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<h1>Preface</h1>
<p><a name="libsdl"> </p>
<p><i>Simple DirectMedia Layer</i> (or <i>libsdl</i>) is a cross-platform C
library that provides access to several input and output devices. Its most
popular usage is to provide access to the video framebuffer and input
devices for games. SDL also has several extension libraries to provide
features such as text display, sound mixing, image handling, and graphics
effects.</p>
<p> </p>
<p>SDL Perl binds several of these libraries together in the
<code>SDL::*</code> namespace. Moreover, SDL Perl provides several
high-level libraries in the <code>SDLx::*</code> namespace that encapsulate
valuable game-writing abstractions.</p>
<p></p>
<h2><code>SDL</code> and <code>SDLx</code></h2>
<p>The main purpose of the <code>SDLx::*</code> layer is to smooth out the
drudgery of using the <code>SDL::*</code> layer directly.</p>
<p></p>
<blockquote>
<p>Don't worry about understanding the details of this code right now.
Compare the complexity and size of the code listings.</p>
</blockquote>
<p>Using the <code>SDL::*</code> layer to draw a blue rectangle looks
something like:</p>
<pre><code> use SDL;
use SDL::Video;
use SDL::Surface;
use SDL::Rect;
# the size of the window box or the screen resolution if fullscreen
my $screen_width = 800;
my $screen_height = 600;
SDL::init(SDL_INIT_VIDEO);
# setting video mode
my $screen_surface = SDL::Video::set_video_mode($screen_width,
$screen_height,
32,
SDL_ANYFORMAT);
# drawing a rectangle with the blue color
my $mapped_color = SDL::Video::map_RGB($screen_surface-&gt;format(),
0, 0, 255);
SDL::Video::fill_rect($screen_surface,
SDL::Rect-&gt;new($screen_width / 4, $screen_height / 4,
$screen_width / 2, $screen_height / 2),
$mapped_color);
# update an area on the screen so it&#39;s visible
SDL::Video::update_rect($screen_surface, 0, 0,
$screen_width, $screen_height);
# just to have time to see it
sleep(5);</code></pre>
<p>... while drawing a blue rectangle in the <code>SDLx::*</code> layer is
as simple as:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new( width=&gt; 800, height =&gt; 600 );
$app-&gt;draw_rect([ $app-&gt;width / 4, $app-&gt;height / 4,
$app-&gt;width / 2, $app-&gt;height / 2, ],
[ 0, 0, 255, 255] );
$app-&gt;update();
sleep(5);</code></pre>
<p>The <code>SDLx::*</code> modules also provide and manage higher-level
concerns for users, such as layers and game loops.</p>
<h2>About the Book</h2>
<p>This book has a two-fold purpose: first, to introduce game development
to Perl programmers, and second, to introduce Modern Perl concepts through
game development. While the examples assume some experience with Perl, no
experience with SDL in Perl or as <code>libsdl</code> itself is
necessary.</p>
<p>The book presents a progression from simple to intermediate examples and
provides suggestions for more advanced endeavors. The chapters of this book
increase progressively in complexity, but each chapter has a singular goal
(such as chapter five's <i>Making Pong</i>) which stands alone as an
individual tutorial. Sources and data files are all available from
http://sdl.perl.org/.</p>
<h2>Installing SDL Perl</h2>
<p></p>
<p>We assume the presence of a recent version of the Perl language (at
least Perl 5.10) and supporting packages. We also assume that you can
install packages from the CPAN, including SDL Perl itself.</p>
<h3>Windows</h3>
<p> </p>
<p><code>Alien::SDL</code> will install binaries for 32bit and 64bit so
there is no need to compile anything.</p>
<h3>Mac OS X</h3>
<p> </p>
<p>Fink has packages for SDL Perl available. However, they do not support
Pango, a library which provides internalization support for text
handling.</p>
<p>Installing <code>Alien::SDL</code> from the CPAN will compile SDL and
its dependencies, provided you have installed severan necessary
dependencies. We recommend that you install <code>libfreetype6</code>,
<code>libX11</code>, <code>libvorbis</code>, <code>libogg</code>,
<code>libpng</code>, and their headers.</p>
<h3>GNU/Linux</h3>
<p> </p>
<p>Most current GNU/Linux distributions include all the parts needed for
this tutorial in the default install and in their package management
system. It is also always possible to install on GNU/Linux using the
available open source code from the proper repositories. The
<code>Alien::SDL</code> perl module automates much of downloading,
compiling, and installing the needed libraries.</p>
<p>You can probably use your distribution's packages. On Ubuntu and Debian
try:</p>
<pre><code> $ sudo apt-get install libsdl-net1.2-dev libsdl-mixer1.2-dev \
libsdl1.2-dev libsdl-image1.2-dev libsdl-ttf2.0-dev \
libsdl-gfx1.2-dev libsdl-pango-dev</code></pre>
<p>To compile from scratch, you must install a compiler, system header
packages, and some libraries are required.</p>
<pre><code> $ sudo apt-get install build-essential xorg-dev libx11-dev libxv-dev \
libpango1.0-dev libfreetype6-dev libvorbis-dev libpng12-dev \
libogg-dev</code></pre>
<h3>CPAN install</h3>
<p></p>
<p>Before installing SDL Perl, ensure that you have the most recent
versions of the modules necessary to build SDL:</p>
<pre><code> $ sudo cpan CPAN
$ sudo cpan YAML Module::Build</code></pre>
<p>After these two steps CPAN will be able to install SDL:</p>
<pre><code> $ sudo cpan SDL</code></pre>
<p>For most platforms a CPAN install will suffice. Supported and tested
platforms are listed at http://pass.cpantesters.org/distro/S/SDL.html.</p>
<h2>Contact</h2>
<p></p>
<p>Hopefully this book answers most of your questions. For additional
assistance, contact the project via:</p>
<ul>
<li><i>the web</i>, by visiting the SDL Perl homepage at
http://sdl.perl.org/.</li>
<li><i>IRC</i>, in the <code>#sdl</code> channel on
<code>irc.perl.org</code>. This is a very active and helpful resource.</li>
<li><i>email</i>, through the <code>sdl-devel@perl.org</code> mailing
list.</li>
</ul>
<h2>Examples</h2>
<p></p>
<p>The code examples in this book are available from
https://github.com/PerlGameDev/SDL_Manual/tree/master/code_listings.</p>
<h2>Acknowledgements</h2>
<p>Thanks to contributors and reviewers from the <code>#sdl</code> channel,
including:</p>
<ul>
<li>Alias
<li>bobross
<li>Blaizer
<li>cfedde
<li>chromatic
<li>FROGGS
<li>garu
<li>jamesw
<li>perlpilot
<li>PerlJam
<li>Pip
<li>waxhead
<li>and many more
<pre><code> (Apologies if I have missed you; let me know and I will add you.)</code></pre>
</ul>
<h1>The Screen</h1>
<p> </p>
<p>SDL's primary purpose is to display graphics. It does so by providing an
abstraction called a <i>screen</i>, which represents a <i>video device</i>.
This video device is an interface provided by your operating system, such
as X11 or DirectX. Before you can display anything, you must create a
screen. The <code>SDLx::App</code> class does so for you:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new();
sleep( 2 );</code></pre>
<p>This example causes an empty window to appear on the desktop. Most
systems will fill that window with the color black. Other systems might
display a transparent window. SDL's default behavior is to fill the screen
with black. To enforce this behavior on all systems, you must
<code>update()</code> the app to draw to the window:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;update();</code></pre>
<h2><code>SDLx::App</code> Options</h2>
<p> </p>
<p><code>SDLx::App</code> allows you to specify several options for the
screen and your application. First are the physical dimensions of the
screen itself. To make the screen of the <code>SDLx::App</code> window a
400×400 pixel square, change the initialization line to:</p>
<pre><code> my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new( width =&gt; 400, height =&gt; 400 );</code></pre>
<p>Another important option is the window's title. Some systems display the
path to the running program. Others leave the title blank. You can change
the displayed title with another argument to the <code>SDLx::App</code>
constructor:</p>
<p></p>
<pre><code> my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new( width =&gt; 400,
height =&gt; 400,
title =&gt; &#39;Pong - A clone&#39; );</code></pre>
<p>At this point your screen will be:</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/first.png}
\caption{Your first SDL screen!} \label{fig:first_screen}</p>
<h3>Shortcuts</h3>
<p></p>
<p>Abbreviations for these parameters are available. Instead of
<code>width</code>, <code>height</code>, and <code>title</code>, you may
use <code>w</code>, <code>h</code>, and <code>t</code> respectively. The
previous example could also be written:</p>
<pre><code> my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new( w =&gt; 400,
h =&gt; 400,
t =&gt; &#39;Pong - A clone&#39; );</code></pre>
<h1>Drawing</h1>
<p></p>
<p>SDL provides several ways to draw graphical elements on the screen in
three general categories: primitives, images, and text. All drawing occurs
on a surface, represented by the <code>SDLx::Surface</code> class. Even the
<code>SDLx::App</code> is an <code>SDLx::Surface</code>. Though this means
it's possible to draw directly to the app's surface, there are several
advantages to drawing on multiple surfaces.</p>
<h2>Coordinates</h2>
<p></p>
<p>SDL's surface coordinate system has its origin (where both the x and y
coordinates have the value of zero) in the upper left corner. As the value
of x increases, the position moves to the right of the origin. As the value
of y increases, the position moves downward from the origin. The API always
lists coordinates in x, y order.</p>
<blockquote>
<p>The SDL library documentation has an extended discussion on coordinates:
http://sdltutorials.com/sdl-coordinates-and-blitting.</p>
</blockquote>
<p></p>
<h2>Drawing with SDL</h2>
<p>You can produce original pictures knowing little more than how to draw
to a surface with SDL:</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/flower.png}
\caption{A field of flowers} \label{fig:flowers}</p>
<h3>Surface Drawing Methods</h3>
<p>As mentioned earlier, all drawing in SDL requires a surface. The
<code>SDLx::Surface</code> object provides access to methods in the form
of:</p>
<pre><code> $surface-&gt;draw_{something}( .... );</code></pre>
<p>Parameters to these methods are generally coordinates and colors,
provided as array references.</p>
<p></p>
<h4>Rectangular Parameters</h4>
<p>Some parameters are sets of coordinate positions and dimensions. For
example, parameters to describe a rectangle of <code>40x40</code> pixels
placed at <code>(20, 20)</code> pixel units on the screen make a
four-element array reference of x, y, width, height:</p>
<pre><code> my $rect = [20, 20, 40, 40];</code></pre>
<p></p>
<h4>Color</h4>
<p></p>
<p>Need to document what the magnitude of the color and transparency values
mean.</p>
<p>SDL color parameters require four-element array references. The first
three numbers define the Red, Green, and Blue intensity of the color. The
final number defines the transparency of the color.</p>
<pre><code> my $color = [255, 255, 255, 255];</code></pre>
<p>The magnitude of each color value determines how much of that color
component will be mixed into the resulting color. A 0 value specifies that
none of the color channel should be used while 255 specifies a maximum
intensity for a particular channel. The first value corresponds with the
Red channel, so a higher number there means more red will be mixed into the
resulting color. It is a common practice to achieve a grayscale of varying
intensity by specifying the same value for each of the Red, Green, and Blue
color channels. The fourth and final value designates the transparency (or
Alpha channel) where a 0 value makes the resulting color fully transparent
and 255 makes it entirely opaque. A transparency value somewhere in between
will allow underlying (pixel data of surfaces below the current one) colors
to be blended with the specified RGB values into the final color
output.</p>
<p>You may also represent a color as hexadecimal values, where the values
of the numbers range from 0-255 for 32 bit depth in RGBA format:</p>
<pre><code> my $color = 0xFFFFFFFF;
my $white = 0xFFFFFFFF;
my $black = 0x000000FF;
my $red = 0xFF0000FF;
my $green = 0x00FF00FF;
my $blue = 0x0000FFFF;</code></pre>
<p>... or as four-byte hexadecimal values, where each two-digit byte
encodes the same RGBA values:</p>
<pre><code> my $goldenrod = 0xDAA520FF;</code></pre>
<blockquote>
<h5>NOTE: Depth of Surface</h5>
<p></p>
<p>The color depth of the surface--how many bits are available to describe
colors--is a property of the relevant <code>SDLx::Surface</code> or
<code>SDLx::App</code>. Set it in its constructor:</p>
<pre><code> my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new( depth =&gt; 32 );</code></pre>
<p>The default bit depth is 32, such that each color component has 256
possible values. Other options are 24, 16, and 8.</p>
</blockquote>
<h3>Pixels</h3>
<p></p>
<p>All <code>SDLx::Surface</code>s are collections of pixels. You can read
from and write to these pixels by treating the surface as an array
reference:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;[$x][$y] = $color;</code></pre>
<p>... where <code>$color</code> is an unsigned integer value using the
hexadecimal format (<code>0xRRGGBBAA</code>) <i>or</i> an anonymous array
of the form <code>[$red, $green, $blue, $alpha]</code>.</p>
<h3>Primitives</h3>
<p></p>
<p>Drawing primitives are simple shapes that SDL supports natively.</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/draw-1.png}
\caption{Drawing a line} \label{fig:draw_line}</p>
<h4>Lines</h4>
<p></p>
<p>A line is a series of contiguous pixels between two points. The
<code>draw_line</code> method causes SDL to draw a line to a surface:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;draw_line( [200, 20], [20, 200], [255, 255, 0, 255] );</code></pre>
<p>This will draw a yellow line from positions <code>(200, 20)</code> to
<code>(20, 200)</code>.</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/draw-2.png}
\caption{Drawing a Rectangle} \label{fig:draw_rect}</p>
<h4>Rectangles</h4>
<p></p>
<p>A rectangle is a four-sided, filled polygon. Rectangles are a common
building block for games. In SDL, rectangles are the most cost effective of
the primitives to draw. The <code>draw_rect</code> method draws a rectangle
on a surface:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;draw_rect( [10, 20, 40, 40 ], [255, 255, 255,255] );</code></pre>
<p>This draws a white square of size <code>40x40</code> onto the screen at
the position <code>(10,20)</code>.</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/draw-3.png}
\caption{Drawing a Circle} \label{fig:draw_circle}</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/draw-4.png}
\caption{Drawing a filled Circle} \label{fig:draw_filled_circle}</p>
<h4>Circles</h4>
<p></p>
<p>A circle is a primitive a fixed radius around a given point. Circles may
be filled or unfilled. The <code>draw_circle</code> and
<code>draw_circle_filled</code> methods draw these to a surface:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;draw_circle( [100, 100], 20, [255, 0, 0, 255] );
$app-&gt;draw_circle_filled( [100, 100], 19, [0, 0, 255, 255] );</code></pre>
<p>These draw an unfilled red circle and a filled blue circle.</p>
<p>SDL provides more complex primitives in
<code>SDL::GFX::Primitives</code>.</p>
<h3>Drawing with Primitives</h3>
<p></p>
<p>It's easy to combine several primitives to draw an interesting
images.</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
w =&gt; 500,
h =&gt; 500,
d =&gt; 32,
title =&gt; &#39;Pretty Flowers&#39;
);
# Add the blue skies
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, 500, 500 ], [ 20, 50, 170, 255 ] );
# Draw a green field
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 400, 500, 100 ], [ 50, 170, 20, 100 ] );
# Make a surface for the flower
my $flower = SDLx::Surface-&gt;new( width =&gt; 50, height =&gt; 100 );
# With a black background
$flower-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, 50, 100 ], [ 0, 0, 0, 0 ] );
# Draw a pretty green stem
$flower-&gt;draw_rect( [ 23, 30, 4, 100 ], [ 0, 255, 0, 255 ] );
# And a simple flower bud
$flower-&gt;draw_circle_filled( [ 25, 25 ], 10, [ 150, 0, 0, 255 ] );
$flower-&gt;draw_circle( [ 25, 25 ], 10, [ 255, 0, 0, 255 ] );
# Draw flower on $app
$flower-&gt;blit( $app, [ 0, 0, 50, 100 ] );
$app-&gt;update();
sleep(1);</code></pre>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/flower-1.png}
\caption{Looks so lonely there all alone} \label{fig:draw_flower_lone}</p>
<h2>Drawing on Multiple Surfaces</h2>
<p></p>
<p>The examples so far have drawn on only a single surface, the display.
SDL makes it possible to write on multiple surfaces. These other surfaces
exist only in memory until you draw them to the display.</p>
<h3>Creating Surfaces</h3>
<p></p>
<p>There are several ways to create an <code>SDLx::Surface</code> for use.
The most common is to create one manually with a constructor call:</p>
<pre><code> $surface = SDLx::Surface-&gt;new( width =&gt; $width, height =&gt; $height );</code></pre>
<p><code>SDL::Image</code> and <code>SDL::Video</code> can load images as
surfaces too. <code>SDL::Image</code> provides support for all types of
images, provided that the underlying <code>SDL_image</code> library
supports the image type you want to load. For example,
<code>SDL_image</code> must support PNG images to use:</p>
<pre><code> $surface = SDL::Image::load( &#39;picture.png&#39; );</code></pre>
<p></p>
<p>In the event that the desired <code>SDL_image</code> library is
unavailable, you can fallback to the built-in support for the
<code>.bmp</code> format.</p>
<pre><code> $surface = SDL::Video::load_BMP( &#39;picture.bmp&#39; );</code></pre>
<p>The <code>SDLx::Sprite</code> module provides another option to
manipulate surfaces.</p>
<h2>Lots of Flowers but One Seed</h2>
<p>The flower example used a method called <code>blit</code> to draw a
surface to the display. This method copies data from one surface to
another. It's a fundamental operation, but it's a low level operation.
<code>SDLx::Sprite</code> provides higher level options. Besides making
drawing simpler, <code>SDLx::Sprite</code> adds several other features
useful for moving images. Here's a revised example using
<code>SDLx::Sprite</code> for flowers:</p>
<p></p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
use SDLx::Sprite;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
w =&gt; 500,
h =&gt; 500,
d =&gt; 32,
title =&gt; &#39;Pretty Flowers&#39;
);
# Adding blue skies
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, 500, 500 ], [ 20, 50, 170, 255 ] );
# Draw a green field
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 400, 500, 100 ], [ 50, 170, 20, 100 ] );
my $flower = SDLx::Sprite-&gt;new( width =&gt; 50, height =&gt; 100 );
# Use -&gt;surface() to access a sprite&#39;s SDLx::Surface
# Make the background black
$flower-&gt;surface-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, 50, 100 ], [ 0, 0, 0, 0 ] );
# Now for a pretty green stem
$flower-&gt;surface-&gt;draw_rect( [ 23, 30, 4, 100 ], [ 0, 255, 0, 255 ] );
# Add the simple flower bud
$flower-&gt;surface-&gt;draw_circle_filled( [ 25, 25 ], 10, [ 150, 0, 0, 255 ] );
$flower-&gt;surface-&gt;draw_circle( [ 25, 25 ], 10, [ 255, 0, 0, 255 ] );
$flower-&gt;draw_xy( $app, 0, 0 );
$app-&gt;update();
sleep(1);</code></pre>
<p>Flowers usually don't grow in the sky. Flowers make more sense on the
ground. It's easy to insert plenty of identical flowers from a single
sprite. Replace the line:</p>
<pre><code> $flower-&gt;draw_xy( $app, 0, 0 );</code></pre>
<p>... with:</p>
<pre><code> for (0 .. 500) {
my $y = 425 - rand( 50);
$flower-&gt;draw_xy( $app, rand(500) - 20, $y );
}</code></pre>
<p>... to make an entire field of flowers.</p>
<p>Probably don't need this.</p>
<h1>Handling Events</h1>
<p></p>
<p>The cornerstone of an SDL application is event handling. The user
presses a key or moves the mouse. The operating system switches the focus
of the active window. The user selects the quit option from the menu or the
operating system. These are all events. How do you handle them?</p>
<p> </p>
<p>SDL provides an event queue which holds all events that occur until they
are removed. Every time an event occurs, SDL places it into the queue. The
<code>SDL::Event</code> object represents this queue in Perl, allowing you
to add and remove events constantly:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDL::Event;
use SDL::Events;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new( w =&gt; 200, h =&gt; 200 );
my $event = SDL::Event-&gt;new();
my $quit = 0;
while (!$quit) {
# Updates the queue to recent events
SDL::Events::pump_events();
# process all available events
while ( SDL::Events::poll_event($event) ) {
# check by Event type
do_key() if $event-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN;
}
}
sub do_key { $quit = 1 }</code></pre>
<p> </p>
<p>Every event has an associated type which represents the category of the
event. The previous example looks for a keypress event (footnote: SDL
separates the event of pressing a key from the event of releasing a key,
which allows you to identify combinations of keypresses, such as Ctrl + P
to print.). The SDL library defines several types of events, and SDL_perl
makes them available as constants with names such as
<code>SDL_KEYDOWN</code> and <code>SDL_QUIT</code>. See <code>perldoc
SDL::Events</code> for a list of all event types.</p>
<p></p>
<p>Checking for every possible event type within that event loop can be
tedious. The <code>SDLx::Controller</code> available from the
<code>SDLx::App</code> offers the use of event callbacks with which to
handle events. Processing events is a matter of setting up the appropriate
callbacks and letting SDL do the heavy work.</p>
<blockquote>
<p><b>SDL Events Types</b></p>
<p>Additional Event types that can be captured by SDL are:</p>
<ul>
<li>Keyboard
<p><code>SDL_KEYDOWN</code> <code>SDL_KEYUP</code> - Keyboard button
pressed</p>
<li>Mouse
<p><code>SDL_MOUSEMOTION</code> - Mouse motion occured</p>
<p><code>SDL_MOUSEBUTTONDOWN</code> <code>SDL_MOUSEBUTTONUP</code> - Mouse
button pressed</p>
<li>Joystick
<p><code>SDL_JOYAXISMOTION</code> - Joystick axis motion</p>
<p><code>SDL_JOYBALLMOTION</code> - Joystick trackball motion</p>
<p><code>SDL_JOYHATMOTION</code> - Joystick hat position change</p>
<p><code>SDL_JOYBUTTONDOWN</code> <code>SDL_JOYBUTTONUP</code> - Joystick
button pressed</p>
<li>Window & System
<p><code>SDL_ACTIVEEVENT</code> - Application visibility</p>
<p><code>SDL_VIDEORESIZE</code> - Window resized</p>
<p><code>SDL_VIDEOEXPOSE</code> - Window exposed</p>
<p><code>SDL_QUIT</code> - Quit requested</p>
<p><code>SDL_USEREVENT</code> - A user-defined event type</p>
<p><code>SDL_SYSWMEVENT</code> - Platform-dependent window manager
event</p>
</ul>
<p>For more information look at:</p>
<pre><code> perldoc SDL::Event </code></pre>
</blockquote>
<h2>Quitting with Grace</h2>
<p>The example applications so far have not exited cleanly. Handling quit
events is much better:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDL::Event;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
w =&gt; 200,
h =&gt; 200,
d =&gt; 32,
title =&gt; &quot;Quit Events&quot;
);
$app-&gt;add_event_handler( \&amp;quit_event );
$app-&gt;run();
sub quit_event
{
# the callback receives the appropriate SDL::Event
my $event = shift;
# ... as well as the calling SDLx::Controller
my $controller = shift;
# stopping the controller will exit $app-&gt;run() for us
$controller-&gt;stop if $event-&gt;type == SDL_QUIT;
}</code></pre>
<p><code>SDLx::App</code> calls the event_handlers, from an internal
<code>SDLx::Controller</code>. When this event handler receives a quit
event, it calls <code>SDLx::Controller::stop()</code> which causes
<code>SDLx::App</code> to exit gracefully.</p>
<h3>Exit on Quit</h3>
<p>Exiting on receiving the <code>SDL_QUIT</code> event is such a common
operation that <code>SDLx::App</code> provides it as a constructor
option:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
w =&gt; 200,
h =&gt; 200,
d =&gt; 32,
title =&gt; &quot;Quit Events&quot;,
exit_on_quit =&gt; 1
);
$app-&gt;run();</code></pre>
<h2>Small Paint: Input Devices</h2>
<p>SDL events also allow input handling. Consider a simple paint program.
It will provide a small black window. Moving the mouse draws on this
window. Pressing a number key chooses a paint color. Pressing
<code>q</code> or <code>Q</code> exits the program. Pressing <code>c</code>
or <code>C</code> clears the screen. Pressing <code>Ctrl-S</code> saves the
image to a file named <i>painted.bmp</i>.</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/painted.png}
\caption{Simple Paint: Smile} \label{fig:Smile}</p>
<h3>Saving the image</h3>
<p>Start by defining the saving function:</p>
<pre><code> sub save_image {
if (SDL::Video::save_BMP( $app, &#39;painted.bmp&#39; ) == 0
&amp;&amp; -e &#39;painted.bmp&#39;)
{
warn &#39;Saved painted.bmp to &#39; . cwd();
}
else
{
warn &#39;Could not save painted.bmp: &#39; . SDL::get_errors();
}
}</code></pre>
<h3>Keyboard</h3>
<p>Keyboard handling requires some color data as well as a keypress
callback:</p>
<pre><code> my $brush_color = 0;
sub keyboard_event
{
my $event = shift;
if ( $event-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN )
{
# convert the key_symbol (integer) to a keyname
my $key_name = SDL::Events::get_key_name( $event-&gt;key_sym );
# if $key_name is a digit, use it as a color
$brush_color = $key_name if $key_name =~ /^\d$/;
# get the keyboard modifier (see perldoc SDL::Events)
my $mod_state = SDL::Events::get_mod_state();
# we are using any CTRL so KMOD_CTRL is fine
save_image() if $key_name =~ /^s$/ &amp;&amp; ($mod_state &amp; KMOD_CTRL);
# clear the screen
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, $app-&gt;w, $app-&gt;h ], 0 )
if $key_name =~ /^c$/;
# exit
$app-&gt;stop() if $key_name =~ /^q$/;
}
$app-&gt;update();
}
$app-&gt;add_event_handler(\&amp;quit_event);
$app-&gt;add_event_handler(\&amp;keyboard_event);</code></pre>
<blockquote>
<p><b>NOTE: </b> When adding a callback to <code>SDLx::App</code> which
uses variables declared outside of the function (<code>$brush_color</code>
and <code>@colors</code> in this case), be sure to define them before
declaring the subroutine. Normal Perl scoping and initialization rules
apply.</p>
</blockquote>
<h3>Mouse</h3>
<p>Handling mouse events is almost as straightforward as keyboard events:
=begin programlisting</p>
<pre><code> # track the drawing status
my $drawing = 0;
sub mouse_event {
my $event = shift;
# detect Mouse Button events and check if user is currently drawing
if ($event-&gt;type == SDL_MOUSEBUTTONDOWN || $drawing)
{
# set drawing to 1
$drawing = 1;
# get the X and Y values of the mouse
my $x = $event-&gt;button_x;
my $y = $event-&gt;button_y;
# draw a rectangle at the specified position
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ $x, $y, 2, 2 ], $colors[$brush_color] );
$app-&gt;update();
}
# disable drawing when user releases mouse button
$drawing = 0 if ($event-&gt;type == SDL_MOUSEBUTTONUP );
}
$app-&gt;add_event_handler( \&amp;mouse_event );</code></pre>
<p>This is all of the code necessary to make a simple drawing
application.</p>
<p>Take note of two things. First, SDL_perl invokes the event handlers in
the order of attachment. If the user presses <code>Q</code> and then moves
the mouse, the application will quit before processing the mouse
movement.</p>
<p>Second, the application makes no distinction between right, middle, or
left mouse clicks. SDL provides this information. See the
<code>button_button()</code> method in <code>SDL::Event</code>.</p>
<h2>POD ERRORS</h2>
<p>Hey! <b>The above document had some coding errors, which are explained
below:</b></p>
<ul>
<li>Around line 317:
<p>=end programlisting without matching =begin. (Stack: [empty])</p>
</ul>
<h1>The Game Loop</h1>
<p></p>
<p>Just as an interactive SDL app builds around an event loop, a game
builds around a game loop. The simplest game loop is something like:</p>
<pre><code> while (!$quit)
{
get_events();
calculate_next_positions();
render();
}</code></pre>
<p>The names of the functions called in this loop hint at their purposes,
but the subtleties of even this simple code are important.
<code>get_events()</code> obviously processes events from the relevant
input devices (keyboard, mouse, joystick). Processing events at the start
of every game loop iteration helps to prevent lag.</p>
<p><code>calculate_next_positions</code> updates the game state according
to user input as well as any active animations (a player walking, an
explosion, a cut scene). <code>render()</code> finally updates and displays
the screen.</p>
<h2>A Practical Game Loop</h2>
<p>Consider a game with a moving laser bolt:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDL::Event;
use SDL::Events;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
width =&gt; 200,
height =&gt; 200,
title =&gt; &#39;Pew Pew&#39;
);
my $quit = 0;
# start laser on the left
my $laser = 0;
sub get_events {
my $event = SDL::Event-&gt;new();
SDL::Events::pump_events;
while( SDL::Events::poll_event($event) )
{
$quit = 1 if $event-&gt;type == SDL_QUIT
}
}
sub calculate_next_positions {
# move the laser
$laser++;
# if the laser goes off the screen, bring it back
$laser = 0 if $laser &gt; $app-&gt;w();
}
sub render {
# draw the background first
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, $app-&gt;w, $app-&gt;h ], 0 );
# draw the laser halfway up the screen
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ $laser, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 2 ], [ 255, 0, 0, 255 ]);
$app-&gt;update();
}
while (!$quit)
{
get_events();
calculate_next_positions();
render();
}</code></pre>
<p>This game loop works very well for consoles and other devices where you
know exactly how much CPU time the game will get for every loop iteration.
That hardware stability is easy to predict: each animation and calculation
will happen at the same time for each machine. Unfortunately, this is
<i>not</i> true for modern operating systems and general purpose computing
hardware. CPU speeds and workloads vary, so for this game to play
consistently across multiple machines and myriad configurations, the game
loop itself needs to regulate its updates.</p>
<h3>Fixed FPS</h3>
<p> </p>
<p>One way to solve this problem is to regulate the number of frames per
second the game will produce. A <i>frame</i> is a complete redraw of the
screen representing the updated game state. If each iteration of the game
loop draws one frame, the more frames per second, the faster the game is
running. If the game loop limits the number of frames per second, the game
will perform consistently on all machines fast enough to draw that many
frames per second.</p>
<p>You can see this with the example program <i>game_fixed.pl</i>. When run
with no arguments:</p>
<pre><code> $ <b>perl game_fixed.pl</b></code></pre>
<p>.... the FPS rate will be erratic. The laser seems to change its speed
randomly. When run with a single argument, the game sets an upper bound on
the number of frames per second:</p>
<pre><code> $ <b>perl game_fixed.pl 1</b></code></pre>
<p>This will prevent the laser from going faster than 60 frames per second.
When run with a second argument, the game will set a lower bound of frames
per second:</p>
<pre><code> $ <b>perl game_fixed.pl 1 1</b></code></pre>
<p>At this point the FPS should hold steady at 60 frames per second.</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDL::Event;
use SDL::Events;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
width =&gt; 200,
height =&gt; 200,
title =&gt; &#39;Pew Pew&#39;
);
my ( $start, $end, $delta_time, $FPS, $frames ) = ( 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 );
# aim for a rate of 60 frames per second
my $fixed_rate = 60;
# compensate for times stored in microseconds
my $fps_check = (1000 / $fixed_rate );
my $quit = 0;
# start laser on the left
my $laser = 0;
sub get_events {
my $event = SDL::Event-&gt;new();
SDL::Events::pump_events;
while ( SDL::Events::poll_event($event) ) {
$quit = 1 if $event-&gt;type == SDL_QUIT;
}
}
sub calculate_next_positions {
$laser++;
$laser = 0 if $laser &gt; $app-&gt;w;
}
sub render {
# draw the background first
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, $app-&gt;w, $app-&gt;h ], 0 );
# draw the laser
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ $laser, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 2 ], [ 255, 0, 0, 255 ] );
# draw the FPS
$app-&gt;draw_gfx_text( [ 10, 10 ], [ 255, 0, 255, 255 ], &quot;FPS: $FPS&quot; );
$app-&gt;update();
}
# Called at the end of each frame, whether we draw or not
sub calculate_fps_at_frame_end
{
# Ticks are microseconds since load time
$end = SDL::get_ticks();
# smooth the frame rate by averaging over 10 frames
if ( $frames &lt; 10 ) {
$frames++;
$delta_time += $end - $start;
}
else {
# frame rate is Frames * 100 / Time Elapsed in us
$FPS = int( ( $frames * 100 ) / $delta_time )
if $delta_time != 0;
# reset metrics
$frames = 0;
$delta_time = 0;
}
}
while ( !$quit ) {
# Get the time for the starting of the frame
$start = SDL::get_ticks();
get_events();
# if fixing the lower bounds of the frame rate
if( $ARGV[1] )
{
# if delta time is going too slow for frame check
if ( $delta_time &gt; $fps_check ) {
calculate_fps_at_frame_end();
# skip rendering and collision detections
# (heavy functions in the game loop)
next;
}
}
calculate_next_positions();
render();
# a normal frame with rendering actually performed
calculate_fps_at_frame_end();
# if fixing the upper bounds of the frame rate
if ( $ARGV[0] ) {
# if delta time is going too fast compared to the frame check
if ( $delta_time &lt; $fps_check ) {
# delay for the difference
SDL::delay( $fps_check - $delta_time );
}
}
}</code></pre>
<p>This method is generally sufficient for most computers. The animations
will be smooth enough to provide the same gameplay even on machines with
different hardware.</p>
<p>However, this method still has some serious problems. First, if a
computer is too slow to sustain a rate of 60 FPS, the game will skip
rendering some frames, leading to sparse and jittery animation.it will skip
a lot of rendering, and the animation will look sparse and jittery. It
might be better to set a lower bounds of 30 FPS, though it's difficult to
predict the best frame rate for a user.</p>
<p>The worst problem is that this technique still ties rendering speed to
the CPU speed: a very fast computer will waste CPU cycles delaying.</p>
<h3>Variable FPS</h3>
<p>To fix the problem of a computer being consistently too fast or too slow
for the hard-coded FPS rate is to adjust the FPS rate accordingly. A slow
CPU may limit itself to 30 FPS, while a fast CPU might run at 300 FPS.
Although you may achieve a consistent rate this way (consistent for any one
particular computer), this technique still presents the problem of
differing animation speeds between different computers.</p>
<p>Better solutions are available.</p>
<h2>Integrating Physics</h2>
<p>Describe movement and show handlers.</p>
<p>The problem caused by coupling rendering to the CPU speed has a
convenient solution. Instead of updating object positions based on how fast
the computer can get through the game loop, derive their positions from a
physical model based on the passage of time. Objects moving according to
real world time will have consistent behavior at all CPU speeds and smooth
interpolation between frames. <code>SDLx::App</code> provides this behavior
through movement and show handlers.</p>
<p>Consider a simple physics model for the laser has a consistent
horizontal velocity in pixels per time step at the window's mid-point:</p>
<pre><code> X = Velocity * time step,
Y = 100</code></pre>
<p>Assuming a velocity of 10, the laser will pass through the
coordinates:</p>
<pre><code> 0, 100
10, 100
20, 100
30, 100
...
200, 100</code></pre>
<p>Note that the speed of processing the game loop no longer matters. The
position of the laser depends instead on the passage of real time.</p>
<p>The biggest problem with this approach is the required bookkeeping for
the many objects and callbacks. The implementation of such complex models
is non-trivial; see the lengthy discussion in the documentation of the
<code>SDLx::Controller</code> module.</p>
<p><code>SDLx::App</code> using the <code>SDLx::Controller</code> module
provide callbacks to handle both aspects of this type of game loop. One is
the the movement handler, which is a callback where calculations of the
next step for each relevant data point is calculated. In the above example
the movement handler would calculate the <code>X</code> and <code>Y</code>
values, for each time step between the frames of animations.</p>
<p>When we are ready to render the frame it is handled by the show handler.
In the above example that would mean the show handler would print or render
the <code>X, Y</code> values.</p>
<h3>Laser in Real Time</h3>
<p>This version of the laser example demonstrates the use of movement, show
handlers, and a simple physics model. This example also shows how
<code>SDLx::App</code> can do more of the work, even providing the entire
game loop:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDL::Event;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
width =&gt; 200,
height =&gt; 200,
title =&gt; &#39;Pew Pew&#39;
);
my $laser = 0;
my $velocity = 10;
$app-&gt;add_event_handler( \&amp;quit_event );
# tell app to handle the appropriate times to
# call both rendering and physics calculation
$app-&gt;add_move_handler( \&amp;calculate_laser );
$app-&gt;add_show_handler( \&amp;render_laser );
$app-&gt;run();
sub quit_event {
my $event = shift;
my $controller = shift;
$controller-&gt;stop if $event-&gt;type == SDL_QUIT;
}
sub calculate_laser {
# The step is the difference in Time calculated for the next jump
my ( $step, $app, $t ) = @_;
$laser += $velocity * $step;
$laser = 0 if $laser &gt; $app-&gt;w;
}
sub render_laser {
my ( $delta, $app ) = @_;
# The delta can be used to render blurred frames
# draw the background first
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, $app-&gt;w, $app-&gt;h ], 0 );
# draw the laser
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ $laser, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 2 ], [ 255, 0, 0, 255 ] );
$app-&gt;update();
}</code></pre>
<p>To learn more about this topic please, see an excellent blog post by
<b>GafferOnGames.com</b>:
HTTP://GafferOnGames.Com/game-physics/fix-your-timestep.</p>
<h1>Pong!</h1>
<p> </p>
<p>Pong is one of the first popular video games in the world. Allan Alcorn
created it for Atari, Inc. Its release in 1972 was both Atari's first game
ever and the spark which began the video game industry.</p>
<p>Pong simulates a table tennis match ("ping pong"). Each player controls
a paddle which moves vertically on the screen to hit a ball bouncing back
and forth between the players. You earn a point if your opponent is unable
to return the ball to your side of the screen.</p>
<p>You can recreate Pong yourself with Perl and SDL.</p>
<h2>The Basic Screen</h2>
<p>Start by making a simple screen for Pong. Open a file in your favourite
text editor and type:</p>
<pre><code> #!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
# create the main screen
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
width =&gt; 500,
height =&gt; 500,
title =&gt; &#39;My Pong Clone!&#39;,
dt =&gt; 0.02,
exit_on_quit =&gt; 1,
);
# let&#39;s roll!
$app-&gt;run;</code></pre>
<p>Save this file as <i>pong.pl</i> and run it by typing on the command
line:</p>
<pre><code> $ <b>perl pong.pl</b></code></pre>
<p>You should see a 500x500 black window entitled <i>"My Pong Clone!"</i>.
The only new feature you might not have seen before is the <code>dt</code>
parameter to the <code>SDLx::App</code> constructor. This represents the
length, in seconds, of a movement step as managed by an
<code>SDLx::Controller</code> object. Because the <code>SDLx::App</code>
object is also an <code>SDLx::Controller</code> object, it can handle
<code>SDL_QUIT</code> events.</p>
<blockquote>
<p><b>Game Loop Granularity</b></p>
<p>The game loop runs using a process that performs calculus on the time
progression. To do this it uses the <code>dt</code> parameter of
<code>SDLx::App</code>. <code>dt</code> by default is set to
<code>0.01</code> granularity. In simple terms <code>dt</code> determines
how many small steps in movement ( calls to the move handler ) should be
made per each render ( call to the show handler ).</p>
<p>What is important to remember is that the <code>dt</code> granularity
must never be set so big that it fails to capture collisions and
interaction between moving objects. This can especially happen with fast
moving objects such as bullets, but the principle applies to many
situation. On the other hand having a too fine granularity taxes the CPU
resources.</p>
</blockquote>
<h2>Game Objects</h2>
<p>There are three main game objects in Pong: two player paddles and the
bouncing ball. Paddles are rectangles moving which move vertically. They're
easy to represent with SDLx::Rect objects. First, put
<code>SDLx::Rect</code> in your module's declarations:</p>
<pre><code> use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
<b>use SDLx::Rect;</b></code></pre>
<p>Next, add a hash reference to store the first player's paddle. Using a
hash reference allows the possibility of adding more information later. In
a more complex game, consider using an actual object which <i>contains</i>
an <code>SDLx::Rect</code>. For now, this will suffice:</p>
<pre><code> <b>my $player1 = {</b>
<b>paddle =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( 10, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 40 ),</b>
<b>};</b>
# let&#39;s roll!
$app-&gt;run;</code></pre>
<p>This creates a 10x40 paddle rect for the first player on the left side
of the screen (<code>x = 10</code>) and somewhat in the center (<code>y =
$app->h / 2</code>). The second player's paddle is similar:</p>
<pre><code> <b>my $player2 = {</b>
<b>paddle =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( $app-&gt;w - 20, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 40),</b>
<b>};</b>
# let&#39;s roll!
$app-&gt;run;</code></pre>
<p>The second paddle needs to appear on the right side of the screen, so
its <code>x</code> position is the screen's width minus 20. As the paddle
has a width of 10 and the <code>x</code> position refers to the rect's
top-left corner, the paddle has a 10 pixel margin from the right edge of
the screen.</p>
<p>Finally, the bouncing ball is a 10x10 rect in the middle of the
screen:</p>
<pre><code> <b>my $ball = {</b>
<b>rect =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( $app-&gt;w / 2, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 10 ),</b>
<b>};
# let&#39;s roll!
$app-</b>run;</code></pre>
<p>Just like the original Pong, this ball is square.</p>
<h3>Show it Off</h3>
<p>With the game objects created, add a show handler to render them to the
screen:</p>
<pre><code> <b>$app-</b>add_show_handler(&gt;
<b>sub {</b>
<b># first, clear the screen</b>
<b>$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, $app-&gt;w, $app-&gt;h ], 0x000000FF );</b>
<b># then render the ball</b>
<b>$app-&gt;draw_rect( $ball-&gt;{rect}, 0xFF0000FF );</b>
<b># ... and each paddle</b>
<b>$app-&gt;draw_rect( $player1-&gt;{paddle}, 0xFF0000FF );</b>
<b>$app-&gt;draw_rect( $player2-&gt;{paddle}, 0xFF0000FF );</b>
<b># finally, update the screen</b>
<b>$app-&gt;update;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b>);</b>
# let&#39;s roll!
$app-&gt;run;</code></pre>
<p>This approach is rather simple. The code clears the screen by painting a
black rectangle the size of the screen, then painting opaque red
(<code>0xFF0000FF</code>) rectangles in each object's position.</p>
<p>The result can be seen on the screenshot:</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/pong1.png}
\caption{First view of our Pong clone} \label{fig:pong1}</p>
<h2>Moving the Player's Paddle</h2>
<p></p>
<p>It's time to let the player move the left paddle! Remember that motion
is merely changing an object's position with respect to time. If this
motion is, in the game, a magical teleportation, you can change the (x, y)
coordinates and be done with it. If the motion needs to represent some sort
of realistic physics, the object needs to move at an understood speed. Pong
paddles have a constant speed, so there's no need to model acceleration.
Also, as paddles move only vertically, the game only needs to track
vertical velocity. Add a <code>v_y</code> element to each paddle
structure:</p>
<pre><code> my $player1 = {
paddle =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( 10, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 40 ),
<b>v_y =&gt; 0,</b>
};</code></pre>
<p> </p>
<p>Now what? How does this new attribute help modify the position of a
paddle? Velocity represents the <i>displacement</i> how much displacement
happens in a unit of time, as in 20 km/h or 4 m/s. In this Pong clone, the
unit of time is the app's <code>dt</code>. The velocity of a paddle is
<code>v_y</code> pixels per <code>dt</code>. Here is where the motion
handlers come in handy:</p>
<pre><code> <b># handles the player&#39;s paddle movement</b>
<b>$app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {</b>
<b>my ( $step, $app ) = @_;</b>
<b>my $paddle = $player1-&gt;{paddle};</b>
<b>my $v_y = $player1-&gt;{v_y};</b>
<b>$paddle-&gt;y( $paddle-&gt;y ( $v_y * $step ) );</b>
<b>});</b></code></pre>
<p>If you recall previous chapters, the code should be straightforward.
When <code>v_y</code> is 0 at any given run cycle, the paddle won't change
its <code>y</code> position. If, however, there is a vertical velocity, the
code updates the <code>y</code> position based on how much of the expected
cycle time (the app's <code>dt</code>) has passed. A value of 1 in
<code>$step</code> indicates a full cycle has occurred, so that <code>$v_y
* $step</code> is the same as <code>$v_y * 1</code>, which simplifies to
<code>$v_y</code> -- the desired speed for one cycle. If the handler gets
called more frequently, the paddle will move a relatively shorter
amount.</p>
<h3>Rinse and Repeat</h3>
<p>The second player's paddle will use the same motion mechanics, so it
won't hurt to prepare for its motion:</p>
<pre><code> my $player2 = {
paddle =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( $app-&gt;w - 20, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 40),
<b>v_y =&gt; 0,</b>
};</code></pre>
<p>And add another motion handler, just like our player's:</p>
<pre><code> <b># handles AI&#39;s paddle movement</b>
<b>$app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {</b>
<b>my ( $step, $app ) = @_;</b>
<b>my $paddle = $player2-&gt;{paddle};</b>
<b>my $v_y = $player2-&gt;{v_y};</b>
<b>$paddle-&gt;y( $paddle-&gt;y ( $v_y * $step ) );</b>
<b>});</b></code></pre>
<blockquote>
<p>For the sake of simplicity of explanation, this code has repetition a
real program would not want. This repetition could go away in several ways.
You could use an array to hold all moving elements. You could use a helper
function to create a new closure for each paddle. You could turn the game
object hash references into real objects and add a <code>move()</code> or
<code>update_position()</code> method.</p>
</blockquote>
<h3>Move that Paddle!</h3>
<p>Paddle velocity <code>v_y</code> has a default value of zero, so paddles
begin by not moving. That's good, until the player wants to move the
paddle. To divine the player's intent, the program must bind the up and
down arrow keys of the keyboard to manipulate the positive and negative
velocity of the paddle through an event hook. This means loading the
SDL::Events module:</p>
<pre><code> use SDL;
<b>use SDL::Events;</b>
use SDLx::App;
use SDLx::Rect;</code></pre>
<p>... and creating an event hook:</p>
<pre><code> <b># handles keyboard events</b>
<b>$app-</b>add_event_handler(&gt;
<b>sub {</b>
<b>my ( $event, $app ) = @_;</b>
<b># user pressing a key</b>
<b>if ( $event-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN ) {</b>
<b># up arrow key means going up (negative velocity)</b>
<b>if ( $event-&gt;key_sym == SDLK_UP ) {</b>
<b>$player1-&gt;{v_y} = -2;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b># down arrow key means going down (positive velocity)</b>
<b>elsif ( $event-&gt;key_sym == SDLK_DOWN ) {</b>
<b>$player1-&gt;{v_y} = 2;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b>}</b>
<b># user releasing a key</b>
<b>elsif ( $event-&gt;type == SDL_KEYUP ) {</b>
<b># up or down arrow keys released, stop the paddle</b>
<b>if (</b>
<b>$event-&gt;key_sym == SDLK_UP</b>
<b>or $event-&gt;key_sym == SDLK_DOWN</b>
<b>) {</b>
<b>$player1-&gt;{v_y} = 0;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b>}</b>
<b>}</b>
<b>);</b></code></pre>
<p>Again, there's nothing new. Whenever the user presses the up arrow key,
the paddle should move up. Keep in mind that the origin point of 0, 0 in
SDL is the top-left corner, so a negative <code>v_y</code> will decrease
the paddle's <code>y</code> and send it <b>up</b> the screen. Similarly,
adding a positive value to <code>v_y</code> whenever the user presses the
down arrow key will move the paddle down. When the user releases either
arrow key, assigning zero to <code>v_y</code> stops the motion.</p>
<h2>A Bouncing Ball</h2>
<p>The ball's movement is similar to that of either paddle, except that it
also has a horizontal velocity component of <code>v_x</code>. Add that to
the ball structure:</p>
<pre><code> my $ball = {
rect =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( $app-&gt;w / 2, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 10 ),
<b>v_x =&gt; -2.7,</b>
<b>v_y =&gt; 1.8,</b>
};</code></pre>
<p>The ball will have an initial velocity of -2.7 horizontally and 1.8
vertically. Just as a negative vertical velocity moves the object up, a
negative horizontal velocity moves it towards the left side of the screen.
The ball also needs a motion handler to update its position according to
its velocity:</p>
<pre><code> # handles the ball movement
$app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {
my ( $step, $app ) = @_;
my $ball_rect = $ball-&gt;{rect};
$ball_rect-&gt;x( $ball_rect-&gt;x + ($ball-&gt;{v_x} * $step) );
$ball_rect-&gt;y( $ball_rect-&gt;y + ($ball-&gt;{v_y} * $step) );
});</code></pre>
<p>All of these motion handlers look similar so far, but if you're paying
close attention, you can probably spot a bug caused by missing code. Try
running the game. You'll see the ball going, going, and gone!</p>
<p>This handler needs to confine the ball to the screen. Whenever the ball
reaches a top or bottom edge of the screen, it needs to bounce. That's easy
enough to add:</p>
<pre><code> # handles the ball movement
$app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {
my ( $step, $app ) = @_;
my $ball_rect = $ball-&gt;{rect};
$ball_rect-&gt;x( $ball_rect-&gt;x + ($ball-&gt;{v_x} * $step) );
$ball_rect-&gt;y( $ball_rect-&gt;y + ($ball-&gt;{v_y} * $step) );
<b># collision to the bottom of the screen</b>
<b>if ( $ball_rect-&gt;bottom &gt;= $app-&gt;h ) {</b>
<b>$ball_rect-&gt;bottom( $app-&gt;h );</b>
<b>$ball-&gt;{v_y} *= -1;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b># collision to the top of the screen</b>
<b>elsif ( $ball_rect-&gt;top &lt;= 0 ) {</b>
<b>$ball_rect-&gt;top( 0 );</b>
<b>$ball-&gt;{v_y} *= -1;</b>
<b>}</b>
});</code></pre>
<p>If the new y (<code>"bottom"</code> or <code>"top"</code>) value would
take the ball off the screen in part or in whole, the handler updates the
ball's position with the furthest position possible while remaining on the
screen, so that the ball will only ever <i>touch</i> that edge. The handler
also reverses <code>y_y</code> so that the ball will bounce back onto the
screen going the opposite direction at the same speed.</p>
<h3>He shoots... and scores!!</h3>
<p>That fixes one bug, but what should happen when the ball hits the left
or right edges of the screen? According to the rules of Pong, this means
the player on the opposite side scored a point, and the ball should go back
to the center of the screen. Start by adding a <code>score</code> attribute
for each player:</p>
<pre><code> my $player1 = {
paddle =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( 10, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 40),
v_y =&gt; 0,
<b>score =&gt; 0,</b>
};
my $player2 = {
paddle =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( $app-&gt;w - 20, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 40),
v_y =&gt; 0,
<b>score =&gt; 0,</b>
};</code></pre>
<p>Then update the ball's motion handler to handle the out of bounds
condition for the left and right borders:</p>
<pre><code> # handles the ball movement
$app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {
my ( $step, $app ) = @_;
my $ball_rect = $ball-&gt;{rect};
$ball_rect-&gt;x( $ball_rect-&gt;x + ($ball-&gt;{v_x} * $step) );
$ball_rect-&gt;y( $ball_rect-&gt;y + ($ball-&gt;{v_y} * $step) );
# collision to the bottom of the screen
if ( $ball_rect-&gt;bottom &gt;= $app-&gt;h ) {
$ball_rect-&gt;bottom( $app-&gt;h );
$ball-&gt;{v_y} *= -1;
}
# collision to the top of the screen
elsif ( $ball_rect-&gt;top &lt;= 0 ) {
$ball_rect-&gt;top( 0 );
$ball-&gt;{v_y} *= -1;
}
<b># collision to the right: player 1 score!</b>
<b>elsif ( $ball_rect-&gt;right &gt;= $app-&gt;w ) {</b>
<b>$player1-&gt;{score}++;</b>
<b>reset_game();</b>
<b>return;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b># collision to the left: player 2 score!</b>
<b>elsif ( $ball_rect-&gt;left &lt;= 0 ) {</b>
<b>$player2-&gt;{score}++;</b>
<b>reset_game();</b>
<b>return;</b>
<b>}</b>
});</code></pre>
<p>If the ball hits the right edge of the screen (the app's width), we
increase player 1's score, call <code>reset_game()</code>, and return
without updating the ball's position. If the ball hits the left edge of the
screen, do the same for player 2.</p>
<p>The <code>reset_game()</code> function must return the ball to the
center of the screen:</p>
<pre><code> <b>sub reset_game {</b>
<b>$ball-&gt;{rect}-&gt;x( $app-&gt;w / 2 );</b>
<b>$ball-&gt;{rect}-&gt;y( $app-&gt;h / 2 );</b>
<b>}</b></code></pre>
<h2>Collision Detection: The Ball and The Paddle</h2>
<p>The game's existing collision detection is very simple because the
paddles and ball can only collide with the fixed edges of the screen. The
game gets more interesting when it can detect whether the ball and a paddle
collide--or rather, intersect.</p>
<p></p>
<p>The Separating Axis Theorem roughly states that two convex shapes in a
2D plane <i> do not</i> intersect if and only you can place a line which
separates them. Because the paddles and the ball are rectangular <i>and</i>
aligned along one axis, detecting a collision means choosing one item and
testing its top, right, bottom, and left lines for intersection. If any
other object is on one side or the other of those four lines, there is no
collision. Otherwise, there is a collision.</p>
<p>In more general terms, given two rects A and B, you can establish
several conditions:</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.9\textwidth]{../src/images/collision.png}
\caption{if B is completely to the left, right, top or bottom of A, they do
NOT intersect} \label{fig:pong1}</p>
<ul>
<li>if A's bottom side is above B's top side, then A is completely above B
(fig. 6.2.1).</li>
<li>if A's top side is below B's bottom side, then A is completely below B
(fig. 6.2.2).</li>
<li>if A's right side is to the left of B's left side, then A is completely
to the left of B (fig. 6.2.3).</li>
<li>if A's left side is to the right of B's right side, then A is
completely to the right of B (fig 6.2.4).</li>
</ul>
<p>Keep in mind that SDL's origin point of 0, 0 is always the top left
corner. This produces a simple generic <code>check_collision()</code>
function which returns true of two rect objects have collided:</p>
<pre><code> sub check_collision {
my ($A, $B) = @_;
return if $A-&gt;bottom &lt; $B-&gt;top;
return if $A-&gt;top &gt; $B-&gt;bottom;
return if $A-&gt;right &lt; $B-&gt;left;
return if $A-&gt;left &gt; $B-&gt;right;
# we have a collision!
return 1;
}</code></pre>
<p>The ball motion handler can now test to see if the ball has hit either
paddle:</p>
<pre><code> # handles the ball movement
$app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {
my ( $step, $app ) = @_;
my $ball_rect = $ball-&gt;{rect};
$ball_rect-&gt;x( $ball_rect-&gt;x + ($ball-&gt;{v_x} * $step) );
$ball_rect-&gt;y( $ball_rect-&gt;y + ($ball-&gt;{v_y} * $step) );
# collision to the bottom of the screen
if ( $ball_rect-&gt;bottom &gt;= $app-&gt;h ) {
$ball_rect-&gt;bottom( $app-&gt;h );
$ball-&gt;{v_y} *= -1;
}
# collision to the top of the screen
elsif ( $ball_rect-&gt;top &lt;= 0 ) {
$ball_rect-&gt;top( 0 );
$ball-&gt;{v_y} *= -1;
}
# collision to the right: player 1 score!
elsif ( $ball_rect-&gt;right &gt;= $app-&gt;w ) {
$player1-&gt;{score}++;
reset_game();
return;
}
# collision to the left: player 2 score!
elsif ( $ball_rect-&gt;left &lt;= 0 ) {
$player2-&gt;{score}++;
reset_game();
return;
}
<b># collision with player1&#39;s paddle</b>
<b>elsif ( check_collision( $ball_rect, $player1-&gt;{paddle} )) {</b>
<b>$ball_rect-&gt;left( $player1-&gt;{paddle}-&gt;right );</b>
<b>$ball-&gt;{v_x} *= -1;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b># collision with player2&#39;s paddle</b>
<b>elsif ( check_collision( $ball_rect, $player2-&gt;{paddle} )) {</b>
<b>$ball-&gt;{v_x} *= -1;</b>
<b>$ball_rect-&gt;right( $player2-&gt;{paddle}-&gt;left );</b>
<b>}</b>
});</code></pre>
<p>That's it! If the ball hits the first player's paddle, the handler
reverses its horizontal velocity (<code>v_x</code>) to make it bounce back,
and set its left edge to the paddle's right so they don't overlap. The
logic is similar for the second player's paddle, except that the ball's
right edge now must be at the same position as the paddle's left, as the
ball has hit the other side of the paddle.</p>
<h2>Artificial Stupidity</h2>
<p>This Pong game is almost done. With scoring, ball movement, and paddle
movement, it's playable--but dull, unless the second player can move. It's
easy enough to bind a secondary set of keys to move the second paddle, but
what if you want a quick game on your own without a friend around?</p>
<p>Artificial intelligence for games is a complex field of study, with many
algorithms. Fortunately, the easiest approach is simple to model for Pong:
the second player's paddle should follow the ball as it moves. All that
takes is some new code in the second player's motion handler:</p>
<pre><code> # handles AI&#39;s paddle movement
$app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {
my ( $step, $app ) = @_;
my $paddle = $player2-&gt;{paddle};
my $v_y = $player2-&gt;{v_y};
<b>if ( $ball-&gt;{rect}-&gt;y &gt; $paddle-&gt;y ) {</b>
<b>$player2-&gt;{v_y} = 1.5;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b>elsif ( $ball-&gt;{rect}-&gt;y &lt; $paddle-&gt;y ) {</b>
<b>$player2-&gt;{v_y} = -1.5;</b>
<b>}</b>
<b>else {</b>
<b>$player2-&gt;{v_y} = 0;</b>
<b>}</b>
$paddle-&gt;y( $paddle-&gt;y + ( $v_y * $step ) );
});</code></pre>
<p>If the ball is below the paddle (if its <code>y</code> value is greater
than the <code>y</code> value of the paddle), the paddle needs a positive
velocity to go downwards. If, otherwise, the ball has a lower
<code>y</code> value, the paddle's <code>v_y</code> gets a negative value.
If the ball is somewhere in between those two values, the paddle stays in
place.</p>
<h2>Cosmetics: Displaying the Score</h2>
<p></p>
<p>All that's left is polish. Displaying the score means drawing text to
the screen. That's the purpose of the <code>SDLx::Text</code> module:</p>
<pre><code> use SDL;
use SDL::Events;
use SDLx::App;
use SDLx::Rect;
<b>use SDLx::Text;</b></code></pre>
<p>Create an object to represent the display of the score:</p>
<pre><code> <b>my $score = SDLx::Text-&gt;new( font =&gt; &#39;font.ttf&#39;, h_align =&gt; &#39;center&#39; );</b></code></pre>
<p>The optional <code>font</code> parameter specifies the path to a
TrueType Font. Feel free to change <i>font.ttf</i> as you like. Otherwise,
leave out this parameter and SDL will use the bundled default font. The
other parameter, <code>h_align</code>, allows you to specify the horizontal
alignment of rendered text. The default is left alignment.</p>
<p>Add the score object to the show handler to display it:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_show_handler(
sub {
# first clear the screen
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [0, 0, $app-&gt;w, $app-&gt;h], 0x000000FF );
# then render the ball
$app-&gt;draw_rect( $ball-&gt;{rect}, 0xFF0000FF );
# ... and each paddle
$app-&gt;draw_rect( $player1-&gt;{paddle}, 0xFF0000FF );
$app-&gt;draw_rect( $player2-&gt;{paddle}, 0xFF0000FF );
<b># ... and each player&#39;s score!</b>
<b>$score-&gt;write_to(</b>
<b>$app,</b>
<b>$player1-&gt;{score} . &#39; x &#39; . $player2-&gt;{score}</b>
<b>);</b>
# finally, update the screen
$app-&gt;update;
}
);</code></pre>
<p>The <code>write_to()</code> call will write to any surface passed as the
first argument--in this case, the app itself. The second argument is the
string to render. Note that the string's when rendered is relative to the
surface to which it writes. The default position is (0, 0). Because the
<code>$score</code> object has horizontal centering, the text will write to
the top and center of the screen--not the top and left.</p>
<p>The result is:</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/pong2.png}
\caption{our finished Pong clone, in all its glory} \label{fig:pong2}</p>
<h2>Exercises</h2>
<p>Pong is a simple game, but there's plenty of room for polish. Here's
your chance to add some features. Of course, there's always more than one
way to do things:</p>
<ul>
<li>1 Every time a player scores, the ball goes back to the middle but has
the same sense and direction as before. See if you can make it restart at a
random direction instead.
<li>2 Red is boring. How about a psychedelic Pong? Pick three different
colors and make each paddle oscillate between them every time the ball hits
it.
</ul>
<h3>Answers</h3>
<ul>
<li>1 To make the ball restart at a random direction, update
<code>reset_game()</code> function to set the ball's <code>v_x</code> and
<code>v_y</code> to a random value between. Anything between positive 1.5
and 2.5 works well:
<pre><code> sub reset_game {
$ball-&gt;{rect}-&gt;x( $app-&gt;w / 2 );
$ball-&gt;{rect}-&gt;y( $app-&gt;h / 2 );
<b>$ball-&gt;{v_x} = (1.5 + int rand 1) * (rand 2 &gt; 1 ? 1 : -1);</b>
<b>$ball-&gt;{v_y} = (1.5 + int rand 1) * (rand 2 &gt; 1 ? 1 : -1);</b>
}</code></pre>
<li>2 Start by representing the available colors. You could use separate
colors or hues for each player, but for simplicity this code uses a single
group of colors. Each player's hash will contain the index into this array:
<pre><code> <b>my @colors = qw( 0xFF0000FF 0x00FF00FF 0x0000FFFF 0xFFFF00FF );</b>
my $player1 = {
paddle =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( 10, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 40),
v_y =&gt; 0,
score =&gt; 0,
<b>color =&gt; 0,</b>
};
my $player2 = {
paddle =&gt; SDLx::Rect-&gt;new( $app-&gt;w - 20, $app-&gt;h / 2, 10, 40),
v_y =&gt; 0,
score =&gt; 0,
<b>color =&gt; 0,</b>
};</code></pre>
<p>Now make the ball's color change every time a paddle hits it:</p>
<pre><code> # handles the ball movement
$app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {
...
# collision with player1&#39;s paddle
elsif ( check_collision( $ball_rect, $player1-&gt;{paddle} )) {
$ball_rect-&gt;left( $player1-&gt;{paddle}-&gt;right );
$ball-&gt;{v_x} *= -1;
<b>$player1-&gt;{color} = ($player1-&gt;{color} + 1) % @colors;</b>
}
# collision with player2&#39;s paddle
elsif ( check_collision( $ball_rect, $player2-&gt;{paddle} )) {
$ball-&gt;{v_x} *= -1;
$ball_rect-&gt;right( $player2-&gt;{paddle}-&gt;left );
<b>$player2-&gt;{color} = ($player2-&gt;{color} + 1) % @colors;</b>
}
});</code></pre>
<p>Finally, change the show handler to use the current color referenced by
<code>color</code>, instead of the previously hardcoded value:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_show_handler(
sub {
# first clear the screen
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [0, 0, $app-&gt;w, $app-&gt;h], 0x000000FF );
# then render the ball
$app-&gt;draw_rect( $ball-&gt;{rect}, 0xFF0000FF );
# ... and each paddle
<b>$app-&gt;draw_rect( $player1-&gt;{paddle}, $colors[ $player1-&gt;{color} ] );</b>
<b>$app-&gt;draw_rect( $player2-&gt;{paddle}, $colors[ $player2-&gt;{color} ] );</b>
...
# finally update the screen
$app-&gt;update;
}
);</code></pre>
</ul>
<h2>Author</h2>
<p>This chapter's content graciously provided by Breno G. de Oliveira
(<code>garu</code>).</p>
<h2>POD ERRORS</h2>
<p>Hey! <b>The above document had some coding errors, which are explained
below:</b></p>
<ul>
<li>Around line 822:
<p>You forgot a '=back' before '=head1'</p>
</ul>
<h1>Tetris</h1>
<p>Pong is an important milestone in gaming history. If you can write it,
you understand the basics of game programming. The next step in mastery
comes from writing something like Tetris, with better animation and more
complex scoring.</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/tetris.png}
\caption{Tetris using SDLx Perl} \label{fig:tetris}</p>
<p>To follow along, download the sample code from
https://github.com/PerlGameDev/SDL_Manual/raw/master/games/tetris.zip. To
start the game, extract this Zip file and run:</p>
<pre><code> $ <b>perl tetris.pl</b></code></pre>
<h2>The Game Window</h2>
<p>The game starts out as you should expect by now:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDL::Event;
use SDL::Events;
use SDLx::App;
# create the main screen
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
w =&gt; 400,
h =&gt; 512,
exit_on_quit =&gt; 1,
dt =&gt; 0.2,
title =&gt; &#39;SDLx Tetris&#39;
);</code></pre>
<p>This game requires several pieces of artwork, and so the program must
manage and store them somehow. The <code>SDLx::Surface</code> module
handles the conversion of files from their storage on disk into a format
SDL can use, and an array will hold them:</p>
<pre><code> use SDL;
<b>use SDLx::Surface;</b>
...
<b>my $back = SDLx::Surface-&gt;load( &#39;data/tetris_back.png&#39; );</b>
<b>my @piece = (undef);</b>
<b>push @piece, SDLx::Surface-&gt;load( &quot;data/tetris_$_.png&quot; ) for 1..7;</b></code></pre>
<p>The <code>$back</code> variable holds one special surface: the
background image. Everything else is in the <code>@piece</code> array.</p>
<h2>Managing Blocks</h2>
<p>Blocks are critical to the success of a Tetris game. The program must
represent them in a sensible way: they must be easy to access and they must
be easy to manipulate and calculate. A hash fulfills the ease of
access:</p>
<pre><code> my %pieces = (
I =&gt; [0, 5, 0, 0,
0, 5, 0, 0,
0, 5, 0, 0,
0, 5, 0, 0],
J =&gt; [0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 6, 0,
0, 0, 6, 0,
0, 6, 6, 0],
L =&gt; [0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 2, 0, 0,
0, 2, 0, 0,
0, 2, 2, 0],
O =&gt; [0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 3, 3, 0,
0, 3, 3, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0],
S =&gt; [0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 4, 4, 0,
4, 4, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0],
T =&gt; [0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 7, 0, 0,
7, 7, 7, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0],
Z =&gt; [0, 0, 0, 0,
1, 1, 0, 0,
0, 1, 1, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0],
);</code></pre>
<p>Each hash entry holds a four-element array reference which represents a
grid of the piece. Each item in the array corresponds to an image in the
<code>@piece</code> array. Drawing a piece means blitting one element of
<code>@piece</code> for each non-zero entry in the piece's array.</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
<b>use List::Util qw(shuffle min max);</b></code></pre>
<p></p>
<p>Selecting pieces needs some randomness. The core <code>List::Util</code>
module can help:</p>
<pre><code> Z =&gt; [0,0,0,0,
1,1,0,0,
0,1,1,0,
0,0,0,0],
);
<b>my $next_tile = get_next_tile();</b>
<b>my $curr_tile = [ undef, 4, 0 ];</b>
<b>@{ $curr_tile-&gt;[0] } = @{ $pieces{$next_tile} };</b>
<b>$next_tile = get_next_tile()</b>
<b>sub get_next_tile { shuffle keys %pieces };</b></code></pre>
<p>This code randomly chooses a <code>$next_tile</code>, then sets the
piece data for the first piece in <code>$curr_tile</code>.</p>
<h2>Piece Collisions</h2>
<p>Collision detection is both easier (because only one piece at a time
moves) and more difficult (because the screen continues to fill up with
pieces). One solution is to treat the screen as two overlapping grids. The
first grid represents the moving piece. The second grid represents the
pieces already in place. When a moving piece collides with a piece in the
fixed grid, the moving piece becomes stationary and joins the fixed grid.
When that action clears one or more lines, the stationary grid changes.</p>
<p>Start by defining these grids:</p>
<pre><code> push @piece, SDLx::Surface-&gt;load( &quot;data/tetris_$_.png&quot; ) for 1..7;
<b># compare the position of the moving piece with non-moving pieces</b>
<b>my $grid = []; # moving piece</b>
<b>my $store = []; # non-moving pieces</b>
my %pieces = (
I =&gt; [0,5,0,0,</code></pre>
<p>Rotating a piece means transforming each of its elements:</p>
<p>This math needs some explanation for everyone who hasn't done linear
algebra in a while.</p>
<pre><code> sub rotate_piece {
my $_piece = shift;
my $_rotated = [];
my $_i = 0;
for (@{$_piece}) {
$_rotated-&gt;[ $_i + (($_i % 4 + 1 ) * 3)
- ( 5 * int( $_i / 4 ))] = $_;
$_i++;
}
return $_rotated;
}</code></pre>
<p>Collision detection requires checking both grids for a piece overlap in
the direction the user wants to move the piece:</p>
<p>The math concern applies here too. A diagram might help.</p>
<pre><code> sub can_move_piece {
my $direction = shift;
my $amount = shift || 1;
for my $y (0 .. 3) {
for my $x (0 . .3) {
if ($curr_tile-&gt;[0]-&gt;[ $x + 4 * $y ]) {
return if $direction eq &#39;left&#39;
&amp;&amp; $x - $amount + $curr_tile-&gt;[1] &lt; 0;
return if $direction eq &#39;right&#39;
&amp;&amp; $x + $amount + $curr_tile-&gt;[1] &gt; 9;
return if $direction eq &#39;down&#39;
&amp;&amp; int($y + $amount + $curr_tile-&gt;[2]) &gt; 22;
return if $direction eq &#39;right&#39;
&amp;&amp; $store-&gt;[ $x + $amount +
$curr_tile-&gt;[1] +
10 * int($y + $curr_tile-&gt;[2]) ];
return if $direction eq &#39;left&#39;
&amp;&amp; $store-&gt;[ $x - $amount +
$curr_tile-&gt;[1] +
10 * int($y + $curr_tile-&gt;[2]) ];
return if $direction eq &#39;down&#39;
&amp;&amp; $store-&gt;[ $x +
$curr_tile-&gt;[1]
+ 10 * int($y + $amount +
$curr_tile-&gt;[2]) ];
}
}
}
return 1;
}</code></pre>
<p>All of the pieces are in place to move the piece: make the collision
check, then place the piece into the appropriate grid for its next
position:</p>
<pre><code> sub move_piece {
my $direction = shift;
my $amount = shift || 1;
if ($direction eq &#39;right&#39;) {
$curr_tile-&gt;[1] += $amount;
}
elsif ($direction eq &#39;left&#39;) {
$curr_tile-&gt;[1] -= $amount;
}
elsif ($direction eq &#39;down&#39;) {
$curr_tile-&gt;[2] += $amount;
}
@{$grid} = ();
for my $y (0..3) {
for my $x (0..3) {
if ($curr_tile-&gt;[0]-&gt;[$x + 4 * $y]) {
$grid-&gt;[ $x + $curr_tile-&gt;[1] +
10 * ($y + int($curr_tile-&gt;[2])) ]
= $curr_tile-&gt;[0]-&gt;[$x + 4 * $y];
}
}
}
}
sub store_piece {
for my $y (0..3) {
for my $x (0..3) {
if ($curr_tile-&gt;[0]-&gt;[$x + 4 * $y]) {
$store-&gt;[ $x + $curr_tile-&gt;[1] + 10 *
($y + int($curr_tile-&gt;[2])) ]
= $curr_tile-&gt;[0]-&gt;[$x + 4 * $y];
}
}
}
}</code></pre>
<p>Of course this all needs an event handler to attempt to move the pieces
appropriately:</p>
<pre><code> sub trigger_move_event_handler {
my ( $event, $app ) = @_;
if ( $event-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN ) {
my $key = $event-&gt;key_sym;
if ( $event-&gt;key_sym &amp; (SDLK_LEFT|SDLK_RIGHT|SDLK_UP|SDLK_DOWN) ) {
if ($key == SDLK_LEFT &amp;&amp; can_move_piece(&#39;left&#39;)) {
move_piece(&#39;left&#39;);
}
elsif ($key == SDLK_RIGHT &amp;&amp; can_move_piece(&#39;right&#39;)) {
move_piece(&#39;right&#39;);
}
elsif ($key == SDLK_DOWN &amp;&amp; can_move_piece(&#39;down&#39;)) {
move_piece(&#39;down&#39;)
}
elsif ($key == SDLK_UP) {
$curr_tile-&gt;[0] = rotate_piece($curr_tile-&gt;[0]);
}
}
}
}
$app-&gt;add_event_handler( \&amp;trigger_move_event_handler );</code></pre>
<h3>Score and Game State</h3>
<p>First we keep hold a variable to keep the game score and set the
<code>SDLx::Text</code> font and options to draw the text on the screen
later on.</p>
<pre><code> use SDLx::App;
<b>use SDLx::Text;</b>
use SDLx::Rect;
...
# create our game objects
<b>my $score_text = SDLx::Text-&gt;new( font =&gt; &#39;font.ttf&#39;,</b>
<b>h_align =&gt; &#39;left&#39;,</b>
<b>color =&gt; [255,255,255,255] );</b>
<b>my $score = 0;</b>
my $back = SDLx::Surface-&gt;load( &#39;data/tetris_back.png&#39; );</code></pre>
<p>The game state in Tetris is the combination of the fixed placement grid,
the current piece, and the current score. The move handler can update all
of these:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_move_handler( sub {
my ( $step, $app ) = @_;</code></pre>
<p>Start by updating the current piece's state as movable or fixed:</p>
<pre><code> if (can_move_piece(&#39;down&#39;, $step / 2)) {
# still movable
move_piece(&#39;down&#39;, $step / 2);
}
else {
# place the tile
store_piece($curr_tile);</code></pre>
<p>Then update the state of the grid and check for lines to remove:</p>
<p>Why count backwards? This seems like it could be <code>for my $y (0 ..
22)</code>. Maybe the question is whether to remove rows from the bottom up
or the top down.</p>
<pre><code> # checking for lines to delete
my $y;
my @to_delete);
for($y = 22; $y &gt;= 0; $y--) {
# if the min value of this row is 0,
# it contains at least one open space
if (min( @{$store}[ ($y * 10)..((( $y + 1) *10 ) -1 )])) {
push @to_delete, $y;
}
}</code></pre>
<p>Deleting a line should increment the user's score:</p>
<pre><code> # deleting lines
foreach (@to_delete) {
splice @{$store}, $_ * 10, 10;
$score++;
}</code></pre>
<p>... and should clear that line off of the fixed grid:</p>
<p>These loops should merge.</p>
<pre><code> # adding blank rows to the top
foreach (@to_delete) {
splice @{$store}, 0, 0, (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0);
}
</code></pre>
<p>... and the game should launch a new tile.</p>
<pre><code> # launching new tile
@{$curr_tile-&gt;[0]} = @{ $pieces{$next_tile} };
$curr_tile-&gt;[1] = 4;
$curr_tile-&gt;[2] = 0;
$next_tile = shuffle keys %pieces;
}
});</code></pre>
<h3>Drawing the Game</h3>
<p>Those are the mechanics. How about displaying the game? The show handler
needs to iterate through all of the elements in both grids and draw the
appropriate tile:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_show_handler(
sub {
# first clear the screen
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, $app-&gt;w, $app-&gt;h ], 0x000000 );
# and draw the background image
$back-&gt;blit( $app );
my $x = 0;
my $y = 0;
# draw the fixed tiles
foreach (@{$store}) {
$piece[$_]-&gt;blit( $app,
undef,
[ 28 + $x%10 * 20, 28 + $y * 20 ]
) if $_;
$x++;
$y++ unless $x % 10;
}
$x = 0;
$y = 0;
# draw the moving tile
foreach (@{$grid}) {
$piece[$_]-&gt;blit( $app, undef,
[ 28 + $x % 10 * 20, 28 + $y * 20 ] ) if $_;
$x++;
$y++ unless $x % 10;
}
# the next tile will be...
my $next_tile_index = max( @{$pieces{$next_tile}} );
for $y (0..3) {
for $x (0..3) {
if ($pieces{$next_tile}-&gt;[$x + 4 * $y]) {
$piece[$next_tile_index]-&gt;blit( $app, undef,
[ 264 + $x * 20,
48 + $y * 20 ]
);
}
}
}</code></pre>
<p>... and should draw the score:</p>
<pre><code> $score_text-&gt;write_xy( $app, 248, 20, &quot;Next Piece&quot; );
$score_text-&gt;write_xy( $app, 248, 240, &quot;Score: $score&quot; );
# finally, update the screen
$app-&gt;update;
}
);
# all is set, run the app!
$app-&gt;run();</code></pre>
<h2>Author</h2>
<p>Code for this chapter was provided by Tobias Leich "FROGGS".</p>
<h1>Puzz! A puzzle game</h1>
<h2>Abstract</h2>
<p>We are now ready to write another complete game. Instead of listing the
code and then explaining it, I will go through the process of how I might
write it.</p>
<p>Puzz is a simple rearrangment puzzle. A random image from the folder
Puzz is in is chosen and broken into a 4x4 grid. The top left corner piece
is then taken away, and every other piece is then moved to a random
position, scrambling the image up. The goal is then to move pieces which
are in the 4 squares adjacent to the empty square on to the empty square,
and eventually restore the image.</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/puzz1.png}
\caption{Credits to Sebastian Riedel (kraih.com) for the Perl6 logo used
with permission in the application.} \label{fig:puzz}</p>
<h2>The Window</h2>
<p>So, first thing we do is create the window. I've decided I want each
piece to be 100x100, so the window needs to be 400x400.</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
my $App = SDLx::App-&gt;new(w =&gt; 400, h =&gt; 400, t =&gt; &#39;Puzz&#39;);</code></pre>
<p>Next thing we usually do is figure out what global vars we will be
needing. As with $App, I like to name my globals with title case, so they
are easily distinguishable from lexical vars. The globals we need are the
grid (the positions of the pieces), the images we have to use, the current
image, and a construct that will give us piece movement, along with an
animation.</p>
<pre><code> my @Grid;
my @Img;
my $CurrentImg;
my %Move;</code></pre>
<p>For now, lets fill in @Grid with what it's going to look like:</p>
<pre><code> @Grid = (
[0, 1, 2, 3],
[4, 5, 6, 7],
[8, 9, 10, 11],
[12, 13, 14, 15],
);</code></pre>
<p><code>0</code> will be our blank piece, but we could have chosen it to
be any other number. When the grid looks like this, it's solved, so
eventually we will need a way to scramble it. It's good enough for now,
though.</p>
<h2>Loading the images</h2>
<p>To load the images, we would normally use <code>SDLx::Surface</code>,
but we're going to do it the libsdl way with <code>SDL::Image</code>
because we need to do our own error handling.</p>
<pre><code> use SDL::Image;
use SDL::GFX::Rotozoom &#39;SMOOTHING_ON&#39;;
while(&lt;./*&gt;) {
if(-f and my $i = SDL::Image::load($_)) {
$i = SDL::GFX::Rotozoom::surface_xy($i, 0, 400 / $i-&gt;w, 400 / $i-&gt;h, SMOOTHING_ON);
push @Img, $i;
}
else
{
warn &quot;Cannot Load $_: &quot; . SDL::get_error() if $_ =~ /jpg|png|bmp/;
}
}
$CurrentImg = $Img[rand @Img];
die &quot;Please place images in the Current Folder&quot; if $#Img &lt; 0;</code></pre>
<p>We just go through every file in the current directory, and try to load
it as an image. <code>SDL::Image::load</code> will return false if there
was an error, so we want to discard it when that happens. If we used
<code>SDLx::Surface</code> to load the images, we would get a warning every
time a file fails to load as an image, which we don't want. The <code>my $i
= SDL::Image::load($_)</code> is just an idiom for setting a var and
checking it for truth at the same time.</p>
<p>We want the image to be 400x400, and <code>SDL::GFX::Rotozoom</code>
makes this possible. The two Rotozoom functions that are the most useful
are <code>surface</code> and <code>surface_xy</code>. They work like
this:</p>
<pre><code> $zoomed_src = SDL::GFX::Rotozoom::surface($src, $angle, $zoom, $smoothing)
$zoomed_src = SDL::GFX::Rotozoom::surface_xy($src, $angle, $x_zoom, $y_zoom, $smoothing)</code></pre>
<p>The zoom values are the multiplier for that component, or for both
components at once as with <code>$zoom</code>. <code>$angle</code> is an
angle of rotation in degrees. <code>$smoothing</code> should be
<code>SMOOTHING_ON</code> or <code>SMOOTHING_OFF</code> (which can be
exported by <code>SDL::GFX::Rotozoom</code>) or just 1 or 0.</p>
<p>Once the image is zoomed, it is added to the image array. The current
image is then set to a random value of the array.</p>
<h2>Handling Events</h2>
<p>The next part I like to write is the events. We're going to make Escape
quit, and left click will move the pieces around. We <code>use
SDL::Events</code> for the constants.</p>
<pre><code> use SDL::Events;
sub on_event {
my ($e) = @_;
if($e-&gt;type == SDL_QUIT or $e-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN and $e-&gt;key_sym == SDLK_ESCAPE) {
$App-&gt;stop;
}
elsif($e-&gt;type == SDL_MOUSEBUTTONDOWN and $e-&gt;button_button == SDL_BUTTON_LEFT) {
...
}
}
$App-&gt;add_event_handler(\&amp;on_event);
# $App-&gt;add_move_handler(\&amp;on_move);
# $App-&gt;add_show_handler(\&amp;on_show);
$App-&gt;run;</code></pre>
<h2>Filling the Grid</h2>
<p>Once we have something like this, it's a good time to put some
<code>warn</code> messages in to make sure the inputs are working
correctly. Once they are, it's time to fill it in.</p>
<pre><code> my $x = int($e-&gt;button_x / 100);
my $y = int($e-&gt;button_y / 100);
if(!%Move and $Grid[$y][$x]) {`
...
}</code></pre>
<p>From the pixel coordinates of the click (0 to 399), we want to find out
the grid coordinates (0 to 3), so we divide both components by 100 and
round them down. Then, we only want to continue on to see if that piece can
move if no other piece is moving (<code>%Move</code> is false), and the
piece clicked isn't the blank piece (0).</p>
<pre><code> for([-1, 0], [0, -1], [1, 0], [0, 1]) {
my $nx = $x + $_-&gt;[0];
my $ny = $y + $_-&gt;[1];
if($nx &gt;= 0 and $nx &lt; 4 and $ny &gt;= 0 and $ny &lt; 4 and !$Grid[$ny][$nx]) {
...
}
}</code></pre>
<h2>Moving the Pieces</h2>
<p>We check that the blank piece is in the 4 surrounding places by
constructing 4 vectors. These will take us to those squares. The
<code>x</code> component is first and the second is <code>y</code>. We
iterate through them, setting <code>$nx</code> and <code>$ny</code> to the
new position. Then if both <code>$nx</code> and <code>$ny</code> are within
the grid (0 to 3), and that position in the grid is 0, we can move the
piece to the blank square.</p>
<pre><code> %Move = (
x =&gt; $x,
y =&gt; $y,
x_dir =&gt; $_-&gt;[0],
y_dir =&gt; $_-&gt;[1],
offset =&gt; 0,
);</code></pre>
<p>To make a piece move, we construct the move hash with all the
information it needs to move the piece. The <code>x</code> and
<code>y</code> positions of the piece, the <code>x</code> and
<code>y</code> directions it will be moving (the vector), and it's current
pixel offset from it's position (for the moving animation), which starts at
0.</p>
<h3>The Move Handler Callback</h3>
<p>Next we will write the move handler. All it needs to do is move any
moving piece along by updating the offset, and click it in to where it's
being moved to when it has moved the whole way (offset is 100 or more).</p>
<pre><code> sub on_move {
if(%Move) {
$Move{offset} += 30 * $_[0];
if($Move{offset} &gt;= 100) {
$Grid[$Move{y} + $Move{y_dir}][$Move{x} + $Move{x_dir}] = $Grid[$Move{y}][$Move{x}];
$Grid[$Move{y}][$Move{x}] = 0;
undef %Move;
}
}
}
</code></pre>
<p>30 has been arbitrarily chosen as the speed of the move, as it felt the
best after a little playing and tweaking. Always remember to multiply
things like this by the step value in <code>$_[0]</code> so that the
animation moves in correct time with the updating.</p>
<p>Once the offset is 100 or more, the grid place that the piece is moving
to is set to the value of the piece, and the piece is set to the blank
value. The move is then finished, so <code>%Move</code> is deleted.</p>
<h2>Rendering the Game</h2>
<p>Now that we have all the functionality we need it's finally time to see
the game.</p>
<pre><code> sub on_show {
$App-&gt;draw_rect( [0,0,$App-&gt;w,$App-&gt;h], 0 );
for my $y (0..3) {
for my $x (0..3) {
...
}
}
$App-&gt;flip;
}
</code></pre>
<p>We start the show handler by drawing a black rect over the entire app.
Entire surface and black are the defaults of <code>draw_rect</code>, so
letting it use the defaults is good. Next we iterate through a
<code>y</code> and <code>x</code> of 0 to 3 so that we can go through each
piece of the grid. At the end of the handler we update the app with a call
to <code>flip</code>.</p>
<pre><code> next unless my $val = $Grid[$y][$x];
my $xval = $val % 4;
my $yval = int($val / 4);
my $move = %Move &amp;&amp; $Move{x} == $x &amp;&amp; $Move{y} == $y;
...</code></pre>
<p>Inside the two loops we put this. First we set <code>$val</code> to the
grid value at the current position, and we skip to the next piece if it's
the blank piece. We have the <code>x</code> and <code>y</code> coordinates
of where that piece is on the board, but we need to figure out where it is
on the image. If you refer back to the initialisation of the grid, the two
operations to find the values should make sense. <code>$move</code> is set
with a bool of whether it is this piece that is moving, if there is a piece
moving at all.</p>
<pre><code> $App-&gt;blit_by(
$CurrentImg,
[$xval * 100, $yval * 100, 100, 100],
[$x * 100 + ($move ? $Move{offset} * $Move{x_dir} : 0),
$y * 100 + ($move ? $Move{offset} * $Move{y_dir} : 0)]
);</code></pre>
<p>Now that we have all of this, we can blit the portion of the current
image we need to the app. We use <code>blit_by</code> because the image
we're blitting isn't an SDLx::Surface (because we didn't load it as one),
but the app is. Here's how <code>blit_by</code> works as opposed to
<code>blit</code>:</p>
<pre><code> $src-&gt;blit($dest, $src_rect, $dest_rect)
$dest-&gt;blit_by($src, $src_rect, $dest_rect)</code></pre>
<p>The portion we need is from the <code>$xval</code> and
<code>$yval</code>, and where it needs to go to is from <code>$x</code> and
<code>$y</code>. All are multiplied by 100 because we're dealing with 0 to
300, not 0 to 3. If the piece is moving, the offset multiplied by the
diretion is added to the position.</p>
<p>When the code is run with all 3 handlers, we have a fully working game.
The pieces move around nicely when clicked. The only things it still needs
are a shuffled grid and a way to check if the player has won. To imlement
these two things, we will make two more functions.</p>
<pre><code> use List::Util &#39;shuffle&#39;;
sub new_grid {
my @new = shuffle(0..15);
@Grid = map { [@new[ $_*4..$_*4+3 ]] } 0..3;
$CurrentImg = $Img[rand @Img];
}
</code></pre>
<p>We will replace the grid initialising we did with this sub. First it
shffles the numbers 0 through 15 with <code>List::Util::shuffle</code>.
This array is then arranged into a 2D grid with a <code>map</code> and put
in to @Grid. Setting the current image is also put into this sub.</p>
<pre><code> sub won {
my $correct = 0;
for(@Grid) {
for(@$_) {
return 0 if $correct != $_;
$correct++;
}
}
return 1;
}</code></pre>
<p>This sub returns whether the grid is in the winning configuration, that
is, all piece values are in order from 0 to 15.</p>
<p>Now we put a call to <code>new_grid</code> to replace the grid
initialisation we had before. We put <code>won</code> into the event
handler to make click call <code>new_grid</code> if you have won. Finally,
<code>won</code> is put into the show handler to show the blank piece if
you have won.</p>
<h2>Complete Code</h2>
<p>Here is the finished code:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
use SDL::Events;
use SDL::Image;
use SDL::GFX::Rotozoom &#39;SMOOTHING_ON&#39;;
use List::Util &#39;shuffle&#39;;
my $App = SDLx::App-&gt;new(w =&gt; 400, h =&gt; 400, t =&gt; &#39;Puzz&#39;);
my @Grid;
my @Img;
my $CurrentImg;
my %Move;
while(&lt;./*&gt;) {
if(-f and my $i = SDL::Image::load($_)) {
$i = SDL::GFX::Rotozoom::surface_xy($i, 0, 400 / $i-&gt;w, 400 / $i-&gt;h, SMOOTHING_ON);
push @Img, $i;
}
else
{
warn &quot;Cannot Load $_: &quot; . SDL::get_error() if $_ =~ /jpg|png|bmp/;
}
}
die &quot;Please place images in the Current Folder&quot; if $#Img &lt; 0;
new_grid();
sub on_event {
my ($e) = @_;
if($e-&gt;type == SDL_QUIT or $e-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN and $e-&gt;key_sym == SDLK_ESCAPE) {
$App-&gt;stop;
}
elsif($e-&gt;type == SDL_MOUSEBUTTONDOWN and $e-&gt;button_button == SDL_BUTTON_LEFT) {
my($x, $y) = map { int($_ / 100) } $e-&gt;button_x, $e-&gt;button_y;
if(won()) {
new_grid();
}
elsif(!%Move and $Grid[$y][$x]) {
for([-1, 0], [0, -1], [1, 0], [0, 1]) {
my($nx, $ny) = ($x + $_-&gt;[0], $y + $_-&gt;[1]);
if($nx &gt;= 0 and $nx &lt; 4 and $ny &gt;= 0 and $ny &lt; 4 and !$Grid[$ny][$nx]) {
%Move = (
x =&gt; $x,
y =&gt; $y,
x_dir =&gt; $_-&gt;[0],
y_dir =&gt; $_-&gt;[1],
offset =&gt; 0,
);
}
}
}
}
}
sub on_move {
if(%Move) {
$Move{offset} += 30 * $_[0];
if($Move{offset} &gt;= 100) {
$Grid[$Move{y} + $Move{y_dir}][$Move{x} + $Move{x_dir}] = $Grid[$Move{y}][$Move{x}];
$Grid[$Move{y}][$Move{x}] = 0;
undef %Move;
}
}
}
sub on_show {
$App-&gt;draw_rect( [0,0,$App-&gt;w,$App-&gt;h], 0 );
for my $y (0..3) {
for my $x (0..3) {
next if not my $val = $Grid[$y][$x] and !won();
my $xval = $val % 4;
my $yval = int($val / 4);
my $move = %Move &amp;&amp; $Move{x} == $x &amp;&amp; $Move{y} == $y;
$App-&gt;blit_by(
$CurrentImg,
[$xval * 100, $yval * 100, 100, 100],
[$x * 100 + ($move ? $Move{offset} * $Move{x_dir} : 0),
$y * 100 + ($move ? $Move{offset} * $Move{y_dir} : 0)]
);
}
}
$App-&gt;flip;
}
sub new_grid {
my @new = shuffle(0..15);
@Grid = map { [@new[ $_*4..$_*4+3 ]] } 0..3;
$CurrentImg = $Img[rand @Img];
}
sub won {
my $correct = 0;
for(@Grid) {
for(@$_) {
return 0 if $correct != $_;
$correct++;
}
}
return 1;
}
$App-&gt;add_event_handler(\&amp;on_event);
$App-&gt;add_move_handler(\&amp;on_move);
$App-&gt;add_show_handler(\&amp;on_show);
$App-&gt;run;</code></pre>
<p>You now hopefully know more of the process that goes in to creating a
simple game. The process of creating a complex game is similar, it just
requires more careful planning. You should have also picked up a few other
tricks, like with <code>SDL::GFX::Rotozoom</code>,
<code>SDL::Image::load</code> and <code>blit_by</code>.</p>
<h2>Activities</h2>
<ol>
<li>1. Make the blank piece the bottom right piece instead of the top left
piece.</li>
<li>2. Make the grid dimensions variable by getting the value from
<code>$ARGV[0]</code>. The grid will then be 5x5 if <code>$ARGV[0]</code>
is 5 and so on.</li>
</ol>
<h2>Author</h2>
<p>This chapter's content graciously provided by Blaizer.</p>
<h1>Sound and Music</h1>
<p>Sound and Music in SDL are handled by the <code>Audio</code> and
<code>SDL_Mixer</code> components. Enabling <code>Audio</code> devices is
provided with the Core SDL Library and only supports wav files.
<code>SDL_Mixer</code> supports more audio file formats and has additional
features that we need for sound in Game Development.</p>
<p>Similarly to video in SDL, there are several way for perl developers to
access the Sound components of SDL. For the plain <code>Audio</code>
component the <code>SDL::Audio</code> and related modules are available.
<code>SDL_Mixer</code> is supported with th <code>SDL::Mixer</code> module.
There is currently a <code>SDLx::Sound</code> module in the work, but not
completed at the time of writing this manual. For that reason this chapter
will use <code>SDL::Audio</code> and <code>SDL::Mixer</code>.</p>
<h2>Simple Sound Script</h2>
<p>To begin using sound we must enable and open an audiospec:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use Carp;
use SDL::Audio;
use SDL::Mixer;
SDL::init(SDL_INIT_AUDIO);
unless( SDL::Mixer::open_audio( 44100, AUDIO_S16SYS, 2, 4096 ) == 0 )
{
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot open audio: &quot;.SDL::get_error();
}
</code></pre>
<p><code>open_audio</code> will open an audio device with frequency at
44100 Mhz, audio format AUDIO_S16SYS (Note: This is currently the most
portable format, however there are others), 2 channels and a chunk size of
4096. Fiddle with these values if you are comfortable with sound
terminology and techniques.</p>
<h3>Loading Samples</h3>
<p>Next we will load sound samples that generally used for sound effects
and the like. Currently <code>SDL_Mixer</code> reserves samples for
<code>.WAV</code>, <code>.AIFF</code>, <code>.RIFF</code>
<code>.OGG</code>, and <code>.VOC</code> formats.</p>
<p>Samples run on one of the 2 channels that we opened up, while the other
channel will be reserved for multiple plays of the sample. To load samples
we will be doing the following:</p>
<pre><code> +use SDL::Mixer::Samples;
+#Brillant Lazer Sound from HTTP://FreeSound.Org/samplesViewSingle.php?id=30935
+my $sample = SDL::Mixer::Samples::load_WAV(&#39;data/sample.wav&#39;);
+unless($sample)
+{
+ Carp::croak &quot;Cannot load file data/sample.wav: &quot;.SDL::get_error();
+}</code></pre>
<h3>Playing the sample and closing audio</h3>
<p>Now we can play that sample on any open channel looping forever:</p>
<pre><code> use SDL::Mixer::Samples;
+use SDL::Mixer::Channels;
my $sample = SDL::Mixer::Samples::load_WAV(&#39;data/sample.wav&#39;);
unless( $sample)
{
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot load file data/sample.wav: &quot;.SDL::get_error();
}
+my $playing_channel = SDL::Mixer::Channels::play_channel( -1, $sample, 0 );</code></pre>
<p><code>play_channel</code> allows us to assign a sample to the channel
<code>-1</code> which indicates any open channel. <code>0</code> indicates
we want to play the sample only once.</p>
<p>Note that since the sound will be playing in an external process we will
need to keep the perl script running. In a game this is no problem but for
a single script like this we can just use a simple <code>sleep</code>
function. Once we are done we can go ahead and close the audio device.</p>
<pre><code> +sleep(1);
+SDL::Mixer::close_audio();</code></pre>
<h3>Streaming Music</h3>
<p>Next we will use <code>SDL::Mixer::Music</code> to add a background
music to our script here.</p>
<pre><code> use SDL::Mixer::Channels;
+use SDL::Mixer::Music;
+#Load our awesome music from HTTP://8BitCollective.Com
+my $background_music =
+ SDL::Mixer::Music::load_MUS(&#39;data/music/01-PC-Speaker-Sorrow.ogg&#39;);
+unless( $background_music )
+{
+ Carp::croak &quot;Cannot load music file data/music/01-PC-Speaker-Sorrow.ogg: &quot;.SDL::get_error() ;
+}</code></pre>
<p>Music types in <code>SDL::Mixer</code> run in a separate channel from
our samples which allows us to have sound effects (like jump, or lasers
etc) to play at the same time.</p>
<pre><code> +SDL::Mixer::Music::play_music($background_music,0); </code></pre>
<p><code>play_music</code> also takes a parameter for how many loops you
would like to play the song for, where 0 is 1.</p>
<p>To stop the music we can call <code>halt_music</code>.</p>
<pre><code> sleep(2);
+SDL::Mixer::Music::halt_music();
SDL::Mixer::close_audio();</code></pre>
<blockquote>
<p>Controlling Volume can be as simple as:</p>
<pre><code> #All channels indicated by the -1
SDL::Mixer::Channels::volume(-1,10);
#Specifically for the Music
SDL::Mixer::Music::volume_music( 10 );</code></pre>
<p>Volumes can be set at anytime and range from <code>1-100</code>.</p>
</blockquote>
<h3>Code so far</h3>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use Carp;
use SDL::Audio;
use SDL::Mixer;
use SDL::Mixer::Samples;
use SDL::Mixer::Channels;
use SDL::Mixer::Music;
SDL::init(SDL_INIT_AUDIO);
unless( SDL::Mixer::open_audio( 44100, AUDIO_S16SYS, 2, 4096 ) == 0 )
{
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot open audio: &quot;.SDL::get_error();
}
my $sample = SDL::Mixer::Samples::load_WAV(&#39;data/sample.wav&#39;);
unless( $sample)
{
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot load file data/sample.wav: &quot;.SDL::get_error();
}
my $playing_channel = SDL::Mixer::Channels::play_channel( -1, $sample, 0 );
#Load our awesome music from HTTP://8BitCollective.Com
my $background_music = SDL::Mixer::Music::load_MUS(&#39;data/music/01-PC-Speaker-Sorrow.ogg&#39;);
unless( $background_music )
{
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot load music file data/music/01-PC-Speaker-Sorrow.ogg: &quot;
.SDL::get_error();
}
SDL::Mixer::Music::play_music( $background_music,0 );
sleep(2);
SDL::Mixer::Music::halt_music();
SDL::Mixer::close_audio;</code></pre>
<h2>Sound Applications</h2>
<p>Now that we know how to prepare and play simple sounds we will apply it
to an <code>SDLx::App</code>.</p>
<h3>SDLx::App Audio Initialization</h3>
<p><code>SDLx::App</code> will initialize everything normally for us.
However for a stream line application it is recommend to initialize only
the things we need. In this case that is <code>SDL_INIT_VIDEO</code> and
<code>SDL_INIT_AUDIO</code>.</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use Carp;
use SDLx::App;
use SDL::Audio;
use SDL::Mixer;
use SDL::Event;
use SDL::Events;
use SDL::Mixer::Music;
use SDL::Mixer::Samples;
use SDL::Mixer::Channels;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
init =&gt; SDL_INIT_AUDIO | SDL_INIT_VIDEO,
width =&gt; 250,
height =&gt; 75,
title =&gt; &quot;Sound Event Demo&quot;,
eoq =&gt; 1
);</code></pre>
<h3>Loading Resources</h3>
<p>It is highly recommended to perform all resource allocations before a
<code>SDLx::App::run()</code> method is called.</p>
<pre><code> # Initialize the Audio
unless ( SDL::Mixer::open_audio( 44100, AUDIO_S16SYS, 2, 4096 ) == 0 ) {
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot open audio: &quot; . SDL::get_error();
}
#Something to show while we play music and sounds
my $channel_volume = 100;
my $music_volume = 100;
my $laser_status = &#39;none&#39;;
my $music_status = &#39;not playing&#39;;
# Load our sound resources
my $laser = SDL::Mixer::Samples::load_WAV(&#39;data/sample.wav&#39;);
unless ($laser) {
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot load sound: &quot; . SDL::get_error();
}
my $background_music =
SDL::Mixer::Music::load_MUS(&#39;data/music/01-PC-Speaker-Sorrow.ogg&#39;);
unless ($background_music) {
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot load music: &quot; . SDL::get_error();
}</code></pre>
<h3>The Show Handler</h3>
<p>For the purposes of describing the current state of the music lets draw
text to the screen in a <code>show_handler</code>.</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_show_handler(
sub {
$app-&gt;draw_rect([0,0,$app-&gt;w,$app-&gt;h], 0 );
$app-&gt;draw_gfx_text( [10,10], [255,0,0,255], &quot;Channel Volume : $channel_volume&quot; );
$app-&gt;draw_gfx_text( [10,25], [255,0,0,255], &quot;Music Volume : $music_volume&quot; );
$app-&gt;draw_gfx_text( [10,40], [255,0,0,255], &quot;Laser Status : $laser_status&quot; );
$app-&gt;draw_gfx_text( [10,55], [255,0,0,255], &quot;Music Status : $music_status&quot; );
$app-&gt;update();
}
);</code></pre>
<p>This will draw the channel volume of our samples, and the volume of the
music. It will also print the status of our two sounds in the
application.</p>
<h3>The Event Handler</h3>
<p>Finally our event handler will do the actual leg work and trigger the
music and sound as we need it.</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_event_handler(
sub {
my $event = shift;
if ( $event-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN ) {
my $keysym = $event-&gt;key_sym;
my $keyname = SDL::Events::get_key_name($keysym);
if ( $keyname eq &#39;space&#39; ) {
$laser_status = &#39;PEW!&#39;;
#fire lasers!
SDL::Mixer::Channels::play_channel( -1, $laser, 0 );
}
elsif ( $keyname eq &#39;up&#39; ) {
$channel_volume += 5 unless $channel_volume == 100;
}
elsif ( $keyname eq &#39;down&#39; ) {
$channel_volume -= 5 unless $channel_volume == 0;
}
elsif ( $keyname eq &#39;right&#39; ) {
$music_volume += 5 unless $music_volume == 100;
}
elsif ( $keyname eq &#39;left&#39; ) {
$music_volume -= 5 unless $music_volume == 0;
}
elsif ( $keyname eq &#39;return&#39; ) {
my $playing = SDL::Mixer::Music::playing_music();
my $paused = SDL::Mixer::Music::paused_music();
if ( $playing == 0 &amp;&amp; $paused == 0 ) {
SDL::Mixer::Music::play_music( $background_music, 1 );
$music_status = &#39;playing&#39;;
}
elsif ( $playing &amp;&amp; !$paused ) {
SDL::Mixer::Music::pause_music();
$music_status = &#39;paused&#39;
}
elsif ( $playing &amp;&amp; $paused ) {
SDL::Mixer::Music::resume_music();
$music_status = &#39;resumed playing&#39;;
}
}
SDL::Mixer::Channels::volume( -1, $channel_volume );
SDL::Mixer::Music::volume_music($music_volume);
}
}
);</code></pre>
<p>The above event handler fires the laser on pressing the 'Space' key. Go
ahead and press it multiple times as if you are firing a gun in a game! You
will notice that depending on how fast you fire the laser the application
will still manage to overlap the sounds as needed. The sample overlapping
is accomplished by requiring multiple channels in the
<code>open_audio</code> call. If your game has lots of samples that may
play at the same time you may need more channels allocated. Additionally
you can see that the volume control is easily managed both on the channels
and the music with just incrementing or decrementing a value and calling
the appropriate function.</p>
<p>Finally it is worth noticing the various state the background music can
be in.</p>
<p>Lets run this application and the make sure to clean up the audio on the
way out. $app->run(); SDL::Mixer::Music::halt_music();
SDL::Mixer::close_audio;</p>
<h3>Completed Code</h3>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use Cwd;
use Carp;
use File::Spec;
use threads;
use threads::shared;
use SDL;
use SDL::Event;
use SDL::Events;
use SDL::Audio;
use SDL::Mixer;
use SDL::Mixer::Music;
use SDL::Mixer::Effects;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
init =&gt; SDL_INIT_AUDIO | SDL_INIT_VIDEO,
width =&gt; 800,
height =&gt; 600,
depth =&gt; 32,
title =&gt; &quot;Music Visualizer&quot;,
eoq =&gt; 1,
dt =&gt; 0.2,
);
# Initialize the Audio
unless ( SDL::Mixer::open_audio( 44100, AUDIO_S16, 2, 1024 ) == 0 ) {
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot open audio: &quot; . SDL::get_error();
}
# Load our music files
my $data_dir = &#39;.&#39;;
my @songs = glob &#39;data/music/*.ogg&#39;;
my @stream_data : shared;
# Music Effect to pull Stream Data
sub music_data {
my ( $channel, $samples, $position, @stream ) = @_;
{
lock(@stream_data);
push @stream_data, @stream;
}
return @stream;
}
sub done_music_data { }
my $music_data_effect_id =
SDL::Mixer::Effects::register( MIX_CHANNEL_POST, &quot;main::music_data&quot;,
&quot;main::done_music_data&quot;, 0 );
# Music Playing Callbacks
my $current_song = 0;
my $lines = $ARGV[0] || 50;
my $current_music_callback = sub {
my ( $delta, $app ) = @_;
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, $app-&gt;w(), $app-&gt;h() ], 0x000000FF );
$app-&gt;draw_gfx_text(
[ 5, $app-&gt;h() - 10 ],
[ 255, 0, 0, 255 ],
&quot;Playing Song: &quot; . $songs[ $current_song - 1 ]
);
my @stream;
{
lock @stream_data;
@stream = @stream_data;
@stream_data = ();
}
# To show the right amount of lines we choose a cut of the stream
# this is purely for asthetic reasons.
my $cut = @stream / $lines;
# The width of each line is calculated to use.
my $l_wdt = ( $app-&gt;w() / $lines ) / 2;
for ( my $i = 0 ; $i &lt; $#stream ; $i += $cut ) {
# In stereo mode the stream is split between two alternating streams
my $left = $stream[$i];
my $right = $stream[ $i + 1 ];
# For each bar we calculate a Y point and a X point
my $point_y = ( ( ($left) ) * $app-&gt;h() / 4 / 32000 ) + ( $app-&gt;h / 2 );
my $point_y_r =
( ( ($right) ) * $app-&gt;h() / 4 / 32000 ) + ( $app-&gt;h / 2 );
my $point_x = ( $i / @stream ) * $app-&gt;w;
# Using the parameters
# Surface, box coordinates and color as RGBA
SDL::GFX::Primitives::box_RGBA(
$app,
$point_x - $l_wdt,
$app-&gt;h() / 2,
$point_x + $l_wdt,
$point_y, 40, 0, 255, 128
);
SDL::GFX::Primitives::box_RGBA(
$app,
$point_x - $l_wdt,
$app-&gt;h() / 2,
$point_x + $l_wdt,
$point_y_r, 255, 0, 40, 128
);
}
$app-&gt;flip();
};
my $cms_move_callback_id;
my $pns_move_callback_id;
my $play_next_song_callback;
sub music_finished_playing {
SDL::Mixer::Music::halt_music();
$pns_move_callback_id = $app-&gt;add_move_handler($play_next_song_callback)
if ( defined $play_next_song_callback );
}
$play_next_song_callback = sub {
return $app-&gt;stop() if $current_song &gt;= @songs;
my $song = SDL::Mixer::Music::load_MUS( $songs[ $current_song++ ] );
SDL::Mixer::Music::play_music( $song, 0 );
$app-&gt;remove_move_handler($pns_move_callback_id)
if defined $pns_move_callback_id;
};
$app-&gt;add_show_handler($current_music_callback);
$pns_move_callback_id = $app-&gt;add_move_handler($play_next_song_callback);
$app-&gt;add_move_handler(
sub {
my $music_playing = SDL::Mixer::Music::playing_music();
music_finished_playing() unless $music_playing;
}
);
$app-&gt;add_event_handler(
sub {
my ( $event, $app ) = @_;
if ( $event-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN &amp;&amp; $event-&gt;key_sym == SDLK_DOWN ) {
# Indicate that we are done playing the music_finished_playing
music_finished_playing();
}
}
);
$app-&gt;run();
SDL::Mixer::Effects::unregister( MIX_CHANNEL_POST, $music_data_effect_id );
SDL::Mixer::Music::hook_music_finished();
SDL::Mixer::Music::halt_music();
SDL::Mixer::close_audio();</code></pre>
<h2>Music Visualizer</h2>
<p>The music visualizer example processes real-time sound data--data as it
plays--and displays the wave form on the screen. It will look something
like:</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/spectro-1.png}
\caption{Simple Music Visualization} \label{fig:Visualization}</p>
<h3>The Code and Comments</h3>
<p>The program begins with the usual boilerplate of an SDL Perl
application:</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use Cwd;
use Carp;
use File::Spec;
use threads;
use threads::shared;
use SDL;
use SDL::Event;
use SDL::Events;
use SDL::Audio;
use SDL::Mixer;
use SDL::Mixer::Music;
use SDL::Mixer::Effects;
use SDLx::App;</code></pre>
<p>It then creates an application with both audio and video support:</p>
<pre><code> my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new(
init =&gt; SDL_INIT_AUDIO | SDL_INIT_VIDEO,
width =&gt; 800,
height =&gt; 600,
depth =&gt; 32,
title =&gt; &quot;Sound Event Demo&quot;,
eoq =&gt; 1,
dt =&gt; 0.2,
);</code></pre>
<p>The application must initialize the audio system with a format matching
the expected audio input. <code>AUDIO_S16</code> provides a 16-bit signed
integer array for the stream data:</p>
<pre><code> # Initialize the Audio
unless ( SDL::Mixer::open_audio( 44100, AUDIO_S16, 2, 1024 ) == 0 ) {
Carp::croak &quot;Cannot open audio: &quot; . SDL::get_error();
}</code></pre>
<p>The music player needs the music files from the <i>data/music/</i>
directory:</p>
<pre><code> # Load our music files
my $data_dir = &#39;.&#39;;
my @songs = glob &#39;data/music/*.ogg&#39;;</code></pre>
<p>A music effect reads stream data, then serializes it to share between
threads:</p>
<pre><code> my @stream_data : shared;
# Music Effect to pull Stream Data
sub music_data {
my ( $channel, $samples, $position, @stream ) = @_;
{
lock(@stream_data);
push @stream_data, @stream;
}
return @stream;
}
sub done_music_data { }</code></pre>
<p>... and that effect gets registered as a callback with
<code>SDL::Mixer::Effects</code>:</p>
<pre><code> my $music_data_effect_id =
SDL::Mixer::Effects::register( MIX_CHANNEL_POST, &quot;main::music_data&quot;,
&quot;main::done_music_data&quot;, 0 );</code></pre>
<p>The program's single command-line option governs the number of lines to
display in the visualizer. The default is 50.</p>
<pre><code> my $lines = $ARGV[0] || 50;</code></pre>
<p>The drawing callback for the <code>SDLx::App</code> runs while a song
plays. It reads the stream data and displays it on the screen as a wave
form. The math behind calculating the graphics to display is more detail
than this article intends, but the graphic code is straightforward:</p>
<pre><code> # Music Playing Callbacks
my $current_song = 0;
my $current_music_callback = sub {
my ( $delta, $app ) = @_;
$app-&gt;draw_rect( [ 0, 0, $app-&gt;w(), $app-&gt;h() ], 0x000000FF );
$app-&gt;draw_gfx_text(
[ 5, $app-&gt;h() - 10 ],
[ 255, 0, 0, 255 ],
&quot;Playing Song: &quot; . $songs[ $current_song - 1 ]
);
my @stream;
{
lock @stream_data;
@stream = @stream_data;
@stream_data = ();
}
# To show the right amount of lines we choose a cut of the stream
# this is purely for asthetic reasons.
my $cut = @stream / $lines;
# The width of each line is calculated to use.
my $l_wdt = ( $app-&gt;w() / $lines ) / 2;
for ( my $i = 0 ; $i &lt; $#stream ; $i += $cut ) {
# In stereo mode the stream is split between two alternating streams
my $left = $stream[$i];
my $right = $stream[ $i + 1 ];
# For each bar we calculate a Y point and a X point
my $point_y = ( ( ($left) ) * $app-&gt;h() / 4 / 32000 ) + ( $app-&gt;h / 2 );
my $point_y_r =
( ( ($right) ) * $app-&gt;h() / 4 / 32000 ) + ( $app-&gt;h / 2 );
my $point_x = ( $i / @stream ) * $app-&gt;w;
# Using the parameters
# Surface, box coordinates and color as RGBA
SDL::GFX::Primitives::box_RGBA(
$app,
$point_x - $l_wdt,
$app-&gt;h() / 2,
$point_x + $l_wdt,
$point_y, 40, 0, 255, 128
);
SDL::GFX::Primitives::box_RGBA(
$app,
$point_x - $l_wdt,
$app-&gt;h() / 2,
$point_x + $l_wdt,
$point_y_r, 255, 0, 40, 128
);
}
$app-&gt;flip();
};</code></pre>
<p>Whenever a song finishes <code>SDL::Mixer::Music::playing_music</code>
returns <code>0</code>. We detect this change in state and call
<code>music_finished_playing()</code> where the program attaches our
<code>$play_next_song_callback</code> callback to switch to the next song
gracefully:</p>
<pre><code> my $cms_move_callback_id;
my $pns_move_callback_id;
my $play_next_song_callback;
sub music_finished_playing {
SDL::Mixer::Music::halt_music();
$pns_move_callback_id = $app-&gt;add_move_handler($play_next_song_callback)
if ( defined $play_next_song_callback );
}
$play_next_song_callback = sub {
return $app-&gt;stop() if $current_song &gt;= @songs;
my $song = SDL::Mixer::Music::load_MUS( $songs[ $current_song++ ] );
SDL::Mixer::Music::play_music( $song, 0 );
$app-&gt;remove_move_handler($pns_move_callback_id)
if defined $pns_move_callback_id;
};</code></pre>
<p>A move handler is attached to detect if music is playing or not:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_move_handler(
sub {
my $music_playing = SDL::Mixer::Music::playing_music();
music_finished_playing() unless $music_playing;
}
) </code></pre>
<p>The first callback to trigger the <code>$play_next_song_callback</code>
gets the first song:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_show_handler($current_music_callback);
$pns_move_callback_id = $app-&gt;add_move_handler($play_next_song_callback);</code></pre>
<p>... and a keyboard event handler for a keypress allows the user to move
through songs:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;add_event_handler(
sub {
my ($event, $app) = @_;
if( $event-&gt;type == SDL_KEYDOWN &amp;&amp; $event-&gt;key_sym == SDLK_DOWN)
{
#Indicate that we are done playing the music_finished_playing
music_finished_playing();
}
}
);</code></pre>
<p>From there, the application is ready to run:</p>
<pre><code> $app-&gt;run();</code></pre>
<p>... and the final code gracefully stops <code>SDL::Mixer</code>:</p>
<pre><code> SDL::Mixer::Effects::unregister( MIX_CHANNEL_POST, $music_data_effect_id );
SDL::Mixer::Music::hook_music_finished();
SDL::Mixer::Music::halt_music();
SDL::Mixer::close_audio();</code></pre>
<p>The result? Several dozen lines of code to glue together the SDL mixer
and display a real-time visualization of the music.</p>
<h1>CPAN</h1>
<p>The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) is the other part of the
Perl language. By now most Perl developers should be aware of how to search
and get modules from CPAN. This chapter will focus on why to use CPAN for
games. Next we will take a look in what domain (Model, View or Controller)
does a module solve a problem for. Moreover we would want to look at what
is criteria to pick one module from another, using the many tools provided
by CPAN.</p>
<h2>Modules</h2>
<p>It is good to reuse code.</p>
<h3>MVC Method</h3>
<p>See where the module fits, Model, View or Controller</p>
<h4>View</h4>
<p>SDL will do most but helper module (Clipboard) are cool to have.</p>
<p>The <i>SDLx::Widget</i> bundle comes separately, but is meant to provide
you with several common game elements such as menu, dialog boxes and
buttons, all seamlessly integrated with SDL.</p>
<h4>Model</h4>
<p>The logic and modelling behind most popular games is already on CPAN, so
you can easily plug them in to create a new game of Chess, Checkers, Go,
Life, Minesweeping, Cards, etc. There are even classes for platform games
(like <i>Games::Nintendo::Mario</i>), creating and solving mazes,
generating random dungeon maps, you name it. Have a look at
<i>Roguelike-Utils</i> and <i>Games::RolePlay::MapGen</i> for just a few of
those.</p>
<p>If your game needs to store data, like objects and status for saved
games or checkpoints, you can use <i>Storable</i> or any of the many data
serializers available.</p>
<p>In fact, speaking of data structures, it is common to keep game data in
standard formats such as JSON, YAML or XML, to make you able to
import/export them directly from third-party tools like visual map makers
or 3D modeling software. Perl provides very nice modules to handle the most
popular formats - and some pretty unusual ones. Parsers vary in speed, size
and thoroughness, so make sure to check the possible candidates and use the
one that fits your needs for speed, size and accuracy.</p>
<h4>Controller</h4>
<p>If you need to roll a dice, you can use <i>Games::Dice</i>, that even
lets you receive an array of rolled dice, and use RPG-like syntax (e.g.
"2d6+1" for 2 rolls of a 6-side die, adding 1 to the result).</p>
<p>You can also use <i>Sub::Frequency</i> if you need to do something or
trigger a particular action or event only sometimes, or at a given
probability.</p>
<p>Your game may need you to mix words, find substrings or manipulate word
permutations in any way (like when playing scrabble), in which case you
might find the <i>Games::Word</i> module useful.</p>
<h2>Picking Modules</h2>
<p>So, you thought of a nice game, identified your needs, typed some
keywords in HTTP://Search.CPAN.Org, and got tons of results. What now? How
to avoid vaporware and find the perfect solution for your needs?</p>
<h3>Documentation</h3>
<p>Once you find a potential module for your application, make sure you
will know how to use it. Take a look at the SYNOPSIS section of the module,
it should contain some code snippets showing you how to use the module's
main features. Are you comfortable with the usage syntax? Does it seem to
do what you expect it to? Will it fit nicely to whatever it is you're
coding?</p>
<p>Next, skim through the rest of the documentation. Is it solid enough for
you? Does it look complete enough for your needs, or is it easily
extendable?</p>
<h3>License</h3>
<p>It's useless to find a module you can't legally use. Most (if not all)
modules in HTTP://Search.CPAN.Org are free and open source software, but
even so each needs a license telling developers what they can and cannot do
with it. A lot of CPAN modules are released <i>"under the same terms as
Perl itself"</i>, and this means you can pick between the Artistic License
or the GPL (version 1).</p>
<p>Below is a short and incomplete list of some popular license choices by
CPAN developers:</p>
<ul>
<li>Artistic License - HTTP://Dev.Perl.Org/licenses/artistic.html</li>
<li>GPL (all versions and variations) - HTTP://GNU.Org/licenses</li>
<li>MIT License - HTTP://OpenSource.Org/licenses/mit-license.php</li>
</ul>
<p>See HTTP://OpenSource.Org/licenses/alphabetical for a comprehensive list
with each license's full documentation.</p>
<p>You should be able to find the module's license by going to a "LICENSE
AND COPYRIGHT" section, usually available at the bottom of the
documentation, or by looking for a license file inside that
distribution.</p>
<p><b>Note:</b> Some modules might even be released into CPAN as <i>public
domain</i>, meaning they are not covered by intellectual property rights at
all, and you are free to use them as you see fit. Even so, it's usually
considered polite to mention authors as a courtesy, you know, giving credit
where credit is due.</p>
<h3>Ratings</h3>
<p>The CPAN Ratings is a service where developers rate modules they used
for their own projects, and is a great way to have some actual feedback on
how it was to use the code on a real application. The ratings are compiled
into a 1 to 5 grade, and displayed below the module name on CPAN. You can
click on the <i>"Reviews"</i> link right next to the rating stars to see
any additional comments by the reviewers, praising, criticizing or giving
some additional comments or the distribution and/or its competition.</p>
<h3>Dependencies</h3>
<p>Modules exist so you don't have to reinvent the wheel, and for that same
reason each usually depends on one or more modules itself. Don't worry if a
module depends on several others - code reusability is a good thing.</p>
<p>You may, however, be interested in <b>which</b> modules it depends on,
or, more practically, in the likelihood of a clean installation by your
users. For that, you can browse to HTTP://Deps.CPANTesters.Org and input
the module's name on the search box.</p>
<p>The CPAN Testers is a collaborative matrix designed to help developers
test their modules in several different platforms, with over a hundred
testers each month making more than 3 million reports of CPAN modules. This
particular CPAN Testers service will show you a list of dependencies and
test results for each of them, calculating the average chance of all tests
passing (for any platform).</p>
<p>While seeing all the dependencies and test results of a couple of
modules that do the same thing might help you make your pick, it's
important to realize that the <i>"chance of all tests passing"</i>
information at the bottom of the results means very little. This is because
test failures can rarely be considered independent events, and are usually
tied to not running on a specific type of operating system, to the perl
version, or even due to the tester running out of memory for reasons that
may not even concern the module being evaluated. If you don't care about
your application running on AIX or on perl 5.6.0, why would you dismiss a
module that only fails on those conditions?</p>
<h3>CPAN Testers Charts</h3>
<p>So, how do you know the actual test results for a module on the CPAN?
How can you tell if that module will run in your target machine according
to architecture, operating system and perl version?</p>
<p>The CPAN Testers website at HTTP://CPANTesters.Org offers a direct
search for distributions by name or author. To see the results for the SDL
module, for instance, you can go to
HTTP://CPANTesters.Org/distro/S/SDL.html. You can also find a test report
summary directly on CPAN, by selecting the distribution and looking at the
<i>"CPAN Testers"</i> line. If you click on the <i>"View Reports"</i> link,
you'll be redirected to the proper CPAN Testers page, like the one shown
above.</p>
<p>The first chart is a PASS summary, containing information about the most
recent version of that module with at least one <i>PASS</i> report
submitted, separated by platform and perl version.</p>
<p>Second is a list of selected reports, detailing all the submitted test
results for the latest version of the given module. If you see a
<i>FAIL</i> or <i>UNKNOWN</i> result that might concern you - usually at a
platform you expect your application to run - you can click on it to see a
verbose output of all the tests, to see why it failed.</p>
<p>Another interesting information displayed is the report summary on the
left sidebar, showing a small colored graph of PASS-UNKNOWN-FAIL results
for the latest versions of the chosen module. If you see a released version
with lots of FAIL results, it might be interesting to dig deeper or simply
require a greater version of that module in your application.</p>
<h4>Bug Reports</h4>
<p>When picking a module to use, it is very important to check out its bug
reports. You can do that by either clicking on the <i>"View/Report
Bugs"</i> link on the module's page on CPAN, or on the <i>"CPAN RT"</i>
(for Request Tracker) box on the right side of the documentation page.</p>
<p>Look for open bugs and their description - i.e. if it's a bug or a
whislist - and see if it concerns your planned usage for that module. Some
bug reports are simple notices about a typo on the documentation or a very
specific issue, so make sure you look around the ticket description to see
if it's something that blocks your usage, or if you can live with it, at
least until the author delivers an update.</p>
<p>It may also interest you to see how long the open bugs have been there.
Distributions with bugs dating for more than two years might indicate that
the author abandoned the module to pursue other projects, so you'll likely
be on your own if you find any bumps. Of course, being free software, that
doesn't mean you can't fix things yourself, and maybe even ask the author
for maintainance privileges so you can update your fixes for other people
to use.</p>
<h3>Release Date</h3>
<p>A old distribution might mean a solid and stable distribution, but it
can also mean that the author doesn't care much about it anymore. If you
find a module whose latest version is over 5 years old, make sure to double
check test results and bug reports, as explained above.</p>
<h2>Conclusion</h2>
<p>CPAN is an amazing repository filled with nice modules ready for you to
use in your games. More than often you'll find that 90% of your application
is already done on CPAN, and all you have to do to get that awesome idea
implemented is glue them together, worrying only about your application's
own logic instead of boring sidework. This means faster development, and
more fun!</p>
<h2>Author</h2>
<p>This chapter's content graciously provided by Breno G. de Oliveira
(<code>garu</code>).</p>
<h1>Pixel Effects</h1>
<p>In this chapter we will look at how to use pixel effects in Perl. Pixel
effects are operations that are done directly on the bank of a
<code>SDL_Surface</code>'s pixel. These effects are used to do visual
effects in games and applications, most notably by <code>Frozen
Bubble</code>.</p>
<p>\includegraphics[h!][width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/effects.png}
\caption{Snow Effect covering Frozen Bubble's Logo }
\label{fig:frozen_bubble}</p>
<p>These effects can be done in purely in Perl, for 1 passes and non real
time applications. Effects that need to be done real time will have to be
done in C via XS. This chapter will show two methods of doing this.</p>
<h2>Sol's Ripple Effect</h2>
<p>For our first pixel effect we will be doing is a ripple effect from a
well known SDL resource, HTTP://Sol.Gfxile.Net/gp/ch02.html. This effects
uses <code>SDL::get_ticks</code> to animate a ripple effect across the
surface as seen in the following figure.</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/xs_effects.png}
\caption{Sol's Chapter 01 Ripple Effect} \label{fig:ripple}</p>
<h3>Pure Perl</h3>
<p>First lets make the effect in pure Perl. To do any operations with a
<code>SDL::Surface</code> we must do
<code>SDL::Video::lock_surface()</code> call as seen below. Locking the
surface prevents other process in SDL from accessing the surface. The
surface pixels can be accessed several ways from Perl. Here we are using
the <code>SDL::Surface::set_pixels</code> which takes an offset for the
<code>SDL_Surface</code> pixels array, and sets a value there for us. The
actual pixel effect is just a time dependent (using
<code>SDL::get_ticks</code> for time) render of a function. See
HTTP://Sol.Gfxile.Net/gp/ch02.html for a deeper explanation.</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
# Render callback that we use to fiddle the colors on the surface
sub render {
my $screen = shift;
if ( SDL::Video::MUSTLOCK($screen) ) {
return if ( SDL::Video::lock_surface($screen) &lt; 0 );
}
my $ticks = SDL::get_ticks();
my ( $i, $y, $yofs, $ofs ) = ( 0, 0, 0, 0 );
for ( $i = 0; $i &lt; 480; $i++ ) {
for ( my $j = 0, $ofs = $yofs; $j &lt; 640; $j++, $ofs++ ) {
$screen-&gt;set_pixels( $ofs, ( $i * $i + $j * $j + $ticks ) );
}
$yofs += $screen-&gt;pitch / 4;
}
SDL::Video::unlock_surface($screen) if ( SDL::Video::MUSTLOCK($screen) );
SDL::Video::update_rect( $screen, 0, 0, 640, 480 );
return 0;
}
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new( width =&gt; 640,
height =&gt; 480,
eoq =&gt; 1,
title =&gt; &quot;Grovvy XS Effects&quot; );
$app-&gt;add_show_handler( sub{ render( $app ) } );
$app-&gt;run();</code></pre>
<p>One you run this program you will find it pretty much maxing out the CPU
and not running very smoothly. At this point running a loop through the
entire pixel bank of a <code>640x480</code> sized screen is too much for
Perl. We will need to move the intensive calculations to
<code>C</code>.</p>
<h3>Inline Effects </h3>
<p>In the below example we use <code>Inline</code> to write Inline
<code>C</code> code to handle the pixel effect for us. <code>SDL</code> now
provides support to work with <code>Inline</code>. The <code>render</code>
callback is now moved to <code>C</code> code, using <code>Inline C</code>.
When the program first runs it will compile the code and link it in for
us.</p>
<pre><code> use strict;
use warnings;
use Inline with =&gt; &#39;SDL&#39;;
use SDL;
use SDLx::App;
my $app = SDLx::App-&gt;new( width =&gt; 640,
height =&gt; 480,
eoq =&gt; 1,
title =&gt; &quot;Grovvy XS Effects&quot; );
# Make render a callback which has the expected signature from show_handlers
$app-&gt;add_show_handler( \&amp;render);
$app-&gt;run();
use Inline C =&gt; &lt;&lt;&#39;END&#39;;
// Show handlers recieve both float and the SDLx::App which is a SDL_Screen
void render( float delta, SDL_Surface *screen )
{
// Lock surface if needed
if (SDL_MUSTLOCK(screen))
if (SDL_LockSurface(screen) &lt; 0)
return;
// Ask SDL for the time in milliseconds
int tick = SDL_GetTicks();
// Declare a couple of variables
int i, j, yofs, ofs;
// Draw to screen
yofs = 0;
for (i = 0; i &lt; 480; i++)
{
for (j = 0, ofs = yofs; j &lt; 640; j++, ofs++)
{
((unsigned int*)screen-&gt;pixels)[ofs] = i * i + j * j + tick;
}
yofs += screen-&gt;pitch / 4;
}
// Unlock if needed
if (SDL_MUSTLOCK(screen))
SDL_UnlockSurface(screen);
// Tell SDL to update the whole screen
SDL_UpdateRect(screen, 0, 0, 640, 480);
}
END</code></pre>
<h1>Additional Modules</h1>
<h2>PDL</h2>
<p>The Perl Data Language (PDL) is a tool aimed at a more scientific crowd.
Accuracy is paramount and speed is the name of the game. PDL brings to Perl
fast matrix and numerical calculations. For games in most cases a accuracy
is not critical, but speed and efficiency is a great concern. For this
reason we will briefly explore how to share SDL texture data between PDL
and OpenGL.</p>
<p>This example will do the following:</p>
<p>\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{../src/images/pdl.png}
\caption{Not