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c4d7f0b @pauleveritt Start working on a glossary. Also, start changing repoze.bfg occurrence...
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1 .. _glossary:
2
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3 Glossary
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4 ========
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5
6 .. glossary::
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7 :sorted:
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8
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9 request
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10 A ``WebOb`` request object. See :ref:`webob_chapter` (narrative)
11 and :ref:`request_module` (API documentation) for information
12 about request objects.
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13
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14 request factory
15 An object which, provided a WSGI environment as a single
16 positional argument, returns a ``WebOb`` compatible request.
17
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18 response
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19 An object returned by a :term:`view callable` that represents response
20 data returned to the requesting user agent. It must implements the
21 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IResponse` interface. A response object is
22 typically an instance of the :class:`pyramid.response.Response` class or
23 a subclass such as :class:`pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPFound`. See
24 :ref:`webob_chapter` for information about response objects.
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25
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26 response adapter
27 A callable which accepts an arbitrary object and "converts" it to a
28 :class:`pyramid.response.Response` object. See :ref:`using_iresponse`
29 for more information.
30
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31 Repoze
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32 "Repoze" is essentially a "brand" of software developed by `Agendaless
33 Consulting <http://agendaless.com>`_ and a set of contributors. The
34 term has no special intrinsic meaning. The project's `website
35 <http://repoze.org>`_ has more information. The software developed
36 "under the brand" is available in a `Subversion repository
37 <http://svn.repoze.org>`_. Pyramid was originally known as
38 :mod:`repoze.bfg`.
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39
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40 setuptools
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41 `Setuptools <http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/setuptools>`_
42 builds on Python's ``distutils`` to provide easier building,
43 distribution, and installation of libraries and applications.
44
45 pkg_resources
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46 A module which ships with :term:`setuptools` that provides an API for
47 addressing "asset files" within a Python :term:`package`. Asset files
48 are static files, template files, etc; basically anything
49 non-Python-source that lives in a Python package can be considered a
50 asset file. See also `PkgResources
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51 <http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/PkgResources>`_
52
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53 asset
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54 Any file contained within a Python :term:`package` which is *not*
55 a Python source code file.
56
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57 asset specification
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58 A colon-delimited identifier for an :term:`asset`. The colon
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59 separates a Python :term:`package` name from a package subpath.
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60 For example, the asset specification
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61 ``my.package:static/baz.css`` identifies the file named
62 ``baz.css`` in the ``static`` subdirectory of the ``my.package``
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63 Python :term:`package`. See :ref:`asset_specifications` for more
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64 info.
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65
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66 package
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67 A directory on disk which contains an ``__init__.py`` file, making
68 it recognizable to Python as a location which can be ``import`` -ed.
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69 A package exists to contain :term:`module` files.
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70
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71 module
72 A Python source file; a file on the filesystem that typically ends with
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73 the extension ``.py`` or ``.pyc``. Modules often live in a
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74 :term:`package`.
75
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76 project
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77 (Setuptools/distutils terminology). A directory on disk which
78 contains a ``setup.py`` file and one or more Python packages. The
79 ``setup.py`` file contains code that allows the package(s) to be
80 installed, distributed, and tested.
81
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82 distribution
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83 (Setuptools/distutils terminology). A file representing an
84 installable library or application. Distributions are usually
85 files that have the suffix of ``.egg``, ``.tar.gz``, or ``.zip``.
86 Distributions are the target of Setuptools commands such as
87 ``easy_install``.
88
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89 entry point
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90 A :term:`setuptools` indirection, defined within a setuptools
91 :term:`distribution` setup.py. It is usually a name which refers
92 to a function somewhere in a package which is held by the
93 distribution.
94
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95 dotted Python name
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96 A reference to a Python object by name using a string, in the form
97 ``path.to.modulename:attributename``. Often used in Paste and
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98 setuptools configurations. A variant is used in dotted names within
99 configurator method arguments that name objects (such as the "add_view"
100 method's "view" and "context" attributes): the colon (``:``) is not
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101 used; in its place is a dot.
102
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103 view
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104 Common vernacular for a :term:`view callable`.
105
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106 view callable
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107 A "view callable" is a callable Python object which is associated
108 with a :term:`view configuration`; it returns a :term:`response`
109 object . A view callable accepts a single argument: ``request``,
110 which will be an instance of a :term:`request` object. An
111 alternate calling convention allows a view to be defined as a
112 callable which accepts a pair of arguments: ``context`` and
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113 ``request``: this calling convention is useful for
114 traversal-based applications in which a :term:`context` is always
115 very important. A view callable is the primary mechanism by
116 which a developer writes user interface code within
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117 :app:`Pyramid`. See :ref:`views_chapter` for more information
118 about :app:`Pyramid` view callables.
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119
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120 view configuration
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121 View configuration is the act of associating a :term:`view callable`
122 with configuration information. This configuration information helps
123 map a given :term:`request` to a particular view callable and it can
124 influence the response of a view callable. :app:`Pyramid` views can be
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125 configured via :term:`imperative configuration`, or by a special
126 ``@view_config`` decorator coupled with a :term:`scan`. See
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127 :ref:`view_config_chapter` for more information about view
128 configuration.
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129
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130 view name
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131 The "URL name" of a view, e.g ``index.html``. If a view is
132 configured without a name, its name is considered to be the empty
133 string (which implies the :term:`default view`).
134
135 Default view
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136 The default view of a :term:`resource` is the view invoked when the
137 :term:`view name` is the empty string (``''``). This is the case when
138 :term:`traversal` exhausts the path elements in the PATH_INFO of a
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139 request before it returns a :term:`context` resource.
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140
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141 virtualenv
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142 An isolated Python environment. Allows you to control which
143 packages are used on a particular project by cloning your main
144 Python. `virtualenv <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/virtualenv>`_
145 was created by Ian Bicking.
146
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147 resource
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148 An object representing a node in the :term:`resource tree` of an
149 application. If :mod:`traversal` is used, a resource is an element in
150 the resource tree traversed by the system. When traversal is used, a
151 resource becomes the :term:`context` of a :term:`view`. If :mod:`url
152 dispatch` is used, a single resource is generated for each request and
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153 is used as the context resource of a view.
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154
155 resource tree
156 A nested set of dictionary-like objects, each of which is a
157 :term:`resource`. The act of :term:`traversal` uses the resource tree
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158 to find a :term:`context` resource.
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159
160 domain model
161 Persistent data related to your application. For example, data stored
162 in a relational database. In some applications, the :term:`resource
163 tree` acts as the domain model.
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164
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165 traversal
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166 The act of descending "up" a tree of resource objects from a root
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167 resource in order to find a :term:`context` resource. The
168 :app:`Pyramid` :term:`router` performs traversal of resource objects
169 when a :term:`root factory` is specified. See the
170 :ref:`traversal_chapter` chapter for more information. Traversal can be
171 performed *instead* of :term:`URL dispatch` or can be combined *with*
172 URL dispatch. See :ref:`hybrid_chapter` for more information about
173 combining traversal and URL dispatch (advanced).
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174
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175 router
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176 The :term:`WSGI` application created when you start a
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177 :app:`Pyramid` application. The router intercepts requests,
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178 invokes traversal and/or URL dispatch, calls view functions, and
179 returns responses to the WSGI server on behalf of your
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180 :app:`Pyramid` application.
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181
182 URL dispatch
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183 An alternative to :term:`traversal` as a mechanism for locating a
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184 :term:`context` resource for a :term:`view`. When you use a
185 :term:`route` in your :app:`Pyramid` application via a :term:`route
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186 configuration`, you are using URL dispatch. See the
187 :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` for more information.
188
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189 context
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190 A resource in the resource tree that is found during :term:`traversal`
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191 or :term:`URL dispatch` based on URL data; if it's found via traversal,
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192 it's usually a :term:`resource` object that is part of a resource tree;
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193 if it's found via :term:`URL dispatch`, it's an object manufactured on
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194 behalf of the route's "factory". A context resource becomes the subject
195 of a :term:`view`, and often has security information attached to
196 it. See the :ref:`traversal_chapter` chapter and the
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197 :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` chapter for more information about how a URL
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198 is resolved to a context resource.
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199
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200 application registry
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201 A registry of configuration information consulted by
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202 :app:`Pyramid` while servicing an application. An application
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203 registry maps resource types to views, as well as housing other
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204 application-specific component registrations. Every
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205 :app:`Pyramid` application has one (and only one) application
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206 registry.
207
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208 template
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209 A file with replaceable parts that is capable of representing some
210 text, XML, or HTML when rendered.
211
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212 location
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213 The path to an object in a :term:`resource tree`. See
214 :ref:`location_aware` for more information about how to make a resource
215 object *location-aware*.
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216
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217 permission
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218 A string or unicode object that represents an action being taken against
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219 a :term:`context` resource. A permission is associated with a view name
220 and a resource type by the developer. Resources are decorated with
221 security declarations (e.g. an :term:`ACL`), which reference these
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222 tokens also. Permissions are used by the active security policy to
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223 match the view permission against the resources's statements about which
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224 permissions are granted to which principal in a context in order to
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225 answer the question "is this user allowed to do this". Examples of
226 permissions: ``read``, or ``view_blog_entries``.
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227
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228 default permission
229 A :term:`permission` which is registered as the default for an
230 entire application. When a default permission is in effect,
231 every :term:`view configuration` registered with the system will
232 be effectively amended with a ``permission`` argument that will
233 require that the executing user possess the default permission in
234 order to successfully execute the associated :term:`view
235 callable` See also :ref:`setting_a_default_permission`.
236
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237 ACE
238 An *access control entry*. An access control entry is one element
239 in an :term:`ACL`. An access control entry is a three-tuple that
240 describes three things: an *action* (one of either ``Allow`` or
241 ``Deny``), a :term:`principal` (a string describing a user or
242 group), and a :term:`permission`. For example the ACE, ``(Allow,
243 'bob', 'read')`` is a member of an ACL that indicates that the
244 principal ``bob`` is allowed the permission ``read`` against the
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245 resource the ACL is attached to.
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246
247 ACL
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248 An *access control list*. An ACL is a sequence of :term:`ACE` tuples.
249 An ACL is attached to a resource instance. An example of an ACL is ``[
250 (Allow, 'bob', 'read'), (Deny, 'fred', 'write')]``. If an ACL is
251 attached to a resource instance, and that resource is findable via the
252 context resource, it will be consulted any active security policy to
253 determine wither a particular request can be fulfilled given the
254 :term:`authentication` information in the request.
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255
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256 authentication
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257 The act of determining that the credentials a user presents
258 during a particular request are "good". Authentication in
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259 :app:`Pyramid` is performed via an :term:`authentication
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260 policy`.
261
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262 authorization
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263 The act of determining whether a user can perform a specific action. In
264 pyramid terms, this means determining whether, for a given resource, any
265 :term:`principal` (or principals) associated with the request have the
266 requisite :term:`permission` to allow the request to continue.
267 Authorization in :app:`Pyramid` is performed via its
268 :term:`authorization policy`.
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269
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270 principal
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271 A *principal* is a string or unicode object representing a userid
272 or a group id. It is provided by an :term:`authentication
273 policy`. For example, if a user had the user id "bob", and Bob
274 was part of two groups named "group foo" and "group bar", the
275 request might have information attached to it that would
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276 indicate that Bob was represented by three principals: "bob",
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277 "group foo" and "group bar".
278
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279 authorization policy
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280 An authorization policy in :app:`Pyramid` terms is a bit of
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281 code which has an API which determines whether or not the
282 principals associated with the request can perform an action
283 associated with a permission, based on the information found on the
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284 :term:`context` resource.
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285
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286 authentication policy
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287 An authentication policy in :app:`Pyramid` terms is a bit of
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288 code which has an API which determines the current
289 :term:`principal` (or principals) associated with a request.
290
291 WSGI
292 `Web Server Gateway Interface <http://wsgi.org/>`_. This is a
293 Python standard for connecting web applications to web servers,
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294 similar to the concept of Java Servlets. :app:`Pyramid` requires
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295 that your application be served as a WSGI application.
296
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297 middleware
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298 *Middleware* is a :term:`WSGI` concept. It is a WSGI component
299 that acts both as a server and an application. Interesting uses
300 for middleware exist, such as caching, content-transport
301 encoding, and other functions. See `WSGI.org <http://wsgi.org>`_
302 or `PyPI <http://python.org/pypi>`_ to find middleware for your
303 application.
304
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305 pipeline
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306 The :term:`Paste` term for a single configuration of a WSGI
307 server, a WSGI application, with a set of middleware in-between.
308
309 Zope
310 `The Z Object Publishing Framework <http://zope.org>`_, a
311 full-featured Python web framework.
312
313 Grok
314 `A web framework based on Zope 3 <http://grok.zope.org>`_.
315
316 Django
317 `A full-featured Python web framework <http://djangoproject.com>`_.
318
319 Pylons
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320 `A lightweight Python web framework <http://pylonshq.com>`_ and a
321 predecessor of Pyramid.
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322
323 ZODB
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324 `Zope Object Database <http://zodb.org>`_, a
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325 persistent Python object store.
326
327 ZEO
328 `Zope Enterprise Objects
329 <http://www.zope.org/Documentation/Books/ZopeBook/2_6Edition/ZEO.stx>`_
330 allows multiple simultaneous processes to access a single
331 :term:`ZODB` database.
332
333 WebOb
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334 `WebOb <http://webob.org>`_ is a WSGI request/response
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335 library created by Ian Bicking.
336
337 Paste
338 `Paste <http://pythonpaste.org>`_ is a WSGI development and
339 deployment system developed by Ian Bicking.
340
341 PasteDeploy
342 `PasteDeploy <http://pythonpaste.org>`_ is a library used by
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343 :app:`Pyramid` which makes it possible to configure
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344 :term:`WSGI` components together declaratively within an ``.ini``
345 file. It was developed by Ian Bicking as part of :term:`Paste`.
346
347 Chameleon
348 `chameleon <http://chameleon.repoze.org>`_ is an attribute
349 language template compiler which supports both the :term:`ZPT` and
350 :term:`Genshi` templating specifications. It is written and
351 maintained by Malthe Borch. It has several extensions, such as
352 the ability to use bracketed (Genshi-style) ``${name}`` syntax,
353 even within ZPT. It is also much faster than the reference
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354 implementations of both ZPT and Genshi. :app:`Pyramid` offers
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355 Chameleon templating out of the box in ZPT and text flavors.
356
357 ZPT
358 The `Zope Page Template <http://wiki.zope.org/ZPT/FrontPage>`_
359 templating language.
360
361 METAL
362 `Macro Expansion for TAL <http://wiki.zope.org/ZPT/METAL>`_, a
363 part of :term:`ZPT` which makes it possible to share common look
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364 and feel between templates.
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365
366 Genshi
367 An `XML templating language <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/Genshi/>`_
368 by Christopher Lenz.
369
370 Jinja2
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371 A `text templating language <http://jinja.pocoo.org/2/>`_ by Armin
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372 Ronacher.
373
374 Routes
375 A `system by Ben Bangert <http://routes.groovie.org/>`_ which
376 parses URLs and compares them against a number of user defined
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377 mappings. The URL pattern matching syntax in :app:`Pyramid` is
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378 inspired by the Routes syntax (which was inspired by Ruby On
379 Rails pattern syntax).
380
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381 route
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382 A single pattern matched by the :term:`url dispatch` subsystem,
383 which generally resolves to a :term:`root factory` (and then
384 ultimately a :term:`view`). See also :term:`url dispatch`.
385
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386 route configuration
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387 Route configuration is the act of associating request parameters with a
388 particular :term:`route` using pattern matching and :term:`route
389 predicate` statements. See :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` for more
390 information about route configuration.
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391
392 Zope Component Architecture
393 The `Zope Component Architecture
394 <http://www.muthukadan.net/docs/zca.html>`_ (aka ZCA) is a system
395 which allows for application pluggability and complex dispatching
396 based on objects which implement an :term:`interface`.
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397 :app:`Pyramid` uses the ZCA "under the hood" to perform view
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398 dispatching and other application configuration tasks.
399
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400 reStructuredText
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401 A `plain text format <http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html>`_
402 that is the defacto standard for descriptive text shipped in
403 :term:`distribution` files, and Python docstrings. This
404 documentation is authored in ReStructuredText format.
405
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406 root
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407 The object at which :term:`traversal` begins when :app:`Pyramid`
408 searches for a :term:`context` resource (for :term:`URL Dispatch`, the
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409 root is *always* the context resource unless the ``traverse=`` argument
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410 is used in route configuration).
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411
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412 subpath
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413 A list of element "left over" after the :term:`router` has
414 performed a successful traversal to a view. The subpath is a
415 sequence of strings, e.g. ``['left', 'over', 'names']``. Within
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416 Pyramid applications that use URL dispatch rather than traversal, you
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417 can use ``*subpath`` in the route pattern to influence the
418 subpath. See :ref:`star_subpath` for more information.
419
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420 interface
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421 A `Zope interface <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/zope.interface>`_
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422 object. In :app:`Pyramid`, an interface may be attached to a
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423 :term:`resource` object or a :term:`request` object in order to
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424 identify that the object is "of a type". Interfaces are used
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425 internally by :app:`Pyramid` to perform view lookups and other
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426 policy lookups. The ability to make use of an interface is
427 exposed to an application programmers during :term:`view
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428 configuration` via the ``context`` argument, the ``request_type``
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429 argument and the ``containment`` argument. Interfaces are also
430 exposed to application developers when they make use of the
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431 :term:`event` system. Fundamentally, :app:`Pyramid`
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432 programmers can think of an interface as something that they can
433 attach to an object that stamps it with a "type" unrelated to its
434 underlying Python type. Interfaces can also be used to describe
435 the behavior of an object (its methods and attributes), but
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436 unless they choose to, :app:`Pyramid` programmers do not need
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437 to understand or use this feature of interfaces.
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438
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439 event
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440 An object broadcast to zero or more :term:`subscriber` callables
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441 during normal :app:`Pyramid` system operations during the
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442 lifetime of an application. Application code can subscribe to
443 these events by using the subscriber functionality described in
444 :ref:`events_chapter`.
445
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446 subscriber
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447 A callable which receives an :term:`event`. A callable becomes a
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448 subscriber via :term:`imperative configuration` or via
449 :term:`configuration decoration`. See :ref:`events_chapter` for more
450 information.
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451
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452 request type
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453 An attribute of a :term:`request` that allows for specialization
454 of view invocation based on arbitrary categorization. The every
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455 :term:`request` object that :app:`Pyramid` generates and
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456 manipulates has one or more :term:`interface` objects attached to
457 it. The default interface attached to a request object is
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458 ``pyramid.interfaces.IRequest``.
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459
460 repoze.lemonade
461 Zope2 CMF-like `data structures and helper facilities
462 <http://docs.repoze.org/lemonade>`_ for CA-and-ZODB-based
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463 applications useful within :app:`Pyramid` applications.
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464
465 repoze.catalog
466 An indexing and search facility (fielded and full-text) based on
467 `zope.index <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/zope.index>`_. See `the
468 documentation <http://docs.repoze.org/catalog>`_ for more
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469 information.
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470
471 repoze.who
472 `Authentication middleware <http://docs.repoze.org/who>`_ for
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473 :term:`WSGI` applications. It can be used by :app:`Pyramid` to
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474 provide authentication information.
475
476 repoze.workflow
477 `Barebones workflow for Python apps
478 <http://docs.repoze.org/workflow>`_ . It can be used by
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479 :app:`Pyramid` to form a workflow system.
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480
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481 virtual root
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482 A resource object representing the "virtual" root of a request; this
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483 is typically the physical root object (the object returned by the
484 application root factory) unless :ref:`vhosting_chapter` is in
485 use.
486
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487 lineage
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488 An ordered sequence of objects based on a ":term:`location` -aware"
489 resource. The lineage of any given :term:`resource` is composed of
490 itself, its parent, its parent's parent, and so on. The order of the
491 sequence is resource-first, then the parent of the resource, then its
492 parent's parent, and so on. The parent of a resource in a lineage is
493 available as its ``__parent__`` attribute.
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494
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495 root factory
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496 The "root factory" of a :app:`Pyramid` application is called
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497 on every request sent to the application. The root factory
498 returns the traversal root of an application. It is
499 conventionally named ``get_root``. An application may supply a
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500 root factory to :app:`Pyramid` during the construction of a
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501 :term:`Configurator`. If a root factory is not supplied, the
502 application uses a default root object. Use of the default root
503 object is useful in application which use :term:`URL dispatch` for
504 all URL-to-view code mappings.
505
506 SQLAlchemy
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507 `SQLAlchemy <http://www.sqlalchemy.org/>`_ is an object
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508 relational mapper used in tutorials within this documentation.
509
510 JSON
511 `JavaScript Object Notation <http://www.json.org/>`_ is a data
512 serialization format.
513
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514 jQuery
515 A popular `Javascript library <http://jquery.org>`_.
516
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517 renderer
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518 A serializer that can be referred to via :term:`view
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519 configuration` which converts a non-:term:`Response` return
520 values from a :term:`view` into a string (and ultimately a
521 response). Using a renderer can make writing views that require
522 templating or other serialization less tedious. See
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523 :ref:`views_which_use_a_renderer` for more information.
524
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525 renderer factory
526 A factory which creates a :term:`renderer`. See
527 :ref:`adding_and_overriding_renderers` for more information.
528
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529 mod_wsgi
530 `mod_wsgi <http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/>`_ is an Apache
531 module developed by Graham Dumpleton. It allows :term:`WSGI`
532 applications (such as applications developed using
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533 :app:`Pyramid`) to be served using the Apache web server.
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534
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535 view predicate
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536 An argument to a :term:`view configuration` which evaluates to
537 ``True`` or ``False`` for a given :term:`request`. All predicates
538 attached to a view configuration must evaluate to true for the
539 associated view to be considered as a possible callable for a
540 given request.
541
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542 route predicate
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543 An argument to a :term:`route configuration` which implies a value
544 that evaluates to ``True`` or ``False`` for a given
545 :term:`request`. All predicates attached to a :term:`route
546 configuration` must evaluate to ``True`` for the associated route
547 to "match" the current request. If a route does not match the
548 current request, the next route (in definition order) is
549 attempted.
550
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551 routes mapper
552 An object which compares path information from a request to an
553 ordered set of route patterns. See :ref:`urldispatch_chapter`.
554
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555 predicate
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556 A test which returns ``True`` or ``False``. Two different types
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557 of predicates exist in :app:`Pyramid`: a :term:`view predicate`
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558 and a :term:`route predicate`. View predicates are attached to
559 :term:`view configuration` and route predicates are attached to
560 :term:`route configuration`.
561
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562 decorator
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563 A wrapper around a Python function or class which accepts the
564 function or class as its first argument and which returns an
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565 arbitrary object. :app:`Pyramid` provides several decorators,
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566 used for configuration and return value modification purposes. See
567 also `PEP 318 <http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0318/>`_.
568
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569 configuration declaration
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570 An individual method call made to an instance of a :app:`Pyramid`
571 :term:`Configurator` object which performs an arbitrary action, such as
572 registering a :term:`view configuration` (via the ``add_view`` method of
573 the configurator) or :term:`route configuration` (via the ``add_route``
574 method of the configurator). A set of configuration declarations is
575 also implied by the :term:`configuration decoration` detected by a
576 :term:`scan` of code in a package.
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577
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578 configuration decoration
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579 Metadata implying one or more :term:`configuration declaration`
580 invocations. Often set by configuration Python :term:`decorator`
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581 attributes, such as :class:`pyramid.view.view_config`, aka
582 ``@view_config``.
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583
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584 scan
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585 The term used by :app:`Pyramid` to define the process of
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586 importing and examining all code in a Python package or module for
587 :term:`configuration decoration`.
588
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589 configurator
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590 An object used to do :term:`configuration declaration` within an
591 application. The most common configurator is an instance of the
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592 ``pyramid.config.Configurator`` class.
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593
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594 imperative configuration
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595 The configuration mode in which you use Python to call methods on
596 a :term:`Configurator` in order to add each :term:`configuration
597 declaration` required by your application.
598
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599 declarative configuration
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600 The configuration mode in which you use the combination of
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601 :term:`configuration decoration` and a :term:`scan` to configure your
602 Pyramid application.
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603
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604 Not Found view
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605 An :term:`exception view` invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when the
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606 developer explicitly raises a ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPNotFound``
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607 exception from within :term:`view` code or :term:`root factory`
608 code, or when the current request doesn't match any :term:`view
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609 configuration`. :app:`Pyramid` provides a default
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610 implementation of a not found view; it can be overridden. See
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611 :ref:`changing_the_notfound_view`.
612
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613 Forbidden view
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614 An :term:`exception view` invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when the
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615 developer explicitly raises a
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616 ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPForbidden`` exception from within
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617 :term:`view` code or :term:`root factory` code, or when the
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618 :term:`view configuration` and :term:`authorization policy`
619 found for a request disallows a particular view invocation.
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620 :app:`Pyramid` provides a default implementation of a
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621 forbidden view; it can be overridden. See
622 :ref:`changing_the_forbidden_view`.
623
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624 Exception view
625 An exception view is a :term:`view callable` which may be
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626 invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when an exception is raised during
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627 request processing. See :ref:`exception_views` for more
628 information.
629
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630 HTTP Exception
631 The set of exception classes defined in :mod:`pyramid.httpexceptions`.
632 These can be used to generate responses with various status codes when
633 raised or returned from a :term:`view callable`. See also
634 :ref:`http_exceptions`.
635
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636 thread local
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637 A thread-local variable is one which is essentially a global variable
638 in terms of how it is accessed and treated, however, each `thread
639 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thread_(computer_science)>`_ used by the
640 application may have a different value for this same "global" variable.
641 :app:`Pyramid` uses a small number of thread local variables, as
642 described in :ref:`threadlocals_chapter`. See also the `threading.local
643 documentation
644 <http://docs.python.org/library/threading.html#threading.local>`_ for
645 more information.
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646
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647 multidict
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648 An ordered dictionary that can have multiple values for each key. Adds
649 the methods ``getall``, ``getone``, ``mixed``, ``add`` and
650 ``dict_of_lists`` to the normal dictionary interface. See
651 :ref:`multidict_narr` and :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IMultiDict`.
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652
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653 PyPI
654 `The Python Package Index <http://pypi.python.org/pypi>`_, a
655 collection of software available for Python.
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656
657 Agendaless Consulting
658 A consulting organization formed by Paul Everitt, Tres Seaver,
659 and Chris McDonough. See also http://agendaless.com .
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660
661 Jython
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662 A `Python implementation <http://www.jython.org/>`_ written for
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663 the Java Virtual Machine.
664
665 Python
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666 The `programming language <http://python.org>`_ in which
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667 :app:`Pyramid` is written.
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668
669 CPython
670 The C implementation of the Python language. This is the
671 reference implementation that most people refer to as simply
672 "Python"; :term:`Jython`, Google's App Engine, and `PyPy
673 <http://codespeak.net/pypy/dist/pypy/doc/>`_ are examples of
674 non-C based Python implementations.
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675
676 View Lookup
677 The act of finding and invoking the "best" :term:`view callable`
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678 given a :term:`request` and a :term:`context` resource.
679
680 Resource Location
681 The act of locating a :term:`context` resource given a :term:`request`.
682 :term:`Traversal` and :term:`URL dispatch` are the resource location
683 subsystems used by :app:`Pyramid`.
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684
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685 Google App Engine
686 `Google App Engine <http://code.google.com/appengine/>`_ (aka
687 "GAE") is a Python application hosting service offered by Google.
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688 :app:`Pyramid` runs on GAE.
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689
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690 Venusian
691 `Venusian <http://docs.repoze.org/venusian>`_ is a library which
692 allows framework authors to defer decorator actions. Instead of
693 taking actions when a function (or class) decorator is executed
694 at import time, the action usually taken by the decorator is
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695 deferred until a separate "scan" phase. :app:`Pyramid` relies
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696 on Venusian to provide a basis for its :term:`scan` feature.
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697
698 Translation String
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699 An instance of :class:`pyramid.i18n.TranslationString`, which
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700 is a class that behaves like a Unicode string, but has several
701 extra attributes such as ``domain``, ``msgid``, and ``mapping``
702 for use during translation. Translation strings are usually
703 created by hand within software, but are sometimes created on the
704 behalf of the system for automatic template translation. For
705 more information, see :ref:`i18n_chapter`.
706
707 Translation Domain
708 A string representing the "context" in which a translation was
709 made. For example the word "java" might be translated
710 differently if the translation domain is "programming-languages"
711 than would be if the translation domain was "coffee". A
712 translation domain is represnted by a collection of ``.mo`` files
713 within one or more :term:`translation directory` directories.
714
715 Translator
716 A callable which receives a :term:`translation string` and
717 returns a translated Unicode object for the purposes of
718 internationalization. A :term:`localizer` supplies a
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719 translator to a :app:`Pyramid` application accessible via its
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720 ``translate`` method.
721
722 Translation Directory
723 A translation directory is a :term:`gettext` translation
724 directory. It contains language folders, which themselves
725 contain ``LC_MESSAGES`` folders, which contain ``.mo`` files.
726 Each ``.mo`` file represents a set of translations for a language
727 in a :term:`translation domain`. The name of the ``.mo`` file
728 (minus the .mo extension) is the translation domain name.
729
730 Localizer
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731 An instance of the class :class:`pyramid.i18n.Localizer` which
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732 provides translation and pluralization services to an
733 application. It is retrieved via the
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734 :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_localizer` function.
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735
736 Locale Name
737 A string like ``en``, ``en_US``, ``de``, or ``de_AT`` which
738 uniquely identifies a particular locale.
739
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740 Default Locale Name
741 The :term:`locale name` used by an application when no explicit
742 locale name is set. See :ref:`localization_deployment_settings`.
743
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744 Locale Negotiator
745 An object supplying a policy determining which :term:`locale
746 name` best represents a given :term:`request`. It is used by the
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747 :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_locale_name`, and
748 :func:`pyramid.i18n.negotiate_locale_name` functions, and
749 indirectly by :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_localizer`. The
750 :func:`pyramid.i18n.default_locale_negotiator` function
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751 is an example of a locale negotiator.
752
753 Gettext
754 The GNU `gettext <http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/>`_
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755 library, used by the :app:`Pyramid` translation machinery.
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756
757 Babel
758 A `collection of tools <http://babel.edgewall.org/>`_ for
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759 internationalizing Python applications. :app:`Pyramid` does
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760 not depend on Babel to operate, but if Babel is installed,
761 additional locale functionality becomes available to your
762 application.
763
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764 Lingua
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765 A package by Wichert Akkerman which provides :term:`Babel` message
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766 extractors for Python source files and Chameleon ZPT template files.
767
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768 Message Identifier
769 A string used as a translation lookup key during localization.
770 The ``msgid`` argument to a :term:`translation string` is a
771 message identifier. Message identifiers are also present in a
772 :term:`message catalog`.
773
774 Message Catalog
775 A :term:`gettext` ``.mo`` file containing translations.
776
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777 Internationalization
778 The act of creating software with a user interface that can
779 potentially be displayed in more than one language or cultural
780 context. Often shortened to "i18n" (because the word
781 "internationalization" is I, 18 letters, then N). See also:
782 :term:`Localization`.
783
784 Localization
785 The process of displaying the user interface of an
786 internationalized application in a particular language or
787 cultural context. Often shortened to "l10" (because the word
788 "localization" is L, 10 letters, then N). See also:
789 :term:`Internationalization`.
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790
791 renderer globals
792 Values injected as names into a renderer based on application
793 policy. See :ref:`adding_renderer_globals` for more
794 information.
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795
796 response callback
797 A user-defined callback executed by the :term:`router` at a
798 point after a :term:`response` object is successfully created.
799 See :ref:`using_response_callbacks`.
800
801 finished callback
802 A user-defined callback executed by the :term:`router`
803 unconditionally at the very end of request processing . See
804 :ref:`using_finished_callbacks`.
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805
806 pregenerator
807 A pregenerator is a function associated by a developer with a
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808 :term:`route`. It is called by :func:`pyramid.url.route_url`
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809 in order to adjust the set of arguments passed to it by the user
810 for special purposes. It will influence the URL returned by
811 ``route_url``. See
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812 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IRoutePregenerator` for more
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813 information.
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814
815 session
816 A namespace that is valid for some period of continual activity
817 that can be used to represent a user's interaction with a web
818 application.
819
820 session factory
821 A callable, which, when called with a single argument named
822 ``request`` (a :term:`request` object), returns a
823 :term:`session` object.
824
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825 Mako
826 `Mako <http://www.makotemplates.org/>`_ is a template language language
827 which refines the familiar ideas of componentized layout and inheritance
828 using Python with Python scoping and calling semantics.
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829
830 View handler
831 A view handler ties together
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832 :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route` and
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833 :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view` to make it more convenient
834 to register a collection of views as a single class when using
835 :term:`url dispatch`. View handlers ship as part of the
836 :term:`pyramid_handlers` add-on package.
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837
838 Deployment settings
839 Deployment settings are settings passed to the :term:`Configurator` as a
840 ``settings`` argument. These are later accessible via a
841 ``request.registry.settings`` dictionary. Deployment settings can be
842 used as global application values.
843
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844 WebTest
845 `WebTest <http://pythonpaste.org/webtest/>`_ is a package which can help
846 you write functional tests for your WSGI application.
847
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848 WebError
849 WSGI middleware which can display debuggable traceback information in
850 the browser when an exception is raised by a Pyramid application. See
851 http://pypi.python.org/pypi/WebError .
852
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853 view mapper
854 A view mapper is a class which implements the
855 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IViewMapperFactory` interface, which performs
856 view argument and return value mapping. This is a plug point for
857 extension builders, not normally used by "civilians".
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858
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859 matchdict
860 The dictionary attached to the :term:`request` object as
861 ``request.matchdict`` when a :term:`URL dispatch` route has been matched.
862 Its keys are names as identified within the route pattern; its values are
863 the values matched by each pattern name.
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864
865 pyramid_zcml
866 An add-on package to :app:`Pyramid` which allows applications to be
867 configured via ZCML. It is available on :term:`PyPI`. If you use
868 ``pyramid_zcml``, you can use ZCML as an alternative to
869 :term:`imperative configuration`.
870
871 ZCML
872 `Zope Configuration Markup Language
873 <http://www.muthukadan.net/docs/zca.html#zcml>`_, an XML dialect
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874 used by Zope and :term:`pyramid_zcml` for configuration tasks.
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875
876 ZCML directive
877 A ZCML "tag" such as ``<view>`` or ``<route>``.
878
879 ZCML declaration
880 The concrete use of a :term:`ZCML directive` within a ZCML file.
881
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882 pyramid_handlers
883 An add-on package which allows :app:`Pyramid` users to create classes
884 that are analogues of Pylons 1 "controllers". See
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885 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/pyramid_handlers/dev/ .
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886
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887 pyramid_jinja2
888 :term:`Jinja2` templating system bindings for Pyramid, documented at
889 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/pyramid_jinja2/dev/ . This
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890 package also includes a scaffold named
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891 ``pyramid_jinja2_starter``, which creates an application package based
892 on the Jinja2 templating system.
893
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894 Akhet
895 Akhet is a Pyramid-based development environment which provides a
896 Pylons-esque scaffold which sports support for :term:`view handler`
897 application development, :term:`SQLAlchemy` support, :term:`Mako`
898 templating by default, and other Pylons-like features. See
899 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/akhet/dev/index.html for more
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900 information.
901
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902 Pyramid Cookbook
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903 An additional documentation resource for Pyramid which presents topical,
904 practical usages of Pyramid available via
905 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/ .
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906
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907 distutils
908 The standard system for packaging and distributing Python packages. See
909 http://docs.python.org/distutils/index.html for more information.
910 :term:`setuptools` is actually an *extension* of the Distutils.
911
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912 exception response
913 A :term:`response` that is generated as the result of a raised exception
914 being caught by an :term:`exception view`.
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915
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916 PyPy
917 PyPy is an "alternative implementation of the Python
918 language":http://pypy.org/
919
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920 tween
921 A bit of code that sits between the Pyramid router's main request
922 handling function and the upstream WSGI component that uses
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923 :app:`Pyramid` as its 'app'. The word "tween" is a contraction of
924 "between". A tween may be used by Pyramid framework extensions, to
925 provide, for example, Pyramid-specific view timing support, bookkeeping
926 code that examines exceptions before they are returned to the upstream
927 WSGI application, or a variety of other features. Tweens behave a bit
928 like :mod:`WSGI` 'middleware' but they have the benefit of running in a
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929 context in which they have access to the Pyramid :term:`application
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930 registry` as well as the Pyramid rendering machinery. See
931 :ref:`registering_tweens`.
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932
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