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<!DOCTYPE html>
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<title>Ewha 2-1 - Korean Cheat Sheet</title>
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<body>
<section class="group">
<h1>Want / Plan to</h1>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Can help by doing X ?</h1>
<p class="topic">V-아/어 드릴까요 <span class="comment">formal</span></p>
<p class="example">짐을 들<span class="topic">어 드릴까요</span>?</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule4">exception polite verbs</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Will help by doing X</h1>
<p class="topic">V-아/어 드릴게요 <span class="comment">formal</span></p>
<p class="example">짐을 들<span class="topic">어 드릴게요</span>.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule4">exception polite verbs</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Will ?</h1>
<p class="topic">V-(으)시겠습니까 <span class="comment">formal</span></p>
<p class="example">사과를 드<span class="topic">시겠습니까</span>?</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule4">exception polite verbs</a></p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Promise to</h1>
<p class="topic">V-기로 하다</p>
<p class="example">내일 친구를 만나<span class="topic">기로 했어요</span>.</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Will you ? / I will</h1>
<p class="topic">V-(으)ㄹ래요</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹<span class="topic">을래요</span>.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
<p class="comment">can use with 안 / 못</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>I definitely will</h1>
<p class="topic">V-겠-</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹<span class="topic">겠습니다</span>.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>If want X do Y</h1>
<p class="topic">V-(으)려면</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹<span class="topic">으려면</span> 사야 해요.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule3">exception rule 3</a></p>
</section>
</section>
<div class="column">
<section class="group">
<h1>Description</h1>
<section class="rule">
<h1>To be called</h1>
<p class="topic">N-(이)라고 하다</p>
<p class="example">저는 마이클<span class="topic">이라고 해요</span>.</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Doing</h1>
<p class="topic">V-는 중 이다/에</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹<span class="topic">는 중이에요</span>.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Oh! It's X</h1>
<p class="topic">N-(이)군요</p>
<p class="example">사과가 달<span class="topic">군요</span>.</p>
<p class="topic">A-군요</p>
<p class="example">사과가 달<span class="topic">군요</span>.</p>
<p class="topic">V-는군요</p>
<p class="example">눈이 오<span class="topic">는군요</span>.</p>
<p class="exception">ㄹ ⇨ delete</p>
<p class="exception">있다 ⇨ 있군요</p>
<p class="exception">없다 ⇨ 없군요</p>
</section>
</section>
<section class="group">
<h1>Purpose</h1>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Do X to do Y</h1>
<p class="topic">V-(으)려고</p>
<p class="example">먹<span class="topic">으려고</span> 사과를 사요.</p>
<p class="exception">cannot use with 하세요/합시다</p>
<p class="exception">subject cannot change</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Do X to do Y</h1>
<p class="topic">V-기 위해(서)</p>
<p class="example">먹<span class="topic">기 위해서</span> 사과를 사요.</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Purpose</h1>
<p class="topic">A/V-도록</p>
<p class="example">친구가 먹<span class="topic">도록</span> 사과를 사요.</p>
<p class="comment">to give directions or make requests</p>
</section>
</section>
</div>
<section class="group">
<h1>Time related</h1>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Since X it's been Y</h1>
<p class="topic">V-(으)ㄴ 지</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹<span class="topic">은 지</span> 1년이 됐어요.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
<p class="comment">almost: 다 됐어요 / (다) 되어 가요</p>
<p class="comment">exact: 됐어요</p>
<p class="comment">over: 지났어요 / 넘었어요</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>When</h1>
<p class="topic">N 때</p>
<p class="example">학생 <span class="topic">때</span> 좋아요.</p>
<p class="topic">A/V-(으)ㄹ 때</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹<span class="topic">을 때</span> 좋아요.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>When it was</h1>
<p class="topic">A/V-았/었을 때</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹<span class="topic">었을 때</span> 좋았어요.</p>
<p class="exception">vowel + 이다 ⇨ -였을 때</p>
<p class="exception">consonant + 이다 ⇨ -이었을 때</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Have you ever</h1>
<p class="topic">V-(으)ㄴ 적이 있다/없다/많다/적다</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹<span class="topic">은 적이 있어요</span>?</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>While</h1>
<p class="topic">N 동안(에)</p>
<p class="example">휴가 <span class="topic">동안</span> 사과를 먹어요.</p>
<p class="topic">V-는 동안(에)</p>
<p class="example">영화를 보<span class="topic">는 동안</span> 사과를 먹어요.</p>
<p class="exception">ㄹ ⇨ delete</p>
</section>
</section>
<section class="group">
<h1>Explanations</h1>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Not X but Y</h1>
<p class="topic">N-이/가 아니라</p>
<p class="example">사과<span class="topic">가 아니라</span> 바나나예요.</p>
<p class="topic">A-(으)ㄴ 게 아니라</p>
<p class="example">많<span class="topic">은 게 아니라</span> 적어요.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
<p class="topic">V-(으)ㄴ 게 아니라 <span class="comment">past</span></p>
<p class="example">먹<span class="topic">은 게 아니라</span> 마신 거예요.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
<p class="topic">V-는 게 아니라 <span class="comment">present</span></p>
<p class="example">먹<span class="topic">는 게 아니라</span> 마시는 거예요.</p>
<p class="exception">ㄹ ⇨ delete</p>
<p class="topic">V-(으)ㄹ 게 아니라 <span class="comment">future</span></p>
<p class="example">먹<span class="topic">을 게 아니라</span> 마실 거예요.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Given X it's Y</h1>
<p class="topic">N-에 비해(서)</p>
<p class="example">크기<span class="topic">에 비해서</span> 사과가 싸요.</p>
<p class="comment">Can be used like 보다 too. But 보다 can only be used to compare same characteristics (size1 VS size2, or quality1 VS quality2) but never for different characteristics (size1 VS price2, or quality1 VS quantity2)</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Because</h1>
<p class="topic">N 때문에</p>
<p class="example">시험 <span class="topic">때문에</span> 공부해요.</p>
<p class="topic">A/V-기 때문에</p>
<p class="example">사과가 맛있<span class="topic">기 때문에</span> 먹어요.</p>
<p class="exception">cannot use with 하세요/합시다</p>
<p class="comment">usually used for writing</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Because</h1>
<p class="topic">A/V-거든요</p>
<p class="example">사과를 먹어요. 배고프<span class="topic">거든요</span>.</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Because</h1>
<p class="topic">A/V-(으)니까</p>
<p class="example">배고프<span class="topic">니까</span> 사과를 먹어요.</p>
<p class="exception"><a href="#exceptionRule2">exception rule 2</a></p>
</section>
</section>
<section class="group">
<h1>Miscellaneous</h1>
<section class="rule">
<h1>About</h1>
<p class="topic">N-에 대해(서) + V</p>
<p class="example">사과<span class="topic">에 대해서</span> 말해요.</p>
<p class="topic">N-에 대한 + N</p>
<p class="example">사과<span class="topic">에 대한</span> 글이에요.</p>
<p class="comment">eg: 글, 기사, 책, 소문, 이야기</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>But</h1>
<p class="topic">A/V-지만</p>
<p class="example">사과가 비싸<span class="topic">지만</span> 맛있어요.</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Just</h1>
<p class="topic">N-(이)나</p>
<p class="example">사과<span class="topic">나</span> 먹어요.</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>Asking gently</h1>
<p class="topic">N-인가요</p>
<p class="example">학생<span class="topic">인가요</span>?</p>
<p class="topic">A-(으)ㄴ 가요</p>
<p class="example">비<span class="topic">싼 가요</span>?</p>
<p class="topic">V-나요</p>
<p class="example">먹<span class="topic">나요</span>?</p>
<p class="example">먹<span class="topic">을 건가요</span>?</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1>And (with connections)</h1>
<p class="topic">V-아/어서</p>
<p class="example">가게에 가<span class="topic">서</span> 사과 샀어요.</p>
<p class="exception">cannot be used with 입다, 쓰다, 신다, 들다, 타다</p>
</section>
</section>
<section class="group">
<h1>Exceptions</h1>
<section class="rule">
<h1 id="exceptionRule1">Rule 1</h1>
<p class="topic">ㄷ ⇨ ㄹ</p>
<p class="example">듣다 ⇨ 들…</p>
<p class="exception">닫다 ⇨ 닫아요</p>
<p class="exception">받다 ⇨ 받아요</p>
<p class="exception">믿다 ⇨ 믿어요</p>
<p class="topic">ㅂ ⇨ 우</p>
<p class="example">줍다 ⇨ 주워…</p>
<p class="exception">돕다 ⇨ 도와요</p>
<p class="exception">입다 ⇨ 입어요</p>
<p class="exception">좁다 ⇨ 좁아요</p>
<p class="exception">잡다 ⇨ 잡아요</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1 id="exceptionRule2">Rule 2</h1>
<p>Same as <a href="#exceptionRule1">exception rule 1</a>, and:</p>
<p class="topic">ㄹ ⇨ delete, but use as if vowel, not consonant</p>
<p class="example">살다 ⇨ 삽시다</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1 id="exceptionRule3">Rule 3</h1>
<p>Same as <a href="#exceptionRule1">exception rule 1</a>, and:</p>
<p class="topic">ㄹ ⇨ ㄹ, but use as if vowel, not consonant</p>
<p class="example">살다 ⇨ 살면</p>
</section>
<section class="rule">
<h1 id="exceptionRule4">Polite verbs</h1>
<p class="topic">먹다 ⇨ 드시다 / 잡수시다</p>
<p class="topic">마시다 ⇨ 드시다 / 잡수시다</p>
<p class="topic">자다 ⇨ 주무시다</p>
<p class="topic">말하다 ⇨ 말씀하시다</p>
<p class="topic">주다 ⇨ 드리다</p>
<p class="topic">있다 ⇨ 계시다</p>
</section>
</section>
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