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c4d7f0b @pauleveritt Start working on a glossary. Also, start changing repoze.bfg occurren…
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1 .. _glossary:
2
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3 Glossary
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4 ========
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5
6 .. glossary::
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7 :sorted:
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8
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9 request
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10 A ``WebOb`` request object. See :ref:`webob_chapter` (narrative)
11 and :ref:`request_module` (API documentation) for information
12 about request objects.
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13
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14 request factory
15 An object which, provided a WSGI environment as a single
16 positional argument, returns a ``WebOb`` compatible request.
17
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18 response
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19 An object returned by a :term:`view callable` that represents response
20 data returned to the requesting user agent. It must implements the
21 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IResponse` interface. A response object is
22 typically an instance of the :class:`pyramid.response.Response` class or
23 a subclass such as :class:`pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPFound`. See
24 :ref:`webob_chapter` for information about response objects.
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25
26 Repoze
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27 "Repoze" is essentially a "brand" of software developed by `Agendaless
28 Consulting <http://agendaless.com>`_ and a set of contributors. The
29 term has no special intrinsic meaning. The project's `website
30 <http://repoze.org>`_ has more information. The software developed
31 "under the brand" is available in a `Subversion repository
32 <http://svn.repoze.org>`_. Pyramid was originally known as
33 :mod:`repoze.bfg`.
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34
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35 setuptools
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36 `Setuptools <http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/setuptools>`_
37 builds on Python's ``distutils`` to provide easier building,
38 distribution, and installation of libraries and applications.
39
40 pkg_resources
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41 A module which ships with :term:`setuptools` that provides an API for
42 addressing "asset files" within a Python :term:`package`. Asset files
43 are static files, template files, etc; basically anything
44 non-Python-source that lives in a Python package can be considered a
45 asset file. See also `PkgResources
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46 <http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/PkgResources>`_
47
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48 asset
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49 Any file contained within a Python :term:`package` which is *not*
50 a Python source code file.
51
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52 asset specification
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53 A colon-delimited identifier for an :term:`asset`. The colon
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54 separates a Python :term:`package` name from a package subpath.
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55 For example, the asset specification
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56 ``my.package:static/baz.css`` identifies the file named
57 ``baz.css`` in the ``static`` subdirectory of the ``my.package``
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58 Python :term:`package`. See :ref:`asset_specifications` for more
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59 info.
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60
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61 package
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62 A directory on disk which contains an ``__init__.py`` file, making
63 it recognizable to Python as a location which can be ``import`` -ed.
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64 A package exists to contain :term:`module` files.
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65
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66 module
67 A Python source file; a file on the filesystem that typically ends with
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68 the extension ``.py`` or ``.pyc``. Modules often live in a
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69 :term:`package`.
70
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71 project
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72 (Setuptools/distutils terminology). A directory on disk which
73 contains a ``setup.py`` file and one or more Python packages. The
74 ``setup.py`` file contains code that allows the package(s) to be
75 installed, distributed, and tested.
76
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77 distribution
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78 (Setuptools/distutils terminology). A file representing an
79 installable library or application. Distributions are usually
80 files that have the suffix of ``.egg``, ``.tar.gz``, or ``.zip``.
81 Distributions are the target of Setuptools commands such as
82 ``easy_install``.
83
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84 entry point
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85 A :term:`setuptools` indirection, defined within a setuptools
86 :term:`distribution` setup.py. It is usually a name which refers
87 to a function somewhere in a package which is held by the
88 distribution.
89
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90 dotted Python name
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91 A reference to a Python object by name using a string, in the form
92 ``path.to.modulename:attributename``. Often used in Paste and
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93 setuptools configurations. A variant is used in dotted names within
94 configurator method arguments that name objects (such as the "add_view"
95 method's "view" and "context" attributes): the colon (``:``) is not
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96 used; in its place is a dot.
97
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98 view
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99 Common vernacular for a :term:`view callable`.
100
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101 view callable
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102 A "view callable" is a callable Python object which is associated
103 with a :term:`view configuration`; it returns a :term:`response`
104 object . A view callable accepts a single argument: ``request``,
105 which will be an instance of a :term:`request` object. An
106 alternate calling convention allows a view to be defined as a
107 callable which accepts a pair of arguments: ``context`` and
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108 ``request``: this calling convention is useful for
109 traversal-based applications in which a :term:`context` is always
110 very important. A view callable is the primary mechanism by
111 which a developer writes user interface code within
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112 :app:`Pyramid`. See :ref:`views_chapter` for more information
113 about :app:`Pyramid` view callables.
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114
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115 view configuration
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116 View configuration is the act of associating a :term:`view callable`
117 with configuration information. This configuration information helps
118 map a given :term:`request` to a particular view callable and it can
119 influence the response of a view callable. :app:`Pyramid` views can be
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120 configured via :term:`imperative configuration`, or by a special
121 ``@view_config`` decorator coupled with a :term:`scan`. See
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122 :ref:`view_config_chapter` for more information about view
123 configuration.
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124
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125 view name
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126 The "URL name" of a view, e.g ``index.html``. If a view is
127 configured without a name, its name is considered to be the empty
128 string (which implies the :term:`default view`).
129
130 Default view
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131 The default view of a :term:`resource` is the view invoked when the
132 :term:`view name` is the empty string (``''``). This is the case when
133 :term:`traversal` exhausts the path elements in the PATH_INFO of a
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134 request before it returns a :term:`context` resource.
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135
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136 virtualenv
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137 An isolated Python environment. Allows you to control which
138 packages are used on a particular project by cloning your main
139 Python. `virtualenv <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/virtualenv>`_
140 was created by Ian Bicking.
141
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142 resource
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143 An object representing a node in the :term:`resource tree` of an
144 application. If :mod:`traversal` is used, a resource is an element in
145 the resource tree traversed by the system. When traversal is used, a
146 resource becomes the :term:`context` of a :term:`view`. If :mod:`url
147 dispatch` is used, a single resource is generated for each request and
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148 is used as the context resource of a view.
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149
150 resource tree
151 A nested set of dictionary-like objects, each of which is a
152 :term:`resource`. The act of :term:`traversal` uses the resource tree
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153 to find a :term:`context` resource.
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154
155 domain model
156 Persistent data related to your application. For example, data stored
157 in a relational database. In some applications, the :term:`resource
158 tree` acts as the domain model.
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159
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160 traversal
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161 The act of descending "up" a tree of resource objects from a root
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162 resource in order to find a :term:`context` resource. The
163 :app:`Pyramid` :term:`router` performs traversal of resource objects
164 when a :term:`root factory` is specified. See the
165 :ref:`traversal_chapter` chapter for more information. Traversal can be
166 performed *instead* of :term:`URL dispatch` or can be combined *with*
167 URL dispatch. See :ref:`hybrid_chapter` for more information about
168 combining traversal and URL dispatch (advanced).
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169
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170 router
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171 The :term:`WSGI` application created when you start a
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172 :app:`Pyramid` application. The router intercepts requests,
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173 invokes traversal and/or URL dispatch, calls view functions, and
174 returns responses to the WSGI server on behalf of your
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175 :app:`Pyramid` application.
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176
177 URL dispatch
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178 An alternative to :term:`traversal` as a mechanism for locating a
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179 :term:`context` resource for a :term:`view`. When you use a
180 :term:`route` in your :app:`Pyramid` application via a :term:`route
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181 configuration`, you are using URL dispatch. See the
182 :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` for more information.
183
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184 context
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185 A resource in the resource tree that is found during :term:`traversal`
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186 or :term:`URL dispatch` based on URL data; if it's found via traversal,
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187 it's usually a :term:`resource` object that is part of a resource tree;
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188 if it's found via :term:`URL dispatch`, it's an object manufactured on
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189 behalf of the route's "factory". A context resource becomes the subject
190 of a :term:`view`, and often has security information attached to
191 it. See the :ref:`traversal_chapter` chapter and the
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192 :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` chapter for more information about how a URL
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193 is resolved to a context resource.
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194
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195 application registry
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196 A registry of configuration information consulted by
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197 :app:`Pyramid` while servicing an application. An application
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198 registry maps resource types to views, as well as housing other
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199 application-specific component registrations. Every
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200 :app:`Pyramid` application has one (and only one) application
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201 registry.
202
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203 template
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204 A file with replaceable parts that is capable of representing some
205 text, XML, or HTML when rendered.
206
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207 location
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208 The path to an object in a :term:`resource tree`. See
209 :ref:`location_aware` for more information about how to make a resource
210 object *location-aware*.
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211
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212 permission
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213 A string or unicode object that represents an action being taken against
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214 a :term:`context` resource. A permission is associated with a view name
215 and a resource type by the developer. Resources are decorated with
216 security declarations (e.g. an :term:`ACL`), which reference these
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217 tokens also. Permissions are used by the active security policy to
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218 match the view permission against the resources's statements about which
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219 permissions are granted to which principal in a context in order to
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220 answer the question "is this user allowed to do this". Examples of
221 permissions: ``read``, or ``view_blog_entries``.
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222
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223 default permission
224 A :term:`permission` which is registered as the default for an
225 entire application. When a default permission is in effect,
226 every :term:`view configuration` registered with the system will
227 be effectively amended with a ``permission`` argument that will
228 require that the executing user possess the default permission in
229 order to successfully execute the associated :term:`view
230 callable` See also :ref:`setting_a_default_permission`.
231
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232 ACE
233 An *access control entry*. An access control entry is one element
234 in an :term:`ACL`. An access control entry is a three-tuple that
235 describes three things: an *action* (one of either ``Allow`` or
236 ``Deny``), a :term:`principal` (a string describing a user or
237 group), and a :term:`permission`. For example the ACE, ``(Allow,
238 'bob', 'read')`` is a member of an ACL that indicates that the
239 principal ``bob`` is allowed the permission ``read`` against the
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240 resource the ACL is attached to.
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241
242 ACL
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243 An *access control list*. An ACL is a sequence of :term:`ACE` tuples.
244 An ACL is attached to a resource instance. An example of an ACL is ``[
245 (Allow, 'bob', 'read'), (Deny, 'fred', 'write')]``. If an ACL is
246 attached to a resource instance, and that resource is findable via the
247 context resource, it will be consulted any active security policy to
248 determine wither a particular request can be fulfilled given the
249 :term:`authentication` information in the request.
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250
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251 authentication
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252 The act of determining that the credentials a user presents
253 during a particular request are "good". Authentication in
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254 :app:`Pyramid` is performed via an :term:`authentication
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255 policy`.
256
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257 authorization
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258 The act of determining whether a user can perform a specific action. In
259 pyramid terms, this means determining whether, for a given resource, any
260 :term:`principal` (or principals) associated with the request have the
261 requisite :term:`permission` to allow the request to continue.
262 Authorization in :app:`Pyramid` is performed via its
263 :term:`authorization policy`.
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264
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265 principal
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266 A *principal* is a string or unicode object representing a userid
267 or a group id. It is provided by an :term:`authentication
268 policy`. For example, if a user had the user id "bob", and Bob
269 was part of two groups named "group foo" and "group bar", the
270 request might have information attached to it that would
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271 indicate that Bob was represented by three principals: "bob",
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272 "group foo" and "group bar".
273
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274 authorization policy
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275 An authorization policy in :app:`Pyramid` terms is a bit of
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276 code which has an API which determines whether or not the
277 principals associated with the request can perform an action
278 associated with a permission, based on the information found on the
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279 :term:`context` resource.
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280
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281 authentication policy
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282 An authentication policy in :app:`Pyramid` terms is a bit of
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283 code which has an API which determines the current
284 :term:`principal` (or principals) associated with a request.
285
286 WSGI
287 `Web Server Gateway Interface <http://wsgi.org/>`_. This is a
288 Python standard for connecting web applications to web servers,
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289 similar to the concept of Java Servlets. :app:`Pyramid` requires
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290 that your application be served as a WSGI application.
291
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292 middleware
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293 *Middleware* is a :term:`WSGI` concept. It is a WSGI component
294 that acts both as a server and an application. Interesting uses
295 for middleware exist, such as caching, content-transport
296 encoding, and other functions. See `WSGI.org <http://wsgi.org>`_
297 or `PyPI <http://python.org/pypi>`_ to find middleware for your
298 application.
299
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300 pipeline
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301 The :term:`Paste` term for a single configuration of a WSGI
302 server, a WSGI application, with a set of middleware in-between.
303
304 Zope
305 `The Z Object Publishing Framework <http://zope.org>`_, a
306 full-featured Python web framework.
307
308 Grok
309 `A web framework based on Zope 3 <http://grok.zope.org>`_.
310
311 Django
312 `A full-featured Python web framework <http://djangoproject.com>`_.
313
314 Pylons
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315 `A lightweight Python web framework <http://pylonshq.com>`_ and a
316 predecessor of Pyramid.
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317
318 ZODB
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319 `Zope Object Database <http://zodb.org>`_, a
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320 persistent Python object store.
321
322 ZEO
323 `Zope Enterprise Objects
324 <http://www.zope.org/Documentation/Books/ZopeBook/2_6Edition/ZEO.stx>`_
325 allows multiple simultaneous processes to access a single
326 :term:`ZODB` database.
327
328 WebOb
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329 `WebOb <http://webob.org>`_ is a WSGI request/response
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330 library created by Ian Bicking.
331
332 Paste
333 `Paste <http://pythonpaste.org>`_ is a WSGI development and
334 deployment system developed by Ian Bicking.
335
336 PasteDeploy
337 `PasteDeploy <http://pythonpaste.org>`_ is a library used by
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338 :app:`Pyramid` which makes it possible to configure
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339 :term:`WSGI` components together declaratively within an ``.ini``
340 file. It was developed by Ian Bicking as part of :term:`Paste`.
341
342 Chameleon
343 `chameleon <http://chameleon.repoze.org>`_ is an attribute
344 language template compiler which supports both the :term:`ZPT` and
345 :term:`Genshi` templating specifications. It is written and
346 maintained by Malthe Borch. It has several extensions, such as
347 the ability to use bracketed (Genshi-style) ``${name}`` syntax,
348 even within ZPT. It is also much faster than the reference
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349 implementations of both ZPT and Genshi. :app:`Pyramid` offers
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350 Chameleon templating out of the box in ZPT and text flavors.
351
352 ZPT
353 The `Zope Page Template <http://wiki.zope.org/ZPT/FrontPage>`_
354 templating language.
355
356 METAL
357 `Macro Expansion for TAL <http://wiki.zope.org/ZPT/METAL>`_, a
358 part of :term:`ZPT` which makes it possible to share common look
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359 and feel between templates.
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360
361 Genshi
362 An `XML templating language <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/Genshi/>`_
363 by Christopher Lenz.
364
365 Jinja2
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366 A `text templating language <http://jinja.pocoo.org/2/>`_ by Armin
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367 Ronacher.
368
369 Routes
370 A `system by Ben Bangert <http://routes.groovie.org/>`_ which
371 parses URLs and compares them against a number of user defined
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372 mappings. The URL pattern matching syntax in :app:`Pyramid` is
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373 inspired by the Routes syntax (which was inspired by Ruby On
374 Rails pattern syntax).
375
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376 route
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377 A single pattern matched by the :term:`url dispatch` subsystem,
378 which generally resolves to a :term:`root factory` (and then
379 ultimately a :term:`view`). See also :term:`url dispatch`.
380
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381 route configuration
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382 Route configuration is the act of associating request parameters with a
383 particular :term:`route` using pattern matching and :term:`route
384 predicate` statements. See :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` for more
385 information about route configuration.
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386
387 Zope Component Architecture
388 The `Zope Component Architecture
389 <http://www.muthukadan.net/docs/zca.html>`_ (aka ZCA) is a system
390 which allows for application pluggability and complex dispatching
391 based on objects which implement an :term:`interface`.
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392 :app:`Pyramid` uses the ZCA "under the hood" to perform view
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393 dispatching and other application configuration tasks.
394
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395 reStructuredText
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396 A `plain text format <http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html>`_
397 that is the defacto standard for descriptive text shipped in
398 :term:`distribution` files, and Python docstrings. This
399 documentation is authored in ReStructuredText format.
400
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401 root
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402 The object at which :term:`traversal` begins when :app:`Pyramid`
403 searches for a :term:`context` resource (for :term:`URL Dispatch`, the
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404 root is *always* the context resource unless the ``traverse=`` argument
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405 is used in route configuration).
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406
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407 subpath
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408 A list of element "left over" after the :term:`router` has
409 performed a successful traversal to a view. The subpath is a
410 sequence of strings, e.g. ``['left', 'over', 'names']``. Within
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411 Pyramid applications that use URL dispatch rather than traversal, you
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412 can use ``*subpath`` in the route pattern to influence the
413 subpath. See :ref:`star_subpath` for more information.
414
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415 interface
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416 A `Zope interface <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/zope.interface>`_
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417 object. In :app:`Pyramid`, an interface may be attached to a
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418 :term:`resource` object or a :term:`request` object in order to
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419 identify that the object is "of a type". Interfaces are used
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420 internally by :app:`Pyramid` to perform view lookups and other
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421 policy lookups. The ability to make use of an interface is
422 exposed to an application programmers during :term:`view
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423 configuration` via the ``context`` argument, the ``request_type``
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424 argument and the ``containment`` argument. Interfaces are also
425 exposed to application developers when they make use of the
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426 :term:`event` system. Fundamentally, :app:`Pyramid`
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427 programmers can think of an interface as something that they can
428 attach to an object that stamps it with a "type" unrelated to its
429 underlying Python type. Interfaces can also be used to describe
430 the behavior of an object (its methods and attributes), but
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431 unless they choose to, :app:`Pyramid` programmers do not need
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432 to understand or use this feature of interfaces.
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433
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434 event
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435 An object broadcast to zero or more :term:`subscriber` callables
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436 during normal :app:`Pyramid` system operations during the
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437 lifetime of an application. Application code can subscribe to
438 these events by using the subscriber functionality described in
439 :ref:`events_chapter`.
440
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441 subscriber
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442 A callable which receives an :term:`event`. A callable becomes a
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443 subscriber via :term:`imperative configuration` or via
444 :term:`configuration decoration`. See :ref:`events_chapter` for more
445 information.
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446
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447 request type
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448 An attribute of a :term:`request` that allows for specialization
449 of view invocation based on arbitrary categorization. The every
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450 :term:`request` object that :app:`Pyramid` generates and
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451 manipulates has one or more :term:`interface` objects attached to
452 it. The default interface attached to a request object is
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453 ``pyramid.interfaces.IRequest``.
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454
455 repoze.lemonade
456 Zope2 CMF-like `data structures and helper facilities
457 <http://docs.repoze.org/lemonade>`_ for CA-and-ZODB-based
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458 applications useful within :app:`Pyramid` applications.
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459
460 repoze.catalog
461 An indexing and search facility (fielded and full-text) based on
462 `zope.index <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/zope.index>`_. See `the
463 documentation <http://docs.repoze.org/catalog>`_ for more
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464 information.
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465
466 repoze.who
467 `Authentication middleware <http://docs.repoze.org/who>`_ for
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468 :term:`WSGI` applications. It can be used by :app:`Pyramid` to
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469 provide authentication information.
470
471 repoze.workflow
472 `Barebones workflow for Python apps
473 <http://docs.repoze.org/workflow>`_ . It can be used by
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474 :app:`Pyramid` to form a workflow system.
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475
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476 virtual root
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477 A resource object representing the "virtual" root of a request; this
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478 is typically the physical root object (the object returned by the
479 application root factory) unless :ref:`vhosting_chapter` is in
480 use.
481
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482 lineage
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483 An ordered sequence of objects based on a ":term:`location` -aware"
484 resource. The lineage of any given :term:`resource` is composed of
485 itself, its parent, its parent's parent, and so on. The order of the
486 sequence is resource-first, then the parent of the resource, then its
487 parent's parent, and so on. The parent of a resource in a lineage is
488 available as its ``__parent__`` attribute.
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489
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490 root factory
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491 The "root factory" of a :app:`Pyramid` application is called
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492 on every request sent to the application. The root factory
493 returns the traversal root of an application. It is
494 conventionally named ``get_root``. An application may supply a
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495 root factory to :app:`Pyramid` during the construction of a
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496 :term:`Configurator`. If a root factory is not supplied, the
497 application uses a default root object. Use of the default root
498 object is useful in application which use :term:`URL dispatch` for
499 all URL-to-view code mappings.
500
501 SQLAlchemy
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502 `SQLAlchemy <http://www.sqlalchemy.org/>`_ is an object
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503 relational mapper used in tutorials within this documentation.
504
505 JSON
506 `JavaScript Object Notation <http://www.json.org/>`_ is a data
507 serialization format.
508
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509 jQuery
510 A popular `Javascript library <http://jquery.org>`_.
511
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512 renderer
1de5ec9 Spellcheck.
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513 A serializer that can be referred to via :term:`view
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514 configuration` which converts a non-:term:`Response` return
515 values from a :term:`view` into a string (and ultimately a
516 response). Using a renderer can make writing views that require
517 templating or other serialization less tedious. See
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518 :ref:`views_which_use_a_renderer` for more information.
519
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520 renderer factory
521 A factory which creates a :term:`renderer`. See
522 :ref:`adding_and_overriding_renderers` for more information.
523
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524 mod_wsgi
525 `mod_wsgi <http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/>`_ is an Apache
526 module developed by Graham Dumpleton. It allows :term:`WSGI`
527 applications (such as applications developed using
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528 :app:`Pyramid`) to be served using the Apache web server.
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529
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530 view predicate
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531 An argument to a :term:`view configuration` which evaluates to
532 ``True`` or ``False`` for a given :term:`request`. All predicates
533 attached to a view configuration must evaluate to true for the
534 associated view to be considered as a possible callable for a
535 given request.
536
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537 route predicate
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538 An argument to a :term:`route configuration` which implies a value
539 that evaluates to ``True`` or ``False`` for a given
540 :term:`request`. All predicates attached to a :term:`route
541 configuration` must evaluate to ``True`` for the associated route
542 to "match" the current request. If a route does not match the
543 current request, the next route (in definition order) is
544 attempted.
545
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546 routes mapper
547 An object which compares path information from a request to an
548 ordered set of route patterns. See :ref:`urldispatch_chapter`.
549
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550 predicate
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551 A test which returns ``True`` or ``False``. Two different types
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552 of predicates exist in :app:`Pyramid`: a :term:`view predicate`
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553 and a :term:`route predicate`. View predicates are attached to
554 :term:`view configuration` and route predicates are attached to
555 :term:`route configuration`.
556
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557 decorator
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558 A wrapper around a Python function or class which accepts the
559 function or class as its first argument and which returns an
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560 arbitrary object. :app:`Pyramid` provides several decorators,
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561 used for configuration and return value modification purposes. See
562 also `PEP 318 <http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0318/>`_.
563
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564 configuration declaration
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565 An individual method call made to an instance of a :app:`Pyramid`
566 :term:`Configurator` object which performs an arbitrary action, such as
567 registering a :term:`view configuration` (via the ``add_view`` method of
568 the configurator) or :term:`route configuration` (via the ``add_route``
569 method of the configurator). A set of configuration declarations is
570 also implied by the :term:`configuration decoration` detected by a
571 :term:`scan` of code in a package.
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572
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573 configuration decoration
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574 Metadata implying one or more :term:`configuration declaration`
575 invocations. Often set by configuration Python :term:`decorator`
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576 attributes, such as :class:`pyramid.view.view_config`, aka
577 ``@view_config``.
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578
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579 scan
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580 The term used by :app:`Pyramid` to define the process of
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581 importing and examining all code in a Python package or module for
582 :term:`configuration decoration`.
583
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584 configurator
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585 An object used to do :term:`configuration declaration` within an
586 application. The most common configurator is an instance of the
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587 ``pyramid.config.Configurator`` class.
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588
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589 imperative configuration
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590 The configuration mode in which you use Python to call methods on
591 a :term:`Configurator` in order to add each :term:`configuration
592 declaration` required by your application.
593
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594 declarative configuration
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595 The configuration mode in which you use the combination of
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596 :term:`configuration decoration` and a :term:`scan` to configure your
597 Pyramid application.
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598
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599 Not Found view
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600 An :term:`exception view` invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when the
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601 developer explicitly raises a ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPNotFound``
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602 exception from within :term:`view` code or :term:`root factory`
603 code, or when the current request doesn't match any :term:`view
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604 configuration`. :app:`Pyramid` provides a default
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605 implementation of a not found view; it can be overridden. See
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606 :ref:`changing_the_notfound_view`.
607
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608 Forbidden view
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609 An :term:`exception view` invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when the
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610 developer explicitly raises a
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611 ``pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPForbidden`` exception from within
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612 :term:`view` code or :term:`root factory` code, or when the
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613 :term:`view configuration` and :term:`authorization policy`
614 found for a request disallows a particular view invocation.
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615 :app:`Pyramid` provides a default implementation of a
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616 forbidden view; it can be overridden. See
617 :ref:`changing_the_forbidden_view`.
618
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619 Exception view
620 An exception view is a :term:`view callable` which may be
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621 invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when an exception is raised during
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622 request processing. See :ref:`exception_views` for more
623 information.
624
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625 HTTP Exception
626 The set of exception classes defined in :mod:`pyramid.httpexceptions`.
627 These can be used to generate responses with various status codes when
628 raised or returned from a :term:`view callable`. See also
629 :ref:`http_exceptions`.
630
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631 thread local
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632 A thread-local variable is one which is essentially a global variable
633 in terms of how it is accessed and treated, however, each `thread
634 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thread_(computer_science)>`_ used by the
635 application may have a different value for this same "global" variable.
636 :app:`Pyramid` uses a small number of thread local variables, as
637 described in :ref:`threadlocals_chapter`. See also the `threading.local
638 documentation
639 <http://docs.python.org/library/threading.html#threading.local>`_ for
640 more information.
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641
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642 multidict
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643 An ordered dictionary that can have multiple values for each key. Adds
644 the methods ``getall``, ``getone``, ``mixed``, ``add`` and
645 ``dict_of_lists`` to the normal dictionary interface. See
646 :ref:`multidict_narr` and :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IMultiDict`.
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647
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648 PyPI
649 `The Python Package Index <http://pypi.python.org/pypi>`_, a
650 collection of software available for Python.
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651
652 Agendaless Consulting
653 A consulting organization formed by Paul Everitt, Tres Seaver,
654 and Chris McDonough. See also http://agendaless.com .
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655
656 Jython
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657 A `Python implementation <http://www.jython.org/>`_ written for
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658 the Java Virtual Machine.
659
660 Python
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661 The `programming language <http://python.org>`_ in which
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662 :app:`Pyramid` is written.
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663
664 CPython
665 The C implementation of the Python language. This is the
666 reference implementation that most people refer to as simply
667 "Python"; :term:`Jython`, Google's App Engine, and `PyPy
668 <http://codespeak.net/pypy/dist/pypy/doc/>`_ are examples of
669 non-C based Python implementations.
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670
671 View Lookup
672 The act of finding and invoking the "best" :term:`view callable`
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mcdonc authored Dec 19, 2010
673 given a :term:`request` and a :term:`context` resource.
674
675 Resource Location
676 The act of locating a :term:`context` resource given a :term:`request`.
677 :term:`Traversal` and :term:`URL dispatch` are the resource location
678 subsystems used by :app:`Pyramid`.
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679
abf62d2 Correct references to Chameleon not running on GAE.
Chris McDonough authored Feb 3, 2010
680 Google App Engine
681 `Google App Engine <http://code.google.com/appengine/>`_ (aka
682 "GAE") is a Python application hosting service offered by Google.
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683 :app:`Pyramid` runs on GAE.
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Chris McDonough authored Feb 3, 2010
684
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685 Venusian
686 `Venusian <http://docs.repoze.org/venusian>`_ is a library which
687 allows framework authors to defer decorator actions. Instead of
688 taking actions when a function (or class) decorator is executed
689 at import time, the action usually taken by the decorator is
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690 deferred until a separate "scan" phase. :app:`Pyramid` relies
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691 on Venusian to provide a basis for its :term:`scan` feature.
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Chris McDonough authored Apr 25, 2010
692
693 Translation String
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694 An instance of :class:`pyramid.i18n.TranslationString`, which
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Chris McDonough authored Apr 25, 2010
695 is a class that behaves like a Unicode string, but has several
696 extra attributes such as ``domain``, ``msgid``, and ``mapping``
697 for use during translation. Translation strings are usually
698 created by hand within software, but are sometimes created on the
699 behalf of the system for automatic template translation. For
700 more information, see :ref:`i18n_chapter`.
701
702 Translation Domain
703 A string representing the "context" in which a translation was
704 made. For example the word "java" might be translated
705 differently if the translation domain is "programming-languages"
706 than would be if the translation domain was "coffee". A
707 translation domain is represnted by a collection of ``.mo`` files
708 within one or more :term:`translation directory` directories.
709
710 Translator
711 A callable which receives a :term:`translation string` and
712 returns a translated Unicode object for the purposes of
713 internationalization. A :term:`localizer` supplies a
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714 translator to a :app:`Pyramid` application accessible via its
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715 ``translate`` method.
716
717 Translation Directory
718 A translation directory is a :term:`gettext` translation
719 directory. It contains language folders, which themselves
720 contain ``LC_MESSAGES`` folders, which contain ``.mo`` files.
721 Each ``.mo`` file represents a set of translations for a language
722 in a :term:`translation domain`. The name of the ``.mo`` file
723 (minus the .mo extension) is the translation domain name.
724
725 Localizer
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726 An instance of the class :class:`pyramid.i18n.Localizer` which
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727 provides translation and pluralization services to an
728 application. It is retrieved via the
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729 :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_localizer` function.
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730
731 Locale Name
732 A string like ``en``, ``en_US``, ``de``, or ``de_AT`` which
733 uniquely identifies a particular locale.
734
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Chris McDonough authored Apr 27, 2010
735 Default Locale Name
736 The :term:`locale name` used by an application when no explicit
737 locale name is set. See :ref:`localization_deployment_settings`.
738
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739 Locale Negotiator
740 An object supplying a policy determining which :term:`locale
741 name` best represents a given :term:`request`. It is used by the
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mcdonc authored Oct 29, 2010
742 :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_locale_name`, and
743 :func:`pyramid.i18n.negotiate_locale_name` functions, and
744 indirectly by :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_localizer`. The
745 :func:`pyramid.i18n.default_locale_negotiator` function
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746 is an example of a locale negotiator.
747
748 Gettext
749 The GNU `gettext <http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/>`_
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750 library, used by the :app:`Pyramid` translation machinery.
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751
752 Babel
753 A `collection of tools <http://babel.edgewall.org/>`_ for
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mcdonc authored Nov 9, 2010
754 internationalizing Python applications. :app:`Pyramid` does
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755 not depend on Babel to operate, but if Babel is installed,
756 additional locale functionality becomes available to your
757 application.
758
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mcdonc authored May 14, 2011
759 Lingua
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wichert authored May 14, 2011
760 A package by Wichert Akkerman which provides :term:`Babel` message
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761 extractors for Python source files and Chameleon ZPT template files.
762
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763 Message Identifier
764 A string used as a translation lookup key during localization.
765 The ``msgid`` argument to a :term:`translation string` is a
766 message identifier. Message identifiers are also present in a
767 :term:`message catalog`.
768
769 Message Catalog
770 A :term:`gettext` ``.mo`` file containing translations.
771
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Chris McDonough authored Apr 25, 2010
772 Internationalization
773 The act of creating software with a user interface that can
774 potentially be displayed in more than one language or cultural
775 context. Often shortened to "i18n" (because the word
776 "internationalization" is I, 18 letters, then N). See also:
777 :term:`Localization`.
778
779 Localization
780 The process of displaying the user interface of an
781 internationalized application in a particular language or
782 cultural context. Often shortened to "l10" (because the word
783 "localization" is L, 10 letters, then N). See also:
784 :term:`Internationalization`.
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Chris McDonough authored Jul 26, 2010
785
786 renderer globals
787 Values injected as names into a renderer based on application
788 policy. See :ref:`adding_renderer_globals` for more
789 information.
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790
791 response callback
792 A user-defined callback executed by the :term:`router` at a
793 point after a :term:`response` object is successfully created.
794 See :ref:`using_response_callbacks`.
795
796 finished callback
797 A user-defined callback executed by the :term:`router`
798 unconditionally at the very end of request processing . See
799 :ref:`using_finished_callbacks`.
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800
801 pregenerator
802 A pregenerator is a function associated by a developer with a
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mcdonc authored Oct 29, 2010
803 :term:`route`. It is called by :func:`pyramid.url.route_url`
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Chris McDonough authored Sep 14, 2010
804 in order to adjust the set of arguments passed to it by the user
805 for special purposes. It will influence the URL returned by
806 ``route_url``. See
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807 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IRoutePregenerator` for more
70f1cda - The ``add_route`` method of a Configurator now accepts a
Chris McDonough authored Sep 14, 2010
808 information.
04ebd57 @mcdonc sessioning docs
mcdonc authored Oct 28, 2010
809
810 session
811 A namespace that is valid for some period of continual activity
812 that can be used to represent a user's interaction with a web
813 application.
814
815 session factory
816 A callable, which, when called with a single argument named
817 ``request`` (a :term:`request` object), returns a
818 :term:`session` object.
819
7698bd8 @bbangert First set of Mako docs for narrative.
bbangert authored Oct 29, 2010
820 Mako
821 `Mako <http://www.makotemplates.org/>`_ is a template language language
822 which refines the familiar ideas of componentized layout and inheritance
823 using Python with Python scoping and calling semantics.
2f980d5 @mcdonc tweak handlers chapter
mcdonc authored Nov 2, 2010
824
825 View handler
826 A view handler ties together
d7f2590 @mcdonc fix docs: pyramid.configuration -> pyramid.config
mcdonc authored Dec 9, 2010
827 :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route` and
2323d48 @mcdonc add caveat for PyPy and Jython users
mcdonc authored Jan 21, 2011
828 :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view` to make it more convenient
829 to register a collection of views as a single class when using
830 :term:`url dispatch`. View handlers ship as part of the
831 :term:`pyramid_handlers` add-on package.
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mcdonc authored Nov 11, 2010
832
833 Deployment settings
834 Deployment settings are settings passed to the :term:`Configurator` as a
835 ``settings`` argument. These are later accessible via a
836 ``request.registry.settings`` dictionary. Deployment settings can be
837 used as global application values.
838
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839 WebTest
840 `WebTest <http://pythonpaste.org/webtest/>`_ is a package which can help
841 you write functional tests for your WSGI application.
842
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mcdonc authored Dec 23, 2010
843 WebError
844 WSGI middleware which can display debuggable traceback information in
845 the browser when an exception is raised by a Pyramid application. See
846 http://pypi.python.org/pypi/WebError .
847
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mcdonc authored Jan 2, 2011
848 view mapper
849 A view mapper is a class which implements the
850 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IViewMapperFactory` interface, which performs
851 view argument and return value mapping. This is a plug point for
852 extension builders, not normally used by "civilians".
6ee49a1 @mcdonc add functional testing example
mcdonc authored Dec 19, 2010
853
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854 matchdict
855 The dictionary attached to the :term:`request` object as
856 ``request.matchdict`` when a :term:`URL dispatch` route has been matched.
857 Its keys are names as identified within the route pattern; its values are
858 the values matched by each pattern name.
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mcdonc authored Jan 18, 2011
859
860 pyramid_zcml
861 An add-on package to :app:`Pyramid` which allows applications to be
862 configured via ZCML. It is available on :term:`PyPI`. If you use
863 ``pyramid_zcml``, you can use ZCML as an alternative to
864 :term:`imperative configuration`.
865
866 ZCML
867 `Zope Configuration Markup Language
868 <http://www.muthukadan.net/docs/zca.html#zcml>`_, an XML dialect
2e3f70d @Cito Some more small fixes in the narrative docu.
Cito authored Jun 3, 2011
869 used by Zope and :term:`pyramid_zcml` for configuration tasks.
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mcdonc authored Jan 18, 2011
870
871 ZCML directive
872 A ZCML "tag" such as ``<view>`` or ``<route>``.
873
874 ZCML declaration
875 The concrete use of a :term:`ZCML directive` within a ZCML file.
876
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mcdonc authored Jan 19, 2011
877 pyramid_handlers
878 An add-on package which allows :app:`Pyramid` users to create classes
879 that are analogues of Pylons 1 "controllers". See
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880 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/pyramid_handlers/dev/ .
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mcdonc authored Jan 19, 2011
881
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mcdonc authored Jan 21, 2011
882 pyramid_jinja2
883 :term:`Jinja2` templating system bindings for Pyramid, documented at
884 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/pyramid_jinja2/dev/ . This
7584643 @jayd3e It was decided that pyramid would undergo a terminology change.
jayd3e authored Mar 24, 2011
885 package also includes a scaffold named
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mcdonc authored Jan 21, 2011
886 ``pyramid_jinja2_starter``, which creates an application package based
887 on the Jinja2 templating system.
888
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mcdonc authored Apr 11, 2011
889 Akhet
890 Akhet is a Pyramid-based development environment which provides a
891 Pylons-esque scaffold which sports support for :term:`view handler`
892 application development, :term:`SQLAlchemy` support, :term:`Mako`
893 templating by default, and other Pylons-like features. See
894 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/akhet/dev/index.html for more
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mcdonc authored Jan 21, 2011
895 information.
896
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mcdonc authored Jan 21, 2011
897 Pyramid Cookbook
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898 An additional documentation resource for Pyramid which presents topical,
899 practical usages of Pyramid available via
900 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/ .
4cf41f4 @mcdonc point at Pyramid Cookbook explicitly
mcdonc authored Jan 21, 2011
901
ff3ba5c @mcdonc add distutils entry
mcdonc authored Jan 21, 2011
902 distutils
903 The standard system for packaging and distributing Python packages. See
904 http://docs.python.org/distutils/index.html for more information.
905 :term:`setuptools` is actually an *extension* of the Distutils.
906
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mcdonc authored Jun 4, 2011
907 exception response
908 A :term:`response` that is generated as the result of a raised exception
909 being caught by an :term:`exception view`.
2323d48 @mcdonc add caveat for PyPy and Jython users
mcdonc authored Jan 21, 2011
910
f98925f @mcdonc add PyPy
mcdonc authored Jul 11, 2011
911 PyPy
912 PyPy is an "alternative implementation of the Python
913 language":http://pypy.org/
914
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