Decode secrets from/for AVM's FRITZ!OS-based devices
This is a new version, which works independently of any other utility (from vendor). It's working even outside of any FRITZ!OS device, as long as you known the used password (for exported settings files) or some properties (see below) of the source device (for other files).
- decode encrypted credentials from any configuration file for system extensions contained in projects like
Freetzor my own
- decode data from an exported settings file, where the export password is known
- decode internal files from a foreign device, e.g. extracted from a TFFS dump
- split export files into the contained settings files
- recompute and check/change the CRC32 checksum at the very end of export files
- encode/decode Base32 (with AVM's character set), Base64 and hexadecimal representations from/to raw binary data (the BusyBox project provides only a Base64 implementation)
Encoding of values is not provided yet - AVM's components accept clear-text values in nearly all places, where an encrypted value may be used.
YOU SHOULD REALLY USE THE C PROGRAM (see below), IF YOUR MAIN INTEREST ISN'T ADDITIONAL RESEARCH.
There are some shell scripts (in the
scripts subfolder), which may be used on any device with a POSIX-compatible shell interpreter and an
OpenSSL (CLI) binary, which supports AES-256 decryption and MD5 digests.
These files are intended to show the principles, how AVM's encryption works and their usage in a 'production environment' should be limited to situations, where no binary
decoder utility is available (and also can't be built with small efforts).
But I expect, the most users will be interested in the C version, which can be found in the
src subfolder. It uses the Nettle implementation (https://www.lysator.liu.se/~nisse/nettle/) for AES-256 and MD5 and creates a statically linked binary. This binary file has only to be copied to the target system and doesn't need any other file(s) - beside the data to be handled.
Compared to the shell scripts, the compiled version is lightning fast and the 'complete' binary with all applets provides some additional features not present as shell script.
It's a 'multi-call binary' and the operation to perform has to be specified as first parameter on the calling command-line or is derived from the name of the symbolic link used to invoke the program.
Which symbolic links are understood and created automatically (during an installation with
make install), has to be configured in the
src subfolder ... you have to edit this
Makefile with a text editor yet, an easier configuration with
Kconfig is planned as a future enhancement.
It's possible, that you may find some pre-compiled, statically linked binaries (even for your platform?) in the
bin subfolder. I tend to provide/upload the files for some platforms that I regularly need and use myself. If you want to use any of these files, you should check the detached GPG signature(s) seriously - my public key can be found in
PeterPawn.asc in this repository.
Why isn't this a 'cracker'?
This project can only decrypt data, if some properties of the source device are known (see below) or the password used for an export is available. While it may be used as a fast way to determine, if a password is correct (and in the last consequence for a 'brute-force attack' on files with unknown export password), the original firmware from AVM may be used for this purpose already. The
tr069fwupdate utility from AVM has a
check_configimport mode, which will fail immediately (and set an appropriate exit code), if the provided password is a wrong one.
As long as the export password for a file was strong enough, this project will not (additionally) weaken the security of any data from or on a FRITZ!OS-based device. But it may serve as an example, how easy it is to steal secret data from a FRITZ!OS device, if an attacker gets access to the TFFS storage of such a device (where all settings are stored) and is able to extract its 'raw' content. This can already be done with a single '(remote) command execution' vulnerability and is another reason, why really each known vulnerability needs to be fixed as fast as possible. Even if a vulnerability is only usable from the LAN side of a router ... this is also 'remote' to the router itself and meanwhile even the LAN side of an edge router isn't always a 'friendly area'.
Which properties of a FRITZ!OS device are important?
To generate a password for decoding of data from a TFFS file, you need to have access to the device in question or you need to know the following data for the source device:
- the serial number, as it was stored in the
urlader environment- it was a sequence of 16 '0's for a long time, but newer models seem to have the serial number from the back of the device stored in this environment
- the MAC address stored as
- the WLAN key from factory settings - locate it on the back of the device, where it was printed on a sticker or read it from the
urlader environment(value name is
- the TR-069 passphrase, if the device has a CWMP account configured (
tr069_passphraseare present in the environment)
If data is exported without a password (using
tr069fwupdate configexport), the password for the export file will be built from the same values as above, but the WLAN key and TR-069 passphrase will always be omitted, while the MD5 hash will be built (this hash will be used then as encryption password).
For each export file, the specified (or implicit) password is only used to encrypt a random value, which will be stored under
Password in the header of an export file. Every encoded value within the file uses this random value as key.
It looks a little bit strange, but this random value is encoded with a length of 32 bytes, while only the first 16 bytes are used for encryption/decryption and the second 16 bytes are simply a repetition of the first ones.
If a password was provided while exporting the data, its MD5 hash value is used as the key to encrypt the random key and if the password was omitted, the hash is built from the
SerialNumber (with newline at the end) and the
maca content (and another newline at its end).
If you want to decode an export file, which was created with a password, you need to know exactly this password to decode any data, because the random encryption key from the
Password field in its header can't be decoded without it (it uses a strong AES-256 encryption). If the data was exported without a password, you need the device, where the file was created on or you need to know the
maca values of the source device.
There's a bunch of POSIX-compatible shell scripts for various decoding tasks - take them as 'proof-of-concept' please and don't expect too much, regarding their execution speed.
All shell scripts in the
scripts subfolder need an OpenSSL binary with
- MD5 digest and
- AES-256 decryption capabilities.
Every call to
openssl itself is encapsulated by the
crypto shell script. If you want to use any other crypto solution, you have only to change the calls there.
To install the shell scripts, you have to copy them to any location ... that's all, as long as the
openssl command-line binary can be found on the system.
You may download a copy of the repository as a
gz file (for 'release' v0.3) from GitHub and than extract only the
scripts subfolder from it or you may clone the whole repository (this will be a larger transfer with the binary files from the bin subfolder).
If you've cloned it as a whole, you may use
make TARGET=<directory> install-scripts to install shell scripts and symbolic links (from the
Makefile in the
scripts subfolder) to your prefered location (replace
<directory> with the real destination folder). But this needs a
make version on your system, which is usually missing on a FRITZ!OS device.
Beware: Installation of shell scripts with the provided
Makefile isn't a part of the 'released version' 0.3.
The C implementation uses
Nettle (version 3.3) and any C library - it should work with
uClibc without problems. If any changes are needed to use
dietlibc, your pull requests are very welcome.
If you want to get a dynamically linked binary, you may use OpenSSL's crypto library instead of Nettle.
To create your own binary (supposed you have already a functioning
autoconf installation), you need to clone this repository to your system first:
git clone https://github.com/PeterPawn/decode_passwords.git
If you want to customize some settings from the
Makefile prior to building the binary, you have now the chance to edit this file. Afterwards you can simply call
make to build a 'native' version for your system.
If you want to create a 32-bit version from a 64-bit host system, specify
-m32 for both
make CFLAGS="-m32" LDFLAGS="-m32"
If you want to create a dynamically linked binary, add
STATIC=n to your
make call. This will create a binary, where the
libnettle functions are statically included, but the C library will be loaded dynamically at runtime.
If you want to use OpenSSL's
libcrypto instead of
libnettle, you can specify
OPENSSL=y - this will automatically build a dynamically linked binary, because a default
libcrypto library would produce really huge binaries, if used for static linking.
To install the new binary and create symbolic links for included applets, call
make install. The default install location is
$HOME/bin - to change it, you can specify
bindir=<directory> with the install request (or edit the
Makefile in a step above).
Integration into a
This project is available from
Freetz trunk with another name ... as
This integration uses a slightly different configuration (with an own
Makefile), but I'll keep my versions of
decoder.mk (in the root of the project) as a boiler-plate for other toolchains (only the symbol names need usually a change).
License changes and limitations:
It's not allowed any longer to create a lean & mean version (without comments and/or copyright notices) for other projects from any script or any other source file in this project after the
There is an exhaustive description (http://www.ip-phone-forum.de/showthread.php?t=295101 - sorry, it's only in german language), how AVM's encryption works. It will be moved soon to
GitHub Pages in this repository, because the IPPF forum meanwhile changed its software (it uses Xenforo now) and the new one doesn't support all of the used (and needed) BBCODE tags.
Please contemplate to use the IPPF forum, if you've any questions and use
GitHub Issues for this project only for real issues/errors in the code.