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Design Thinking: "Empathize" with your users

PREreview.org stands for Post, Read, and Engage with preprint reviews, and it's a free platform for the collaborative writing of preprint reviews. PREreview seeks to diversify peer review in the academic community by crowdsourcing pre-publication feedback to improve the quality of published scientific output, and to train early-career researchers (ECRs) in how to review others' scientific work.

We want PREreview to be a name research communities associate with collaborative, constructive feedback and the moment in which it’s valuable.

During the eLIFE Innovation Sprint, Head of Product Giuliano Maciocci helped the PREreview 2.0 team go over few key elements to understand our users.

eLIFE Sprint PREreview 2.0 Team

Daniela Saderi (researcher, PREreview co-founder)
Giuliano Maciocci (eLife Head of Product)
Andre Marques-Smith (researcher)
Nick Duffield (eLife, UX Designer)
Daniel Ecer (eLife, Data Scientist)
Joe McArthur (SPARC)

We first identified PREreview key users

  • General Users
  • ECRs
  • Experienced Researchers (Mentors)
  • Preprint Authors
  • PREreview staffers
  • Journal Editors

... and then went on and wrote their stories using the format ["As a ... I want to ... in order to ..."]

Finally, we assigned a number, 1, 2, or 3 according to the following rubric:

1 Absolutely necessary for the MVP (these are listed above)
2 It would be nice to have but only if we have time
3 Roadmap

General Users:

  • As a user, I want to be able to log into the platform in order to maintain a track of my activities on the system. 1
  • As a user, I want to be able to log into the platform using my ORCID ID, in order to maintain a track of my activities on the system. 2
  • As a user, I want my PREreview contributions to be reflected in my ORCID record. 2
  • As a user, I want to state my level of experience when signing up to the system and have staff verify it (Via my ORCID?) in order for my review contributions to be higlighted. 3
  • As a user, I want to be able to represent myelf on the system via a pseudonym or anonymous handle, in order to feel safe expressing my views until I build up my confidence. 3
  • As a user, I want to find and read PREreviews of a preprint that I'm interested in. 1
  • As a user, I want to see PREreviews in the direct context of a BiorXiv or other preprint server's preprint pages. 2
  • As a user, I want to give credit to informative/well-written reviews in order to motivate higher quality contributions. 3
  • As a user, I want to read PREreviews to understand the wider context and relevance of a preprint. 1
  • As a user, I want to see which preprints in my field are currently "hot". 3
  • As a user, I want to be notified of new preprints in my field which are currently "hot". 3
  • As a user, I want to be able to contact other users in private. 2
  • As a user, I want to be able to see all reviews of a given article. 1
  • As a user, I want to opt-out of being contacted by the system 2

ECRs

  • As a researcher, I want to be able to access educational resources, guidelines and materials to help teach me how to write better reviews and give more constructiuve feedbackl. 1
  • As a researcher, I want to learn how to review research better in order to prepare me for formal peer review. (feedback on my review?). 3
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to review a preprint in order to showcase my knowledge of the subject. 1
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to save a draft of my review in progress without committing to publishing it. 1
  • As a researcher, I want to choose to publish a specific review anonymously or pseudonymously, on a case-by-case basis. 3
  • As a researcher, I want to invite another researcher to review a specific preprint 1
  • As a researcher, I want to invite another researcher to give private feedback on my contributions 3
  • As a researcher, I want to be notified when someone invites me to review or provide feedback, in order to not miss an opportunity to contribute. 3
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to discuss my review with others in private before making it public, in order to be more confident of my contribution. 2
  • As a researcher, I want to have my review contributions recognised by other researchers, in order to raise my profile as an expert in the field. 1
  • As a researcher, I want to have my contributions rated by others, in order to one day ascend to the level of mentor. 3
  • As a researcher, I want a private record of my review history in order to keep track of my activity on the system. 1
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to set specific items in my record of my review history as public in order to let others see what my areas of expertise are. 2
  • As a researcher, I want to share my review record with a potential employer 3
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to look at another researcher's public review history in order to better understand their area of expertise and put their feedback in context. 2
  • As a reseacher, I want to be able to write my review collaboratively with a group of other researchers that are discussing the preprint either in local or live journal clubs. 3
  • As a researcher, I want to be sure that everyone who contributed to a review is named when it is published, in order to have the review appear on their review history. 1
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to opt out of being named in a group review, in order to maintain my anonimity. 3
  • As a researcher, I want to read reviews on preprints from experienced researchers in order to learn from them. 1
  • As a researcher, I want to be notified of new preprints in my field which I may want to review in order to accelerate my contributions. 3
  • As a researcher, I want others to see that I have gone through the PREreview peer review training. 3
  • As a researcher, I want to notify an author of a preprint that their article has been PREreviewed. 2
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to assign DOIs to my review 2

Experienced researchers (Mentors)

  • As a mentor, I want to help teach others how to provide feedback on research, in order to help them write better reviews. 2
  • As a mentor, I want to be able to provide specific feedback to a researcher's review in private, in order to be honest in my feedback without causing embarassment. 3
  • As a mentor, I want to be able to be recognized for my time spent mentoring ECRs 3
  • As a mentor I would like to be able to keep track of potential reviewers to suggest for peer review 2

Preprint Authors

  • As an author, I want to be able to solicit reviews from the communtity 1
  • As an author, I want to be able to respond to the comments/review and have that response linked to the review and the preprint (Linked Data) 1
  • As an author, I want to let the community know that I incorporated that feedback into a new preprint version (not sure about this one) 1
  • As an author, I want to incorporate PREreviews and what I've done to address them into my journal submission to accelerate the editorial/review process. 3
  • As an author, I want to get notified that my article has been PREreviewed. 1

PREreview staffers

  • As a staffer, I want to be able to delete specific reviews or comments from the site in order to maintain a positive environment. 1
  • As a staffer, I want to be able to remove users from the system in order to prevent abusive contributions from reoccurring 1
  • As a staffer, I want to be able to send an automatic email thanking the PREreviewer for their contribution and inviting them to email the corresponding authors to inform them about the PREreview (this is good for networknig) 2
  • As a staffer, I want to be able to have automatic Tweets posted when a PREreview is posted. 2

Journal Editors

  • As a Journal Editor, I want to identify "hot" preprints and invite submissions for publication in my journal 3
  • As a Journal Editor, I want to quickly find good reviewers in a specific subject area in order to invite them to peer review. 3
    --> Feature: Leaderboard of highest rated reviewers (see 'Clapper' feature developed at eLIFE by Mark Patterson's group)
  • As a Journal Editor, I want to query PREreviews of a preprint that's been submitted to my journal in order to inform my triage process. 3

Below are the numebr 1 user stories from above we thought were necessary for PREreview 2.0 Minimum Viable Product (MVP) and the web features that would need to be implemented to satisfy those stories:

General Users:

  • As a user, I want to be able to log into the platform in order to maintain a track of my activities on the system. 1
    --> Feature: login/register screen - email, password, display name?
    --> Feature: list of my activity (Preprints I've reviewed or submitted) under my Profile.
  • As a user, I want to find and read PREreviews of a preprint that I'm interested in. 1
    --> Feature: Listing of pre-prints on site home page
    --> Feature: Search feature by keyword, author
  • As a user, I want to read PREreviews to understand the wider context and relevance of a preprint. 1
    --> Feature: Display of review for reading purposes
  • As a user, I want to be able to see all reviews of a given article. 1
    --> Feature: Reviews listing pane beside preprint view

ECRs

  • As a researcher, I want to be able to access educational resources, guidelines and materials to help teach me how to write better reviews and give more constructiuve feedback. 1
    --> Feature: User guide, feature type pages
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to review a preprint in order to showcase my knowledge of the subject. 1
    --> Feature: Writing control for writing reviews
  • As a researcher, I want to be able to save a draft of my review in progress without committing to publishing it. 1
    --> Feature: Save draft feature on writing control
  • As a researcher, I want to invite another researcher to review a specific preprint 1
    --> Feature: Share button under review (email)
  • As a researcher, I want to have my review contributions recognised by other researchers, in order to raise my profile as an expert in the field. 1
    --> Feature: Review voting mechanism (light-weight)
  • As a researcher, I want a private record of my review history in order to keep track of my activity on the system. 1
    --> Feature: Personal review history page accessible through my profile
  • As a researcher, I want to be sure that everyone who contributed to a review is named when it is published, in order to have the review appear on their review history. 1
    --> Feature: Display names of review contributors. WE DON'T HAVE A DESIGN TO SUPPORT THIS AT PRESENT

Preprint Authors

  • As an author, I want to be able to solicit reviews from the communtity 1
    --> Feature: Add my pre-print for review control with select options [url] [title] [keywords] [dropdown: Solicit reviews, Write a review] [cancel, add]
  • As an author, I want to be able to respond to the comments/review and have that response linked to the review and the preprint (Linked Data) 1
    --> Feature: Add comment
  • As an author, I want to let the community know that I incorporated that feedback into a new preprint version (not sure about this one) 1
    --> Feature: Add comment
  • As an author, I want to get notified that my article has been PREreviewed. 1
    --> Feature: Notification of activity on your pre-review submission

PREreview staffers

  • As a staffer, I want to be able to delete specific reviews or comments from the site in order to maintain a positive environment. 1
    --> Feature: Inappropriate behavior flag display of users in system, notifications linking to review - WE DON'T HAVE A DESIGN TO SUPPORT THIS AT PRESENT
  • As a staffer, I want to be able to remove users from the system in order to prevent abusive contributions from reoccurring 1
    --> Feature: Admin control with blocking feature, email must be sent, with put account on hold - WE DON'T HAVE A DESIGN TO SUPPORT THIS AT PRESENT
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