looking Glass 87 Lorraine Bardeen 100, 101 Loren Hammonds 262, 314 Lorraine Bardeen 186 Lost in Time 260, 261 Lowes 123, 181 LTE 81, 159 LucasArts 288 Lucasfilm 113 Lucy Nguyen 261 Ludia 181, 279 Lumiere Brothers 240 Lyft 298 M Machine Learning 143, 167, 170, 182 MadGaze 82 MadGaze Aries 82 MadGaze Vader 82 MadGaze x-5 82 Madison Avenue 119 Maestro Games 209, 212 Magia Naturalis 23 Magic Chess 282, 283, 287 Magic Leap 14, 17, 50, 57, 61, 67, 73, 83, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 115, 126, 136, 140, 142, 162, 163, 166, 180, 202, 203, 205, 246, 249, 263, 288, 313, 314 Magic Leap Conference 271 Magic Leap One 59, 77, 83, 103, 104, 107, 109, 110, 112, 114, 116, 178, 179, 262, 269, 275, 283, 305 Magicverse 13, 304 MAK Austrian Museum of Applied Arts 266 Mako 83, 103, 104, 108 Marc Benioff 273 Marc Wakefield 249 Mari Smith 248 Mark Billinghurst 20, 26, 59, 311 Mark Zuckerberg 248, 279 Marketing New Realities 230, 246

Markus Solibieda 192 Mars 97 MARS earbuds 60 Marshall McLuhan 135, 260 Martin Scorsese 167 Marvel 235 Mary Poppins 112 Mastercard 237 MasterpieceVR 58 Mathias Chelebourg 270 Mathieu de Faye 281 Matrix Mill 147 Matt Miesnieks 126, 136, 150, 318 Mayo Clinic 208 McDonald’s 224 McDonalds 281 McKinsey 186 Media Monks 181 Medium 44, 280 Meleap 268 Meow Wolf 263, 269, 274 Mercedes-Benz 195 Mercury 112 MERGE 84, 218, 275, 282, 329 MERGE Cube 14, 84, 218, 281, 282 MERGE Educators Group 218 Merrill Lynch 120 Meron Gribetz 74, 75 Meta 2, 73, 74, 75, 77, 83 Metaio 28 Metal (graphics API) 177 Metaverse 23, 31, 303 MetaVRse 322 Mettle 58 MGM Casinos 234 Mica 166 Michael Eichenseer 94, 252, 313 Michael Jackson 23 Michael Kors 119, 231, 250 Michael Levine 284, 285, 288 Michal Bucko 193 Michelle Guzman 217 Microsoft 15, 54, 67, 68, 94, 95, 97, 99, 100, 101, 108, 118, 124, 125, 186, 250 Microsoft Build Conference 97 Microsoft Cognitive Services 171 Microsoft Garage 38, 321 Microsoft Holographic 97 Microsoft Hololens 13, 17, 60, 77, 84, 94, 128, 132, 178, 194, 213, 239, 269, 274 Microsoft Kinect 96 Microsoft Remote Assist 97 Microsoft Windows 52 Mike Boland 118, 186, 311 Mike Campbell 186 Mike Pell 38, 321 MIMBUS Wave-NG 220 MindMaze Mask 308 Minecraft 97 Minority Report 252 Mira 85 Miro Shot 274 Misa Zhu 93 Mission Impossible 252 MIT 25, 26, 55, 81, 276 MIT Media Lab 14, 32, 35, 123, 311, 317 Mitsubishi Chemical’s Diamond Edge Ventures 77 Mixed and Augmented Reality Studio(MARS) 179, 180 Mixed Reality 15, 22, 51 Mixed Reality Continuum 22 Mixed Reality Marketing Summit 247 Mixed Reality Systems Laboratory 28 MLB 237

330 Mobile Broadband 161 Mobilizy 30 Modiface 132, 233 Mohring 27 Moonbloom 283 Motion Reality Inc.69 Motorola114 Moverio BT-35E78 Mozilla 152, 153, 154, 244, 246, 314, 329 MSBuild 94 MTV 313 Musical.ly 249 Myo Armband 78 Myspace 119, 126 N Nadine Kolodziey 182 NAMCO 268 NASA 25, 97, 105, 106, 112, 128, 290, 314 NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) 97 NASDAQ 90, 198, 310 Natal 94 National Geographic 76, 216 National Portrait Gallery 267 National Public Radio 222, 310 Natural Language Processing 167 Natural-language-processing 93 Navicam 27 NBC Universal 235 Neal Stephenson 108 Neal Stimler 264, 322 Ned Sahin 211 Neil Stephenson 102, 103 Neill Blomkamp 179 Nestle 239, 313 Netflix 9, 89, 92, 231, 252, 255, 256 Neurable 308 NeverMind 35 New York Jets234 New York Times 126, 310 Next Games 279 NextWeb 2013 52 NFL Super Bowl 169 NiagaraFalls 308 Niantic 31, 77, 126, 142, 143, 147, 181, 226, 278, 280 Niantic Real World Platform 147 Nicholas Francis 174 Nick Hunn 59 Nickelodeon 232 Nielsen 276 Night Vision 64, 65, 66 Night Vision Goggles 13 Nik Honeysett 264 Nike 30, 172, 233, 234 Nikki Baird 222, 310 Niklas Hed 116 Niko Bonatsos150 Nintendo 95 Nissan 232 NIST 293 NIST Privacy Framework Initiative 293 Nokia 250, 311 Nonny de la Pena 243 North 72, 73, 114, 168 nReal 85 nReal Light 85 Nuheara 60 O ObservEtoiles 76 Oculus 54, 83, 118, 120, 124, 314 Oculus Go 84 Oculus Launchpad 246

Oculus Quest 52, 53, 54, 84, 120 ODG 73 ODGR 83 Ogilvy 181 Ogmento 134, 315 OLED 93 Olympics 29 Omar Khan 59, 114 One Aldwych Hotel 225 Onedome 274 ONI 253 Open AR Cloud Association 137, 148 Open AR Cloud Foundation 312 OpenARCloud.org 316 OpenGL 153, 177 Orbu 283 Ori Inbar 13, 134, 148, 150, 315 Oxford 150 Oxford Sciences Innovation Plc. 150 P Pamela Donald 216 Pamela Rutledge 281 Paramount Pictures 85, 257, 258, 321 Pattie Maes 14, 32, 317 Paul Davies 195 Paul Milgram 22, 26 Paul Travers 92 Paypal 235 Pebbles (Xperiel) 234 Penrose Studios 273, 329 Pepper’s Ghost 23, 268, 269 Perez Art Museum Miami 266 Perrier 181 Peter Jackson 106, 263 Pew Research246 Phil Tippett 288 Philip Rosedale 306 Philipp Hertel 234 Philo Corporation 24 Photogrammetry 143 PhsychicVR 36 Phys.org 169 Pikachu 141 Pilot 60 Pinterest Lens 247 PitchFWD 230, 324 Pitr Boa 249 Pixel 2 92 PlayStation 2 95 PlayStation 3 283 Plott 232 Pokemon 280 Pokemon GO 31, 77, 113, 120, 141, 147, 181, 214, 268, 278, 279, 280, 281 Polly 183 Pottery Barn 231 PowerScribe One 60 Presence Capital 150 PrimeSense 96 Prince Castle 196 printing press 8 Privacy Act 293 Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) 198 Progress-Werk Oberkirch (PWO) 190 Project Aero 129, 182 Project Baraboo 96 Project Create 110 Project Natal 96 Project OnSite97 Psychology Today 281 PTC 101, 186, 191, 194, 198, 199, 329 Pulsio Flex AR 195

331

PVI/Sportsvision 29 Q QR Code 193, 195, 230, 241, 244 Qualcomm 83, 85, 99, 109, 198, 199 Quartz 242, 243, 244 QuasAR Arena 278 QuickLook 132 QuiverVision 20 R R2-D2 232 Radiotopia 59 Ray Di Carlo Ray Soto 242 Ray-Ban 62 Raytheon 69, 92 RE’FLEKT 128, 186, 192, 195, 329 Re’Flekt One 192 Real World Web (RWW) 234 Real3D 262 Reality-Virtuality Continuum 22 Reality, Virtually Hackathon 316 RealMax 85, 88 RealMax Qian 88 RealWear 55, 88 RealWear HMT-1 88 Red Bull Bulletin 30 Red (Cameras) 258 Reddit 139 Rekimoto 26 Remote AR (Scope AR) 196, 197 Rene Schulte 250 Resolution Games 116 Resonai 142 Reynold Wu 89, 93 RFID 189, 190, 193 Richard Armitage 273 Richard Taylor 104, 105, 106, 111 Rio Caraeff 111, 112, 114 Rob Crasco 158, 311 Robert del Naja 150 Robert Downey Jr. 30, 241 Robert Guest 69 Robert LaBelle 291, 292 Robert Scoble 48, 52, 321 Rochester Institute of Technology 94 Rockstar Games 171 Rockwell Collins 55, 70 Rokid 88, 93, 330 Rokid Glass 88, 93 Rokid Me 93 Rolling Stone 83, 109 Roman Rappak 274 Ron Azuma 31 Ronald Azuma 20 Ronald Punako, Jr. 68 RonyAbovitz 13, 83, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 313 Rovio 110, 111, 116, 239, 330 Roy Ashok 76 Royal Australian Air Force 70 Royal Navy 70 Royal Navy Buccaneer 24 Royal Shakespeare Company 271 Ryan Fink 228, 248 Ryan Montoya 234 Ryan Walsh 150 S Saab Australia70 Saatchi 30 Sacramento Kings 234

SalesForce 273 Sam Miller 105, 114 Sam Steinberger 64, 204, 322 Samantha G. Wolfe 324 Samantha Wolfe 230 Samsung 54, 114, 125, 126, 189 Samsung Galaxy S6 161 Samsung Gear 263 Samsung NEXT 200 San Diego Museum of Art 266 San Francisco 49ers 239 Sand Hill Road 54 Sansar 53 Satya Nadella 97, 124 SCE London Studio 283 Schmalstieg 26 Schnellecke Logistics 190 Scope AR 128, 186, 187, 196, 197, 330 Scott Edgar 208, 312 Scott Montgomerie 197 Sean Adkinson 228 Sean White 152, 153 Second Life 306 Seedling (Game) 110, 285 Sekai Camera 30 Selerio 142 Selma Sabera 275 Sennheiser Ambeo headphones 58, 59 Sephora 48, 57, 225 Seymour Papert 35 Shakespeare 271 Shane Wall 296, 323 Shasta Ventures 150 Shawn Flaherty 235 Shazam 239 Shel Israel 168, 172 Sherlock Holmes 241 SIGGRAPH 103, 104 Sigur Ros 57, 61 Silicon Valley 48, 75, 93, 119, 311, 312 Silka Miesnieks 182, 318 SimonTaylor 239 SimX 212 Siri 10, 125, 167, 168 Sketchfab 265, 267 Sketchpad 25, 250 Sketchup 207 Skrillex 48 Sky Maps 59 Slack 246 SLAM 74, 82, 85, 93, 143, 156, 164, 182, 184 smart glasses 303 Smartify 267 Snap 54, 73, 80, 150, 156, 225, 239, 247, 251, 313 Snap Lenses 248 Snap Spectacles 80, 121, 251 Snapchat 51, 130, 140, 150, 231, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 261 Snapdragon 835 85, 88, 99 SNES 276 Snowcrash 102, 103, 112 Soldier Integrated Protective Ensemble 66 SOLOS 55, 79, 81, 82 Sony 27, 34, 73, 95, 283, 310 Sony Pictures 157, 184, 206 Sony PlayStation 28 Sony Watchman TV 25 Soulaiman Isani 211 South Florida Business Journal 107, 109 SparkAR 231, 249 Spatial 200, 202, 203, 316 Specktr 262 Spider-Man 157, 278 Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse 157, 184

332 Spin Master 288 Sportsvision 169 Sprint 161 Stanford 74 Stanford University 217 Stanford University Medical Center 212 Stanley Kubrick 19 STAR 1200 92 Star Trek 200, 202 Star Wars 104, 107, 274, 281, 288 Star Wars: Jedi Challenges 82 Starbucks 146, 235 Starkey Hearing Technologies 61 Starlight Scope 64 Starship Commander 171 Statue of Liberty 242 STEM 216 Stephanie Llamas 276, 316 Steve Feiner 26 Steve Jobs 112 Strava 62 Streem 228, 330 Striker II 70 Stryker Surgical 83, 103 Subway 233 Suffolk Equity 273 Sumerian 124 Super Bowl 36 Super Ventures 63, 134, 137, 150, 315 Super-Cockpit 25 SuperData 231, 276, 280, 316 Surat 300 Sway Ventures 273 Swimming with Sharks 105 SXSW 261, 310 Sydney Opera House 204 T T.L. Taylor 276, 277 Tac-Eye 92 Tactical Augmented Reality System 67 Taeyeon Kim 120 Tamiko Thiel 11, 17 Tango 136, 142, 205 Target 249 TC Disrupt 80 TCP/IP 16 TDMA 159 Team One 176 Techcrunch 118, 311 TED 74, 97 Ted Schilowitz 50, 51, 257, 258, 321 Telepresence 200, 201, 202, 203, 305 Tencent 74 Terence Caulkins 207 Terminal 3 (AR documentary) 263 Thales 55 Thalmic Labs 78 The Abyss (movie) 312 The Age of Smart Information 38 The Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Station 240 The Beatles 247 The Boston Consulting Group 230 The Builder’s Association 275 The Climb (game) 53 The Convergence 303, 306 The Drum 231 The Duke 95 The Economist 222, 310 The Fourth Transformation (book) 48 The Future Group 260 The Gherkin 204 The Hatchery 171, 315 The Hobbit 106

The Imaginarium 271 The Joy Of Painting 148 The Magicverse 107, 113, 114 The Man Who Laughs 271 The Marvelous Clouds 135 The Master Key 24 The Matrix 103, 113 The New York Times 118, 222, 242, 244, 311 The New Yorker 311 The Out-of-Home Interactive Entertainment Frontier (book) 268 The Royal Academy 267 The Story of the Kelly Gang 241 The Terminator 49, 252 The Unreal Garden 274 The Walking Dead 233, 279 The Wall Street Journal 118, 311 The Washington Post 242, 244 The Wizard of Oz 24, 275 theboolean.io 317 Theresa Cullen 218 thermal-vision 65, 66 Thingworx Studio 101 ThingWorx (PTC) 198 Third Eye 89 Thomas Flynn 265 Thomas Young 8, 10 THX 58 TikTok 249 Tilt Brush 110 Tim Cook 114, 148, 313 Tim Draper 74 TIME 97 Times Colonist 241 Tinkerbell 263 Tom Bruckner 262 Tom Caudell 26 Tom Emrich 63, 128, 313 Tom Furness III 25, 26 Tonandi 57, 61, 110 Tony Hodgson 290, 314 Tony Parisi 174, 249, 319 Tony Stark 252 Tony Vitillo 113, 248, 323 Toronto Star 241 Toshiba 90 Toshiba AR-100 88 Toshiba Dyna Edge AR100 90 Tostitos 234 Total Immersion 28, 269 TouchCard 282, 287 Touring Machine 26 Toyota 128 Toys “R” Us 223 Trafalgar Entertainment 271 Tran Calvin 280 TransLink Capital 273 Travis Rothbloom 205, 206, 207 Treasury Wines Estates 224 Trema International Holdings 116 Tribeca Film Festival 262, 273, 314 Trigger 278 Trigger Global 285 Trigger (MR agency) 184 TripAdvisor 62 TuneIn 62 Twitch 261, 262 Twitter 89, 246, 249, 257 Tyler Gates 69 Tyler Lindell 168 U U.S. Air Force 196 U.S. Army 64, 67, 68, 81 U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development,

333

and Engineering Center (CERDEC) 67 U.S. Cycling Team 81 U.S. Government 81 U.S. Military 65, 66, 68, 99 U.S. Naval Research Laboratory 67 U.S. Navy 69 Uber 16, 109, 182, 296 Ubimax 128, 186, 189, 190, 330 Ubiquity 6 UBM 313 Ujung Pandang 300 UMTS 159 Under Armour 223, 235 Unilever 196, 197 United States Department of Education’s National Education Technology Plan 215 Unity 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 319 Unity Asset Store 177 Unity Scriptable Render Pipeline (SRP) 175, 176, 179 Unity Technologies 174 Universal Studio 310 Universal Visual Browser 13, 302 Universal Visual Browser (UVB) 137, 139, 146, 150 University of California San Diego 184 University of Cambridge 239 80, 126, 139, 141, 146, 226, 317, 330 University of Canterbury 311 University of Edinburgh 8 University of Glasgow 169 University of Miami 102, 105 University of Munich 33 University of North Carolina 26 University of Oklahoma 218 University of South Australia 26, 59, 311 University of Southern California 95 University of Tokyo 21 University of Toronto 26 University of Washington 26, 311 University of Washington Reality Lab 257 Unreal Engine 261 Unreal Garden 98 Untamed ARena 288 Upskill 128, 186, 187, 195, 196 Urban Decay 250 Urban Warfare Augmented Reality system 66, 68 US Air Force 25 USA Today 222, 240, 242, 244, 310 V V920 Video Eyewear 92 Valo Motion 269 Valorem 203 Venice Film Festival 273 VentureBeat 77, 118, 147, 246, 311 Verizon 161 VICE 226 Victor Hugo 271 Victor Prisacariu 150 Vietnam War 64 View Conference 113 VIRTSIM 69 Virtual Retinal Display26 Virtual World Entertainment 310 Visible Body 220 VistaVision 86 Visual Positioning Service (VPS) 122 Visualix 193, 330 Vive Focus 120 VIVED Anatomy 220 VIVED Chemistry 220 VIVED Science 214, 220 Voice Assistants 167 Volkswagen 28, 189

VPL 103 VPL Research 25 VR Chat 53, 202 VR Scout 246 VR/AR@MIT 316 VRLA 259,311 VRML 153, 319 Vuforia 178, 191, 194, 198, 199 Vuforia Studio 191 Vulcan Ventures 258 Vuzix 55, 72, 81, 90, 91, 92, 114, 331 Vuzix Blade 90, 91, 92, 168 Vuzix M-100 90, 92 Vuzix M-300 90, 187, 190 Vyking 132 W Wag! 150 Wall Street Journal 222, 243, 310 WallaMe 226 Walleto 234 Walmart 224, 249 Walt Disney 19, 112 Walt Disney Imagineering 268 Warby Parker 62 WarnerBros. 83,109,147,239 Waverly Labs 60 Wayfair 57, 111, 225, 231 Waymo 123, 298 Wayne Chang 150 Wayne Gretzky 118 Wayray 233 Waze 51, 150 We Are Wearables 313 wearIT@work 189 Web GL 153 WebAssembly 157, 184 WebGL 157, 174, 184, 319 WebVR 153 WebXR 152, 153, 154, 155, 244, 278 WeChat 51 Westworld 255 Weta Workshop 102, 104, 105, 106, 108, 111, 263 WhatsApp 16, 51, 89, 246 Whispers In The Night 171, 172 Whitney Museum 17 Wikipedia 148 Wikitude 156 Wikitude AR Browser 30 Will Gee 235 Will.i.am 273 William Castle 262 WiMAX 159 Windchill Technology 198 Windows 94, 98, 178 Windows 10 79, 97 Windows CE 94 Windows Mixed Reality 125, 153 Windows Phone 250 Winnipeg Free Press 241, 242 WIRED (Magazine) 30, 93, 109, 137, 273, 310 WITHIN 263 WLAN 189 Wolfgang Stelzle 192 Wonderbook: Book of Spells 283 Wonderscope 263 WorkLink (Scope AR) 128, 196, 197 World Health Organization 57, 60 World War II 16, 64, 65 WowWee 288 Wrap 310 81 Write Pattern Air Force Base 25 WXR Fund 56, 315

334 X X-Wing 232 xAssist 190 xBand 190, 191 Xbox 94, 95, 96 Xbox 360 96 Xbox Live 95 xBuild 189 xCare 189 Xfire 197 xInspect 189 Xiong’an 301 xMake 189 Xperiel 141, 234, 237, 331 xPick 189, 190 XR 15, 43, 51, 81, 116, 124, 148, 155, 175, 183, 188, 189, 214, 215, 217, 220, 227, 235, 249, 259, 262, 279, 284, 302, 303, 313 Xvision Spine System 130 Y Y Combinator 74 Yahoo 126 Yao Huang 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 315 Yelp 62, 122 YOLO (You Only Look Once) 142 YOUAR 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 149, 312, 331 Youtube 49, 89, 249, 279 Z Z-Kat 102, 104 ZapBox 91, 239 Zappar91, 222, 239, 331 Zapworks 226, 239 ZapWorks Studio 222, 225, 227 Zara 250 Zenka 308, 324 ZigTag 197 Ziplink 311 Zlatko Devcic 212 Zootopia 92 zSpace 86, 211, 214, 215, 216, 217, 219, 220, 320, 331 zSpace Studio220

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