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Zeitgeist: the language-agnostic dependency checker
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Zeitgeist (/ˈzaɪtɡaɪst/) is a language-agnostic dependency checker that keeps track of external dependencies across your project and ensure they're up-to-date.

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More and more projects nowadays have external dependencies, and the best way to ensure stability and reproducibility is to pin these dependencies to a specific version.

However, this leads to a new problem: the world changes around us, and new versions of these dependencies are released all the time.

For a simple project with a couple of dependencies, a team can usually keep up to speed by following mailing lists or Slack channels, but for larger projects this becomes a daunting task.

This problem is pretty much solved by package managers in specific programming languages (see When is Zeitgeist not suggested below), but it remains a big issue when:

  • Your project relies on packages outside your programming language of choice
  • You declare infrastructure-as-code, where the "build step" is usually bespoke and dependencies are managed manually
  • Dependencies do not belong in a classical "package manager" (e.g. AMI images)

What is Zeitgeist

Zeitgeist is a tool that takes a configuration file with a list of dependencies, and ensures that:

  • These dependencies versions are consistent within your project
  • These dependencies are up-to-date

A Zeitgeist configuration file (usually dependencies.yaml) is a list of dependencies, referenced in files, which may or may not have an upstream:

- name: terraform
  version: 0.12.3
    flavour: github
    url: hashicorp/terraform
  - path: helper-image/Dockerfile
- name: helm
  version: 2.12.2
    flavour: github
    url: helm/helm
    constraints: <3.0.0
  - path: bootstrap/tiller.yaml
  - path: helper-image/Dockerfile
- name: fluentd-chart
  version: 2.1.1
  sensitivity: major
    flavour: helm
    repo: stable
    name: fluentd
  - path: helm/fluentbit/requirements.yaml
    match: version
- name: aws-eks-ami
  version: ami-09bbefc07310f7914
  scheme: random
    flavour: ami
    owner: amazon
    name: "amazon-eks-node-1.13-*"
  - path: clusters.yaml
    match: workers_ami

Use zeitgeist local to verify that the dependency version is correct in all files referenced in refPaths:

zeigeist local

Use zeitgeist validate to also check with defined upstreams whether a new version is available for the given dependencies:

zeigeist validate

See the full documentation to see configuration options.

When is Zeitgeist not suggested

While Zeitgeist aims to be a great cross-language solution for tracking external dependencies, it won't be as well integrated as native package managers.

If your project is mainly written in one single language with a well-known and supported package manager (e.g. npm, maven, rubygems, pip, cargo...), you definitely should use your package manager rather than Zeitgeist.


Zeitgeist, a German compound word, can be translated as "spirit of the times" and refers to a schema of fashions or fads which prescribes what is considered to be acceptable or tasteful for an era.


Releases are generated with goreleaser.

git tag v0.0.0 # Use the correct version here
git push --tags
export GPG_TTY=$(tty)
goreleaser release --rm-dist


Zeitgeist is inspired by Kubernetes' script to manage external dependencies and extended to include checking with upstream sources to ensure dependencies are up-to-date.

To do

  • Find a good name for the project
  • Support helm upstream
  • Support eks upstream
  • Support ami upstream
  • support docker upstream
  • Cleanly separate various upstreams to make it easy to add new upstreams
  • Implement non-semver support (e.g. for AMI, but also for classic releases)
  • Write good docs :)
  • Write good tests!
  • Externalise the project into its own repo
  • Generate releases
  • Automate release generation from a tag
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