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A Center for Public Integrity data analysis for an investigation of the influence pharmaceutical companies exercise over state Medicaid programs' drug purchasing decisions.
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LICENSE.md
README.md
create_doctors.sql
create_lobbying.sql
create_open_payments.sql
drug_lobbying.ipynb
drug_payments.ipynb
drug_spending.ipynb
load_doctors.sh
load_lobbying.sh
load_open_payments.sh

README.md

Medicaid, Under the Influence

This repo contains code and data for "Medicaid, Under the Influence," a Center for Public Integrity investigation of the influence pharmaceutical companies exercise over state Medicaid programs' drug purchasing decisions.

A detailed description of the methodology behind the story can be read here.

Here's what's in this repo.

drug_payments.ipynb

This Jupyter notebook contains code used to analyze drug company payments to doctors sitting on Medicaid pharmacy and therapeutics committees or drug utilization review boards.

drug_lobbying.ipynb

This Jupyter notebook contains code used to analyze drug industry lobbying of state legislatures.

drug_spending.ipynb

This Jupyter notebook contains code used to analyze Medicaid and state budget spending.

create_open_payments.sql

This SQL script contains code used to create tables for the Open Payments general, research, ownership and deleted data sets.

create_doctors.sql

This SQL script contains code used to create tables for the Medicaid pharmacy and therapeutics committees or drug utilization review boards and the NPPES registry data sets.

create_lobbying.sql

This SQL script contains code used to create a table for the NIMP lobbying data set.

load_open_payments.sh

This Bash script contains code used to load the Open Payments general, research, ownership and deleted data sets into a PostgreSQL database.

load_doctors.sh

This Bash script contains code used to load the Medicaid Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees or Drug Utilization Review Boards and the NPPES registry data sets into a PostgreSQL database.

load_lobbying.sh

This Bash script contains code used to load the NIMP lobbying data set into a PostgreSQL database.

doc_payments.xlsx

This Excel file contains data on pharmaceutical companies' payments to doctors sitting on Medicaid pharmacy and therapeutics committees or drug utilization review boards. The data comes from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Open Payments data from August 2013 through December 2017 and the Medicaid pharmacy and therapeutics committees and drug utilization review boards of various states from January 2016 through June 2018.

drug_lobbying.xlsx

This Excel file contains data on pharmaceutical industry lobbying of state legislatures. The data comes from the National Institue on Money in Politics and the National Conference of State Legislatures.

medicaid_spending.xlsx

This Excel file contains data on Medicaid spending. The data comes from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' state drug utilization data, CMS' Medicaid Budget and Expenditure System data, the National Association of State Budget Officers and the Henry J Kaiser Foundation.

Data dictionaries

Doc Payments
Payments By Doctor
  • physician_profile_id: CMS-assigned unique identifier for the doctor receiving drug company payments
  • first_name: the doctor's first name
  • last_name: the doctor's last name
  • state_name: the doctor's state of practice
  • degree_1: the doctor's primary degree
  • degree_2: the doctor's seconday degree
  • payments_amount: the total amount of drug company payments to the doctor
  • number_of_payments: the number of payments to the doctor
Payments By State
  • state_name: the state name
  • total_doctors: the number of doctors serving on the state's Medicaid pharmacy and therapeutics committee and/or drug utilization review board
  • doctors_paid: the number of doctors serving on the state's Medicaid pharmacy and therapeutics committee and/or drug utilization review board who received any drug company money
  • total_payments: the total amount of drug company payments to doctors serving on the state's Medicaid pharmacy and therapeutics committee and/or drug utilization review board
  • max_payment: the total amount of drug company payments to the doctor serving on the state's Medicaid pharmacy and therapeutics committee and/or drug utilization review board who received the most drug company money
Drug Lobbying
  • year: the year in which the lobbying took place
  • lobbyists: the number of lobbyists classified under the "Pharmaceutical manufacturing" business category
  • state: the state in which the lobbying took place
  • legislators: the number of state legislators
  • abbreviation: the abbreviation for the state in which the lobbying took place
  • lobbyists_to_legislators: the ratio of pharmaceutical industry lobbyists to state legislators
Medicaid Spending
Budgets
  • year: the state's fiscal year, usually July through June but April through March in NY, September through August in TX and October through September in AL and MI
  • state: the state spending the money
  • medicaid_state: the state share of Medicaid spending
  • medicaid_federal: the federal share of Medicaid spending
  • medicaid_total: total Medicaid spending
  • all_spending_state: the state share of state budget expenditures
  • all_spending_federal: the federal share of state budget expenditures
  • all_spending_total: total state budget expenditures
  • medicaid_percentage_of_all_spending_total: the proportion of each state's budget dedicated to Medicaid spending
Drugs
  • year: the calendar year
  • drug_spending: Medicaid drug spending prior to the application of rebates1
  • drug_rebates: drug rebates paid back to state Medicaid programs by pharmaceutical manufacturers
  • spending_less_rebates: Medicaid drug spending after the application of rebates
Drug Spending Per Enrollee
  • year: the calendar year
  • enrollment: nationwide Medicaid enrollment2
  • spending_less_rebates: Medicaid drug spending after the application of rebates
  • spending_per_enrollee: Medicaid drug spending after the application of rebates per enrollee

1: Drug spending data for Arizona’s Medicaid program in 2008 and 2009 was unavailable at the time of publication.

2: Enrollment counts from 2008 through 2014 represent anyone who had at least one day of Medicaid coverage in the year, while figures from 2015 through 2016 represent the highest monthly enrollment in the year. Additionally, full data for a handful of states was unavailable in 2012 or 2013 so data from the previous year was used.

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