This is a full bot over-write implementation. This means that for each hero (eventually all of them, but we start with small sample) we will implement a bot_<heroName>.lua file with an implementation of the Think() function.
This is a WORK IN PROGRESS. I share it in the hope that other developers will find it useful and potentially contribute by commiting pull requests against this code base building a better community bot framework.
Contributors The code representing this bot codebase is largely comprised of work of the author and many contributors of the "Dota 2 Bot Scripting Forums" which can be found here: Dota2 Dev Forum
These include: lenLRX, Platinum_dota2, ironmano, Keithen, and many others that I have lost track of.
Please drop me a message if you believe I have used your code and have not given the appropriate credit.
To get going please visit this wiki page and the wiki in general.
If you want to contribute feel free to implement new heroes or improve existing code. You might want to file an issue first to make sure no one else is working on the exact same topic.
Make sure you checkout the next section (Code Layout and Common Patterns).
We'll appreciate any contributions!
Also: Lua is not hard to learn, and we'll gladly help if you're stuck. You can do it!
Code Layout and Common Patterns
The design intention was to largely leverage the concept of class-based inheritance as existant in Object Oriented Programming languagues, but in LUA.
There are files for each hero, and at least one file for each mode (for details, see below).
If you want to store some data for a bot, do so by using
There are some stub files, just not for everything. Just copy the
file if one exist and open an implemented hero file similar to what you are
looking to do for a boost to your productivity.
The following stub files currently exist:
- for ability usage use:
- for item purchase use:
While every hero has some files for itself, most of the logic is defined by generic modes (see below).
- defines the hero's abilities (not how to use them), the skillbuild, and general stuff
- links the heroes
- calls a generic Think method, that will take care of everything.
- overwrites some methods if needed (e.g. a specific way of clearing camps in the early game)
- checks conditions ands cast spells
- item usage is generic, no need to reimplement these
- defines some items the hero can buy
- defines what items should be sold as inventory fills up
- items after the
coresection will be updated based on how the game progresses (in the works)
Modes contain generic concepts that can be used by every hero.
mode:Desire(bot)is called every frame, and determines the desire of the mode to go active. If it is higher than every other modes desire, it'll become the active mod.
mode:Think(bot)is called every frame for the active mode. This is where the logic happens.
mode:OnEnd()are called as part of active mode transitions.
- if this file is present, it is used instead of the generic mode file. If you just need a partial overwrite, you can call the generic modes functions where needed.
Files of Interest:
constants.lua - constants that allow for easy use of our defined values across all files
utility.lua - many utility functions that are used by other files which implement generic logic and behaviors of the bots. These are separated into
hero generic functions,
courier & item related functions,
team fight functions, etc. Chances are that if we need a function to calculate something, it already exist.
hero_selection.lua - basic and very simple hero selection and lane assignment for the bots. The lane assignment is only useful for not implemented heroes as the ones that are implemented have their lane assignment controlled by the ROLE they are assigned. This whole file will eventually be scrapped I think for a better counter- picker implementation based on hero choices made by opposing team. For now it's just a stepping stool to get other stuff working.
role.lua - this assigns roles to bots based on a not-fully filled out concept of what hero belongs in what role. Roles are categorized into 7 buckets: HardCarry, Mid, Offlane, SemiSupport, HardSupport, Jungler, and Roamer. This file implements a brute-force technique for minimizing role overlap by attempting to not assign more than one hero to a bucket. I was going to implement the Hungarian Algorithm to do this, but brute- forcing 80,000 possibilities if faster than doing advanced matrix math. The concept of roles flows down into laning for purposes of last hitting and denying.
enemy_data.lua - this was my attempt to globally track information about all of our enemies based on metered updates by our bots as we have vision of the heroes. Intention here is be able to predict ganks and enemy hero rotations based on noticing the disappearance of the heros from vision while knowing what the last values of their location, health, mana, etc. where. I am aware that the API exposes GetLastSeenLocation() and GetTimeSinceLastSeen() - however these don't provide the values like mana & health which will help us know probabilistic reasons for why the bots disappeared (e.g., low health/mana -> probably went to heal at shrine or fountain -> don't be as worried).
Currently the information is just stored and not used much. TO BE FIXED!
global_hero_data.lua - this file holds custom versions of many bot:GetNearby*() and bot:Action_*() that are easier to use.
This file also defines a way to persistantly store hero-specific variables. This method is still in use, but not encouraged (use
Previously, information was saved based on the hero's playerID using
setHeroVar("<strNameOfVar>", "<Value>"). If a variable is retrieved via
getHeroVar("<strNameOfVar>")that does not exist,
decision.lua - this contains the core Think function for every hero. However, most of the time it'll just call a mode for the hard work.
item_usage.lua - this implements generic use of items.
team_think.lua - this is the TEAM's brain. Map control, pushing, defending, .. - it's in here. Eventually.
global_game_state.lua, fighting.lua, building_status.lua - these files are trying to keep track of team wide tasks and provide some utility functions for team wide actions
debugging.lua - this is not part of the production code, but it might come in handy if something is not working the way it's supposed to be.
Lots, we need :
- advanced fighting logic (i.e., pre-assignment of stun overlaps and CC of enemies in team fights)
- bot 5-man assembly logic, and general map movement (currently bots kind of move as lone wolves)
- roshan logic, etc.
- dynamic item purchasing for heroes
- dynamic skill builds for heroes
- dynamic hero selection for synergy and countering the opposition
- implement lots more heroes
- implement dealing with disappearing heroes (b/c they go invis for example, or juke)
- implement recognizing/attacking enemy non-hero units (e.g., Jugg's Healing Ward, Pugna's Nether Ward, etc.)
A lot of FIXMEs/TODOs are commented in code - I add them as a tag to get back to with ideas.