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Add C++ docs to repository (#610)

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ssteinbach committed Nov 7, 2019
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# Language Bridges

## Python

Since OTIO originated as Python (and has an extensive test suite, in Python),
our starting position is that existing Python code (adapters, plugins,
schemadefs) should continue to work, as currently written, with as few changes
as possible. However, in anticipation of the rewrite of the core in C++, some
changes are were made proactively made to ease this transition.

For example, the Opentime types (e.g. ``RationalTime``) have value semantics in
C++, but reference semantics in Python, which has actually been a source of
bugs. Recent changes to the Python code have made the Opentime classes
immutable, to ease the transition to them being entirely value types in C++.

Python code in the `core` or `schema` directories were rewritten, but Python
code outside those modules should required little (or in some cases no)

The bridge from C++ to Python (and back) is `pybind11`. Given that existing
code needs to work, clearly, the bridge is implemented so as to make the
reflection of the C++ datastructures, back to Python, utterly "Pythonic." (It
has to be, since we didn't want to break existing code.)

## Swift

The intention is to expose OTIO in Swift with the same care we take with
Python: we want everything to feel utterly Swift-like. Because Swift can gain
automatic API access to non-member functions written in Objective-C++, and
Objective-C++ can directly use the proposed OTIO C++ API, we believe that a
bridge to swift will not require writing an explicit `extern "C"` wrapper
around OTIO C++. We believe that like Python, Swift should be capable of
defining new schemas, and that access to existing and new schemas and their
properties should be done in terms of Swift API's that conform Swift's
sequence/collection protocols, just as Python interfaces do with respect to

## Bridging to C (and other languages)

Bridging to C (and by extension other languages) would presumably be
accomplished by writing an `extern "C"` wrapper around the OTIO C++ API. This
is of relatively low priority, given that we will have three languages (C++
itself, Python, and Swift) that do not need this.

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