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Hierarchical Approach for Joint Semantic, Plant Instance, and Leaf Instance Segmentation in the Agricultural Domain

This repo contains the code of the paper Hierarchical Approach for Joint Semantic, Plant Instance, and Leaf Instance Segmentation in the Agricultural Domain, by G. Roggiolani and M. Sodano et al., submitted to the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2023. Link to the ArXiv version of the paper.

Abstract

Plant phenotyping is a central task in agriculture, as it describes plants’ growth stage, development, and other relevant quantities. Robots can help automate this process by accurately estimating plant traits such as the number of leaves, leaf area, and the plant size. In this paper, we address the problem of joint semantic, plant instance, and leaf instance segmentation of crop fields from RGB data. We propose a single convolutional neural network that addresses the three tasks simultaneously, exploiting their underlying hierarchical structure. We introduce task-specific skip connections, which our experimental evaluation proves to be more beneficial than the usual schemes. We also propose a novel automatic post-processing, which explicitly addresses the problem of spatially close instances, common in the agricultural domain because of overlapping leaves. Our architecture simultaneously tackles these problems jointly in the agricultural context. Previous works either focus on plant or leaf segmentation, or do not optimise for semantic segmentation. Results show that our system has superior performance to state-of-the-art approaches, while having a reduced number of parameters and is operating at camera frame rate.

Results

Quantitative results of our method against baselines:

Method Plants Leaves Dataset IoU PQ_P PQ_L Params FPS
Mask R-CNN ✔️ SugarBeets 46.2 47.7 43.9M 13.5
Panoptic DeepLab S ✔️ SugarBeets 75.4 69.4 7.7M 93.5
Panoptic DeepLab M ✔️ SugarBeets 75.5 69.8 43.9M 4.7
Panoptic DeepLab L ✔️ SugarBeets 76.4 71.1 43.9M 48.4
Mask R-CNN ✔️ SugarBeets 64.9 53.6 43.9M 13.4
Panoptic DeepLab S ✔️ SugarBeets 75.4 50.8 43.9M 93.7
Panoptic DeepLab M ✔️ SugarBeets 76.7 54.4 43.9M 49.1
Panoptic DeepLab L ✔️ SugarBeets 76.3 52.9 43.9M 48.5
Weyler ✔️ ✔️ SugarBeets 75.3 72.3 63.1 43.9M 0.24
Ours ✔️ ✔️ SugarBeets 79.3 76.2 63.5 43.9M 26.3
Method Plants Leaves Dataset IoU PQ_P PQ_L Params FPS
Mask R-CNN ✔️ GrowliFlower 25.4 27.9 43.9M 9.6
Panoptic DeepLab S ✔️ GrowliFlower 83.1 69.9 7.7M 43.4
Panoptic DeepLab M ✔️ GrowliFlower 82.0 68.0 43.9M 47.6
Panoptic DeepLab L ✔️ GrowliFlower 82.7 69.4 43.9M 23.8
Mask R-CNN ✔️ GrowliFlower 53.8 41.0 43.9M 16.2
Panoptic DeepLab S ✔️ GrowliFlower 84.4 58.8 43.9M 76.5
Panoptic DeepLab M ✔️ GrowliFlower 80.2 43.4 43.9M 41.6
Panoptic DeepLab L ✔️ GrowliFlower 82.8 50.1 43.9M 30.3
Weyler ✔️ ✔️ GrowliFlower 65.8 67.8 69.4 43.9M 0.53
Ours ✔️ ✔️ GrowliFlower 80.2 89.2 71.0 43.9M 26.3

Qualitative results of our method against baselines on the GrowliFlower dataset, where red circles indicate segmentation errors: results

Check out the paper for more quantitative and qualitative results! 😁

Code

After installing the requirements specified in the file requirements.yml (for example in form of a conda environment), for training your model you only need to python train_hapt.py and specify your favourite settings in config/config.yaml.

Citation

If you use our framework for any academic work, please cite the original paper!

@article{roggiolani2022hierarchical,
  title={Hierarchical Approach for Joint Semantic, Plant Instance, and Leaf Instance Segmentation in the Agricultural Domain},
  author={Roggiolani, Gianmarco and Sodano, Matteo and Guadagnino, Tiziano and Magistri, Federico and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2210.07879},
  year={2022}
}

Acknowledgment

This work has partially been funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany's Excellence Strategy, EXC-2070 -- 390732324 -- PhenoRob, and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under STA 1051/5-1 within the FOR 5351(AID4Crops).

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