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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<CONTENT TITLE="Language Overview" ID="tips" NUMID="2">
<CONTENT TITLE="What is ECMAScript?" ID="ecma" NUMID="2_6">
<P>
<URL LINKTEXT="ECMA-262">http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm</URL>
is the international standard that current language implementations
(JavaScript&trade;, JScript etc.) are based on.
</P>
<P>
<URL LINKTEXT="ECMA-262">http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm</URL>
defines the language Syntax, Types, Keywords, Operators, and built-in
objects. The ECMAScript specification is the reference to determine the
expected behavior of a program. ECMAScript does not define any host
objects, such as <ICODE>document</ICODE>, <ICODE>window</ICODE>, or
<ICODE>ActiveXObject</ICODE>.
</P>
<P>
ECMA-327 defines the Compact Profile of ECMAScript by
describing the features from ECMA 262 that may be omitted in some
resource-constrained environments.
<URL>http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-327.htm</URL>
</P>
<P>
The most widely supported edition of ECMA-262 is the 3rd edition (1999).
There is fair support for this edition in JScript 5.5+ (buggy) and good
support JavaScript 1.5.
</P>
<P>
<em>For historical reasons, the term “javascript” is used herein
as a shorthand for “ECMAScript-based programming languages”.
Note that not all uses of that term here are correct. For example,
there are instances where using “DOM” instead would have been correct.
This will be fixed in a later revision.</em>
</P>
</CONTENT>
<CONTENT TITLE="What is JScript?" ID="jScript" NUMID="2_7">
<P>
JScript is Microsoft's implementation of ECMAScript.
</P>
<P>
Questions that are specific to Microsoft's JScript may also
be appropriately asked at:
<NEWSGROUP>microsoft.public.scripting.jscript</NEWSGROUP>.
</P>
</CONTENT>
<CONTENT TITLE="What is the Document Object Model (DOM)?" ID="dom" NUMID="2_9">
<P>
The <DFN>Document Object Model</DFN> (DOM) is a interface-based model for <ICODE>Document</ICODE>
objects. The DOM allows scripts to dynamically access and update a
document's content, style, and event handlers.
</P>
<P>
The DOM is <EM>not</EM> part of the ECMAScript programming language.
</P>
<P>
Official DOM standards are defined by the World Wide Web Consortium.
Scriptable browsers also have <DFN>proprietary</DFN> DOM features (<URL
LINKTEXT="MSDN">http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms533050(VS.85).aspx</URL>, <URL
LINKTEXT="MDC">https://developer.mozilla.org/en/DOM_Client_Object_Cross-Reference</URL>),
such as <ICODE>document.writeln()</ICODE>.
</P>
<P>
Also see the section on <URL LINKTEXT="DOM and Forms">#domRef</URL>.
</P>
<MOREINFO>
<URL LINKTEXT="c.l.js DOM Resources">#onlineResources</URL>
<URL LINKTEXT="W3C DOM FAQ">http://www.w3.org/DOM/faq.html</URL>
<URL LINKTEXT="W3C DOM ">http://www.w3.org/DOM/</URL>
<URL LINKTEXT="MDC: What is the DOM?">https://developer.mozilla.org/en/Gecko_DOM_Reference/Introduction#What_is_the_DOM.3F</URL>
</MOREINFO>
</CONTENT>
<CONTENT TITLE="Internationalisation and Localisation in javascript" ID="localization" NUMID="2_10">
<P>
<DFN>Internationalisation</DFN> means using one form which is everywhere both
acceptable and understood. Any international standard not supported by
default can be coded for.
</P>
<P>
For example, there is an International Standard for numeric Gregorian
date format; but none for decimal and thousands separators.
</P>
<P>
<DFN>Localisation</DFN> is the process of adapting software for a specific region
or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text. It
cannot work well in general, because it requires a knowledge of all
preferences and the ability to choose the right one, in an environment
where many systems are inappropriately set anyway.
</P>
<P>
ECMAScript has a few <DFN>localisation</DFN> features. The various
<ICODE>toString()</ICODE> methods are all implementation dependent,
but tend to use either UK or US settings (not necessarily correctly).
ECMAScript Ed. 3 introduced some capabilities, including the
<ICODE>toLocaleString()</ICODE>method which should create a string
based on the host's locale.
</P>
<P>
ECMAScript 5th Edition introduces limited ISO 8601 capabilities with
<ICODE>Date.prototype.toISOString()</ICODE> and new behavior for <ICODE>Date.parse()</ICODE>.
</P>
</CONTENT>
<CONTENT TITLE="What does the future hold for ECMAScript?" ID="futureEcmaScript" NUMID="2_12">
<P>
The 5th edition of ECMAScript was approved on 2009-12-04. There is some
support in implementations released before approval date (JScript 5.8,
JavaScript 1.8, JavaScriptCore).
http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm
</P>
<MOREINFO>
<URL>http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm</URL>
</MOREINFO>
</CONTENT>
</CONTENT>
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