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README.md

fingerd

Continuous Integration Current Tag Issues Repo Size

go get go.pennock.tech/fingerd

A finger protocol server, written in a safe programming language, with security designed in from the beginning and guidance on sandboxing.

No operating-system information is revealed, only information explicitly chosen for disclosure, such as cryptographic public keys of users.


This is an implementation of the server-side of the finger protocol, per RFC742. This is written in Golang and is designed to be able to expect no operating system services except the home directories of the users.

This can be deployed in an empty "jail" or "container" with a read-only "nullfs mount" or "bind mount" providing access to the home directories.

This daemon will reap all children so that on platforms where the only process in a container must act like init, it can be used as such an init; the daemon does not fork but will collect and log the exit status of any other processes which join the container and then exit. How well this works when running as not-root has not been explored.

We tend to reveal only the information deliberately exposed by a user and no local system information. For those, use a system-native finger daemon. Our use-case is exposure to the Internet for constrained information disclosure.

Because of this use-model, if a given user does not have any of the information files (~/.plan, ~/.project, ~/.pubkey) then we interpret this as equivalent to the presence of the file ~/.nofinger.

An attack surfaces document is available.

Further choices in our behaviour are documented.

Access required is listed below; this list is supposed to be authoritative and suitable for use in crafting a mandatory access control enforcement policy.

Note that although security was considered in the design of this server, it was written as a holiday project without attention to tests or testability and is thus not (yet) production grade. "It mostly works for me."

No metrics are exported, only logs.

Filesystem access required:

  1. Home directories
  2. Optionally system user database (passwd) access; default is to just allow pattern-matching against /home/*. Also required for -run-as-user when starting as root (see a point below).
  3. Optional pid-file writing; logs on stderr output redirection location
  4. If need to support a hostname instead of an IP address for the syslog service, then whatever is needed to load hostnames data sources in your environment (/etc/nsswitch.conf, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/hosts are obvious choices). If not logging to syslog, this will not be needed.
  5. Reading /etc/finger.conf if it exists (alias file)
  6. /etc itself, to set up a watch for re-emergence of /etc/finger.conf
    • This access and that of /etc/finger.conf can be disabled by setting -alias-file=""
  7. If started as root, then the process needs access to re-exec itself once it has dropped privileges. The file-system where this program is stored thus needs to be mounted to permit exec; this the only location which should permit exec. The filesystem should be mounted nosuid unless you choose to use setcap instead of a packet filter. Please use a packet filter instead.
    • The privilege dropping does not succeed on Linux and we do safely error out correctly. Do not start as root on Linux. See below.

Inbound network access required:

  1. Port 79 (finger) or as overridden on command-line
  • Recommend using a non-standard port and starting as an unprivileged user, with a packet filter providing redirection. See AttackSurface for more details.

Outbound network access required:

  1. Ability to send back packets on an inbound-established TCP session
  2. Ability to talk to a remote syslog server, if so configured on the command-line.

Customization

The most likely need for code customization is to change where logs go; we use the logrus library which has a broad selection of plugins available to change formatting and destinations; edit logging_setup.go to add support for whatever is of local interest to you.

Platform Limitations

Linux

Golang and Linux do not play nicely when it comes to dropping privileges of the currently running process; see https://github.com/golang/go/issues/1435 for the gory details.

Thus on Linux, if you attempt to run as root then the attempt to drop privileges will likely fail, and fingerd won't run. There's no sane reliable way to make this work without risking introducing race conditions leading to security holes.

So on Linux, you'll need to run as an unprivileged user and either use external packet redirection or use CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE:

$ sudo setcap cap_net_bind_service=+ep fingerd

Installation

The Go toolchain needs to be at least version 1.13; as of 2020-08-11, with the release of Go 1.15, Go 1.14 is the minimum supported upstream.

$ go get go.pennock.tech/fingerd

With that command, the binary can be found in ~/go/bin/fingerd. The go get command will fetch this repo, any dependent repos and perform the build. (Some environment variables specific to Go can change this.)

To build as a static binary for deployment into a lib-less environment:

## Either:
go build -ldflags "-linkmode external -extldflags -static"
## Or:
CGO_ENABLED=0 go build -ldflags "-extldflags -static"

The code uses Go Modules, so you can instead clone the git repo and use go build inside it, without needing to worry about a $GOPATH; this requires Go 1.12 or newer (or Go 1.11 with some env-var enabling). Since we're now using stdlib functionality introduced with Go 1.13, to be more resilient to certain classes of future stdlib functionality changes, this should be a non-issue.

Invoking

Invoke with -help to see help output listing known flags and defaults.

Beware that the -run-as-user examples are likely to fail on Linux.

If starting as root, dropping to nobody, redirecting logs to someplace, and all the users are in /home/*:

/srv/fingerd -run-as-user=nobody 2>/logs/fingerd

If starting as root, avoiding using the system user database ("passwd"), logging remotely in JSON format to a log-host whose IP is known (avoid DNS) and starting as nobody, relying upon that being uid -2, then:

/srv/fingerd -run-as-user=-2:-2 -log.json -log.no-local -log.syslog.address=192.0.2.2:514

If starting as non-root, so we won't drop privileges, but you want to listen on port 1079 (unprivileged) to which packet-filter or loadbalancer rules will redirect port 79 traffic, then:

/srv/fingerd -listen=:1079

The same, but also disabling use of /etc/finger.conf (a BSD convention) so that you don't get attempts to watch for the file existing later, and using MacOS:

/srv/fingerd -listen=:1079 -alias-file="" -homes-dir=/Users

Enable passwd lookup and disable "exists in /home so is a user" check:

/srv/fingerd -listen=:1079 -passwd.min-uid=500 -homes-dir=""

Running where you want to get the port from an environment variable, but don't want to require a shell to interpolate that into the parameter list:

/srv/fingerd -listen-var=PORT

Deployment examples

There is FreeBSD documentation, describing setup within an OS-less Jail. An rc.d script is included.

Docker

Images are automatically built by CI and pushed to Docker Hub as pennocktech/fingerd.

There is a Dockerfile which builds a small container image.

Build locally with:

docker build -f examples/Dockerfile -t fingerd .

The image uses fingerd as the entry-point, so any parameters used to launch it are flags to fingerd. It uses $PORT to get the listening port, defaulting to 1079. It's up to you to map that to port 79 "somewhere". The image runs unprivileged, using nothing in /etc.

To test locally:

ttyONE$ docker run -v /home:/home:ro -p 79:1079 -it --rm fingerd

ttyTWO$ finger $USER@localhost

(You will of course need a .plan, .project or .pubkey in your home directory for that to work.)

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Golang fingerd for isolated environments

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