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- Fix various formatting inconsistencies
- Remove outdated (as of 2.6) information from
  --data-ciphers and instead add a link to
  cipher negotiation chapter.
- Some drive-by fixes in related code comments
  and log messages as I was reading them.

Signed-off-by: Frank Lichtenheld <>
Acked-by: Arne Schwabe <>
Message-Id: <>
Signed-off-by: Gert Doering <>
4 contributors

Users who have contributed to this file

@schwabe @mkrkn @flichtenheld @ordex

Data channel cipher negotiation

OpenVPN 2.4 and higher have the capability to negotiate the data cipher that is used to encrypt data packets. This section describes the mechanism in more detail and the different backwards compatibility mechanism with older server and clients.

OpenVPN 2.5 and later behaviour

When both client and server are at least running OpenVPN 2.5, that the order of the ciphers of the server's --data-ciphers is used to pick the the data cipher. That means that the first cipher in that list that is also in the client's --data-ciphers list is chosen. If no common cipher is found the client is rejected with a AUTH_FAILED message (as seen in client log):

AUTH: Received control message: AUTH_FAILED,Data channel cipher negotiation failed (no shared cipher)

OpenVPN 2.5 and later will only allow the ciphers specified in --data-ciphers. If --data-ciphers is not set the default is AES-256-GCM:AES-128-GCM. In 2.6 and later the default is changed to AES-256-GCM:AES-128-GCM:CHACHA20-POLY1305 when Chacha20-Poly1305 is available.

For backwards compatibility OpenVPN 2.6 and later with --compat-mode 2.4.x (or lower) and OpenVPN 2.5 will automatically add a cipher specified using the --cipher option to this list.

OpenVPN 2.4 clients

The negotiation support in OpenVPN 2.4 was the first iteration of the implementation and still had some quirks. Its main goal was "upgrade to AES-256-GCM when possible". An OpenVPN 2.4 client that is built against a crypto library that supports AES in GCM mode and does not have --ncp-disable will always announce support for AES-256-GCM and AES-128-GCM to a server by sending IV_NCP=2.

This only causes a problem if --ncp-ciphers option has been changed from the default of AES-256-GCM:AES-128-GCM to a value that does not include these two ciphers. When an OpenVPN server tries to use AES-256-GCM or AES-128-GCM the connection will then fail. It is therefore recommended to always have the AES-256-GCM and AES-128-GCM ciphers to the --ncp-ciphers options to avoid this behaviour.

OpenVPN 3 clients

Clients based on the OpenVPN 3.x library ( do not have a configurable --ncp-ciphers or --data-ciphers option. Instead these clients will announce support for all their supported AEAD ciphers (AES-256-GCM, AES-128-GCM and in newer versions also Chacha20-Poly1305).

To support OpenVPN 3.x based clients at least one of these ciphers needs to be included in the server's --data-ciphers option.

OpenVPN 2.3 and older clients (and clients with --ncp-disable)

When a client without cipher negotiation support connects to a server the cipher specified with the --cipher option in the client configuration must be included in the --data-ciphers option of the server to allow the client to connect. Otherwise the client will be sent the AUTH_FAILED message that indicates no shared cipher.

If the client is 2.3 or older and has been configured with the --enable-small ./configure argument, using data-ciphers-fallback cipher in the server config file with the explicit cipher used by the client is necessary.

OpenVPN 2.4 server

When a client indicates support for AES-128-GCM and AES-256-GCM (with IV_NCP=2) an OpenVPN 2.4 server will send the first cipher of the --ncp-ciphers to the OpenVPN client regardless of what the cipher is. To emulate the behaviour of an OpenVPN 2.4 client as close as possible and have compatibility to a setup that depends on this quirk, adding AES-128-GCM and AES-256-GCM to the client's --data-ciphers option is required. OpenVPN 2.5+ will only announce the IV_NCP=2 flag if those ciphers are present.

OpenVPN 2.3 and older servers (and servers with --ncp-disable)

The cipher used by the server must be included in --data-ciphers to allow the client connecting to a server without cipher negotiation support. (For compatibility OpenVPN 2.5 will also accept the cipher set with --cipher)

If the server is 2.3 or older and has been configured with the --enable-small ./configure argument, adding --data-ciphers-fallback cipher to the client config with the explicit cipher used by the server is necessary.

Blowfish in CBC mode (BF-CBC) deprecation

The --cipher option defaulted to BF-CBC in OpenVPN 2.4 and older version. The default was never changed to ensure backwards compatibility. In OpenVPN 2.5 this behaviour has now been changed so that if the --cipher is not explicitly set it does not allow the weak BF-CBC cipher any more and needs to explicitly added as --cipher BFC-CBC or added to --data-ciphers.

We strongly recommend to switching away from BF-CBC to a more secure cipher as soon as possible instead.