OpenPrinting CUPS v2.4.2
OpenPrinting CUPS is the most current version of CUPS, a standards-based, open source printing system for Linux® and other Unix®-like operating systems. CUPS supports printing to:
- AirPrint™ and IPP Everywhere™ printers,
- Network and local (USB) printers with Printer Applications, and
- Network and local (USB) printers with (legacy) PPD-based printer drivers.
CUPS provides the System V ("lp") and Berkeley ("lpr") command-line interfaces, a configurable web interface, a C API, and common print filters, drivers, and backends for printing. The cups-filters project provides additional filters and drivers.
CUPS is licensed under the Apache License Version 2.0 with an exception to allow
linking against GNU GPL2-only software. See the files
for more information.
Note: Apple maintains a separate repository for the CUPS that ships with macOS and iOS at https://github.com/apple/cups.
Reading the Documentation
Initial documentation to get you started is provided in the root directory of the CUPS sources:
CHANGES.md: A list of changes in the current major release of CUPS.
CONTRIBUTING.md: Guidelines for contributing to the CUPS project.
CREDITS.md: A list of past contributors to the CUPS project.
DEVELOPING.md: Guidelines for developing code for the CUPS project.
INSTALL.md: Instructions for building and installing CUPS.
LICENSE: The CUPS license agreement (Apache 2.0).
NOTICE: Copyright notices and exceptions to the CUPS license agreement.
README.md: This file.
Once you have installed the software you can access the documentation (and a
bunch of other stuff) online at http://localhost:631/ and using the
command, for example
If you're having trouble getting that far, the documentation is located under
Please read the documentation before asking questions.
Getting Support and Other Resources
In addition to the OpenPrinting CUPS home page at https://openprinting.github.io/cups, we provide a mailing list for CUPS users and developers to ask questions and discuss issues at https://linuxfoundation.groups.io/g/printing.
Setting Up Printers
CUPS includes a web-based administration tool that allows you to manage printers, classes, and jobs on your server. Open http://localhost:631/admin/ in your browser to access the printer administration tools. You will be asked for the administration password (root or any other user in the "sys", "system", "root", "admin", or "lpadmin" group on your system) when performing any administrative function.
lpadmin command is used to manage printers from the command-line. For
example, the following command creates a print queue called "myprinter" for an
IPP Everywhere printer at address "220.127.116.11":
lpadmin -p myprinter -E -v "ipp://18.104.22.168/ipp/print" -m everywhere
-p option specifies the printer name. The
-E option enables the printer
and accepts new print jobs immediately. The
-v option specifies the device
URI for the printer, which tells CUPS how to communicate with the printer. And
-m option specifies the model (driver) to use, in this case the IPP
Everywhere ("everywhere") driver that is used for AirPrint and IPP Everywhere
printers as well as shared printers and printers supported through Printer
Legacy printers are supported using PPD (PostScript Printer Description) files that describe printer capabilities and driver programs needed for each printer. CUPS includes several sample PPD files for common legacy printers:
|Dymo Label Printers||drv:///sample.drv/dymo.ppd|
|EPSON 9-pin Series||drv:///sample.drv/epson9.ppd|
|EPSON 24-pin Series||drv:///sample.drv/epson24.ppd|
|Generic PCL Laser Printer||drv:///sample.drv/generpcl.ppd|
|Generic PostScript Printer||drv:///sample.drv/generic.ppd|
|HP DeskJet Series||drv:///sample.drv/deskjet.ppd|
|HP LaserJet Series||drv:///sample.drv/laserjet.ppd|
|OKIDATA 9-Pin Series||drv:///sample.drv/okidata9.ppd|
|OKIDATA 24-Pin Series||drv:///sample.drv/okidat24.ppd|
|Zebra CPCL Label Printer||drv:///sample.drv/zebracpl.ppd|
|Zebra EPL1 Label Printer||drv:///sample.drv/zebraep1.ppd|
|Zebra EPL2 Label Printer||drv:///sample.drv/zebraep2.ppd|
|Zebra ZPL Label Printer||drv:///sample.drv/zebra.ppd|
The sample drivers provide basic printing capabilities, but generally do not exercise the full potential of the printers or CUPS. Other drivers provide greater printing capabilities.
You can run the
lpinfo -m command to list all of the available drivers:
lpinfo -v command lists the available printers and their device
Once you know the device URI and driver name, add the printer using the
lpadmin -p PRINTER-NAME -E -v "DEVICE-URI" -m DRIVER-NAME
CUPS provides both the System V
lp and Berkeley
lpr commands for printing:
lp FILENAME lpr FILENAME
lpr commands support printing options:
lp -o media=A4 -o resolution=600dpi FILENAME lpr -o media=A4 -o resolution=600dpi FILENAME
CUPS recognizes many types of images files as well as PDF, PostScript, and text files, so you can print those files directly rather than through an application.
If you have an application that generates output specifically for your printer
then you need to use the
lp -o raw FILENAME lpr -l FILENAME
This will prevent the filters from misinterpreting your print file.
Copyright © 2020-2022 by OpenPrinting
Copyright © 2007-2020 by Apple Inc.
Copyright © 1997-2007 by Easy Software Products.
CUPS is provided under the terms of the Apache License, Version 2.0 with
exceptions for GPL2/LGPL2 software. A copy of this license can be found in the
LICENSE. Additional legal information is provided in the file
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.