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c4d7f0b @pauleveritt Start working on a glossary. Also, start changing repoze.bfg occurre…
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1 .. _glossary:
2
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3 Glossary
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4 ========
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5
6 .. glossary::
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7 :sorted:
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8
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9 request
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10 An object that represents an HTTP request, usually an instance of the
11 :class:`pyramid.request.Request` class. See :ref:`webob_chapter`
12 (narrative) and :ref:`request_module` (API documentation) for
13 information about request objects.
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14
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15 request factory
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16 An object which, provided a :term:`WSGI` environment as a single
17 positional argument, returns a Pyramid-compatible request.
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18
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19 response
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20 An object returned by a :term:`view callable` that represents response
21 data returned to the requesting user agent. It must implements the
22 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IResponse` interface. A response object is
23 typically an instance of the :class:`pyramid.response.Response` class or
24 a subclass such as :class:`pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPFound`. See
25 :ref:`webob_chapter` for information about response objects.
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26
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27 response adapter
28 A callable which accepts an arbitrary object and "converts" it to a
29 :class:`pyramid.response.Response` object. See :ref:`using_iresponse`
30 for more information.
31
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32 Repoze
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33 "Repoze" is essentially a "brand" of software developed by `Agendaless
34 Consulting <http://agendaless.com>`_ and a set of contributors. The
35 term has no special intrinsic meaning. The project's `website
36 <http://repoze.org>`_ has more information. The software developed
37 "under the brand" is available in a `Subversion repository
38 <http://svn.repoze.org>`_. Pyramid was originally known as
39 :mod:`repoze.bfg`.
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40
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41 setuptools
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42 `Setuptools <http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/setuptools>`_
43 builds on Python's ``distutils`` to provide easier building,
44 distribution, and installation of libraries and applications.
45
46 pkg_resources
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47 A module which ships with :term:`setuptools` that provides an API for
48 addressing "asset files" within a Python :term:`package`. Asset files
49 are static files, template files, etc; basically anything
50 non-Python-source that lives in a Python package can be considered a
51 asset file. See also `PkgResources
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52 <http://peak.telecommunity.com/DevCenter/PkgResources>`_
53
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54 asset
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55 Any file contained within a Python :term:`package` which is *not*
56 a Python source code file.
57
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58 asset specification
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59 A colon-delimited identifier for an :term:`asset`. The colon
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60 separates a Python :term:`package` name from a package subpath.
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61 For example, the asset specification
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62 ``my.package:static/baz.css`` identifies the file named
63 ``baz.css`` in the ``static`` subdirectory of the ``my.package``
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64 Python :term:`package`. See :ref:`asset_specifications` for more
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65 info.
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66
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67 package
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68 A directory on disk which contains an ``__init__.py`` file, making
69 it recognizable to Python as a location which can be ``import`` -ed.
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70 A package exists to contain :term:`module` files.
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71
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72 module
73 A Python source file; a file on the filesystem that typically ends with
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74 the extension ``.py`` or ``.pyc``. Modules often live in a
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75 :term:`package`.
76
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77 project
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78 (Setuptools/distutils terminology). A directory on disk which
79 contains a ``setup.py`` file and one or more Python packages. The
80 ``setup.py`` file contains code that allows the package(s) to be
81 installed, distributed, and tested.
82
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83 distribution
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84 (Setuptools/distutils terminology). A file representing an
85 installable library or application. Distributions are usually
86 files that have the suffix of ``.egg``, ``.tar.gz``, or ``.zip``.
87 Distributions are the target of Setuptools commands such as
88 ``easy_install``.
89
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90 entry point
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91 A :term:`setuptools` indirection, defined within a setuptools
92 :term:`distribution` setup.py. It is usually a name which refers
93 to a function somewhere in a package which is held by the
94 distribution.
95
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96 dotted Python name
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97 A reference to a Python object by name using a string, in the form
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98 ``path.to.modulename:attributename``. Often used in Pyramid and
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99 setuptools configurations. A variant is used in dotted names within
100 configurator method arguments that name objects (such as the "add_view"
101 method's "view" and "context" attributes): the colon (``:``) is not
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102 used; in its place is a dot.
103
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104 view
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105 Common vernacular for a :term:`view callable`.
106
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107 view callable
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108 A "view callable" is a callable Python object which is associated
109 with a :term:`view configuration`; it returns a :term:`response`
110 object . A view callable accepts a single argument: ``request``,
111 which will be an instance of a :term:`request` object. An
112 alternate calling convention allows a view to be defined as a
113 callable which accepts a pair of arguments: ``context`` and
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114 ``request``: this calling convention is useful for
115 traversal-based applications in which a :term:`context` is always
116 very important. A view callable is the primary mechanism by
117 which a developer writes user interface code within
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118 :app:`Pyramid`. See :ref:`views_chapter` for more information
119 about :app:`Pyramid` view callables.
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120
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121 view configuration
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122 View configuration is the act of associating a :term:`view callable`
123 with configuration information. This configuration information helps
124 map a given :term:`request` to a particular view callable and it can
125 influence the response of a view callable. :app:`Pyramid` views can be
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126 configured via :term:`imperative configuration`, or by a special
127 ``@view_config`` decorator coupled with a :term:`scan`. See
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128 :ref:`view_config_chapter` for more information about view
129 configuration.
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130
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131 view name
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132 The "URL name" of a view, e.g ``index.html``. If a view is
133 configured without a name, its name is considered to be the empty
134 string (which implies the :term:`default view`).
135
136 Default view
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137 The default view of a :term:`resource` is the view invoked when the
138 :term:`view name` is the empty string (``''``). This is the case when
139 :term:`traversal` exhausts the path elements in the PATH_INFO of a
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140 request before it returns a :term:`context` resource.
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141
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142 virtualenv
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143 An isolated Python environment. Allows you to control which
144 packages are used on a particular project by cloning your main
145 Python. `virtualenv <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/virtualenv>`_
146 was created by Ian Bicking.
147
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148 resource
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149 An object representing a node in the :term:`resource tree` of an
150 application. If :mod:`traversal` is used, a resource is an element in
151 the resource tree traversed by the system. When traversal is used, a
152 resource becomes the :term:`context` of a :term:`view`. If :mod:`url
153 dispatch` is used, a single resource is generated for each request and
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154 is used as the context resource of a view.
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155
156 resource tree
157 A nested set of dictionary-like objects, each of which is a
158 :term:`resource`. The act of :term:`traversal` uses the resource tree
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159 to find a :term:`context` resource.
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160
161 domain model
162 Persistent data related to your application. For example, data stored
163 in a relational database. In some applications, the :term:`resource
164 tree` acts as the domain model.
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165
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166 traversal
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167 The act of descending "up" a tree of resource objects from a root
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168 resource in order to find a :term:`context` resource. The
169 :app:`Pyramid` :term:`router` performs traversal of resource objects
170 when a :term:`root factory` is specified. See the
171 :ref:`traversal_chapter` chapter for more information. Traversal can be
172 performed *instead* of :term:`URL dispatch` or can be combined *with*
173 URL dispatch. See :ref:`hybrid_chapter` for more information about
174 combining traversal and URL dispatch (advanced).
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175
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176 router
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177 The :term:`WSGI` application created when you start a
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178 :app:`Pyramid` application. The router intercepts requests,
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179 invokes traversal and/or URL dispatch, calls view functions, and
180 returns responses to the WSGI server on behalf of your
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181 :app:`Pyramid` application.
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182
183 URL dispatch
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184 An alternative to :term:`traversal` as a mechanism for locating a
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185 :term:`context` resource for a :term:`view`. When you use a
186 :term:`route` in your :app:`Pyramid` application via a :term:`route
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187 configuration`, you are using URL dispatch. See the
188 :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` for more information.
189
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190 context
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191 A resource in the resource tree that is found during :term:`traversal`
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192 or :term:`URL dispatch` based on URL data; if it's found via traversal,
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193 it's usually a :term:`resource` object that is part of a resource tree;
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194 if it's found via :term:`URL dispatch`, it's an object manufactured on
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195 behalf of the route's "factory". A context resource becomes the subject
196 of a :term:`view`, and often has security information attached to
197 it. See the :ref:`traversal_chapter` chapter and the
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198 :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` chapter for more information about how a URL
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199 is resolved to a context resource.
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200
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201 application registry
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202 A registry of configuration information consulted by
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203 :app:`Pyramid` while servicing an application. An application
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204 registry maps resource types to views, as well as housing other
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205 application-specific component registrations. Every
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206 :app:`Pyramid` application has one (and only one) application
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207 registry.
208
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209 template
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210 A file with replaceable parts that is capable of representing some
211 text, XML, or HTML when rendered.
212
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213 location
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214 The path to an object in a :term:`resource tree`. See
215 :ref:`location_aware` for more information about how to make a resource
216 object *location-aware*.
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217
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218 permission
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219 A string or unicode object that represents an action being taken against
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220 a :term:`context` resource. A permission is associated with a view name
221 and a resource type by the developer. Resources are decorated with
222 security declarations (e.g. an :term:`ACL`), which reference these
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223 tokens also. Permissions are used by the active security policy to
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224 match the view permission against the resources's statements about which
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225 permissions are granted to which principal in a context in order to
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226 answer the question "is this user allowed to do this". Examples of
227 permissions: ``read``, or ``view_blog_entries``.
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228
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229 default permission
230 A :term:`permission` which is registered as the default for an
231 entire application. When a default permission is in effect,
232 every :term:`view configuration` registered with the system will
233 be effectively amended with a ``permission`` argument that will
234 require that the executing user possess the default permission in
235 order to successfully execute the associated :term:`view
236 callable` See also :ref:`setting_a_default_permission`.
237
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238 ACE
239 An *access control entry*. An access control entry is one element
240 in an :term:`ACL`. An access control entry is a three-tuple that
241 describes three things: an *action* (one of either ``Allow`` or
242 ``Deny``), a :term:`principal` (a string describing a user or
243 group), and a :term:`permission`. For example the ACE, ``(Allow,
244 'bob', 'read')`` is a member of an ACL that indicates that the
245 principal ``bob`` is allowed the permission ``read`` against the
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246 resource the ACL is attached to.
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247
248 ACL
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249 An *access control list*. An ACL is a sequence of :term:`ACE` tuples.
250 An ACL is attached to a resource instance. An example of an ACL is ``[
251 (Allow, 'bob', 'read'), (Deny, 'fred', 'write')]``. If an ACL is
252 attached to a resource instance, and that resource is findable via the
253 context resource, it will be consulted any active security policy to
254 determine wither a particular request can be fulfilled given the
255 :term:`authentication` information in the request.
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256
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257 authentication
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258 The act of determining that the credentials a user presents
259 during a particular request are "good". Authentication in
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260 :app:`Pyramid` is performed via an :term:`authentication
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261 policy`.
262
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263 authorization
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264 The act of determining whether a user can perform a specific action. In
265 pyramid terms, this means determining whether, for a given resource, any
266 :term:`principal` (or principals) associated with the request have the
267 requisite :term:`permission` to allow the request to continue.
268 Authorization in :app:`Pyramid` is performed via its
269 :term:`authorization policy`.
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270
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271 principal
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272 A *principal* is a string or unicode object representing a userid
273 or a group id. It is provided by an :term:`authentication
274 policy`. For example, if a user had the user id "bob", and Bob
275 was part of two groups named "group foo" and "group bar", the
276 request might have information attached to it that would
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277 indicate that Bob was represented by three principals: "bob",
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278 "group foo" and "group bar".
279
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280 authorization policy
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281 An authorization policy in :app:`Pyramid` terms is a bit of
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282 code which has an API which determines whether or not the
283 principals associated with the request can perform an action
284 associated with a permission, based on the information found on the
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285 :term:`context` resource.
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286
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287 authentication policy
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288 An authentication policy in :app:`Pyramid` terms is a bit of
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289 code which has an API which determines the current
290 :term:`principal` (or principals) associated with a request.
291
292 WSGI
293 `Web Server Gateway Interface <http://wsgi.org/>`_. This is a
294 Python standard for connecting web applications to web servers,
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295 similar to the concept of Java Servlets. :app:`Pyramid` requires
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296 that your application be served as a WSGI application.
297
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298 middleware
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299 *Middleware* is a :term:`WSGI` concept. It is a WSGI component
300 that acts both as a server and an application. Interesting uses
301 for middleware exist, such as caching, content-transport
302 encoding, and other functions. See `WSGI.org <http://wsgi.org>`_
303 or `PyPI <http://python.org/pypi>`_ to find middleware for your
304 application.
305
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306 pipeline
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307 The :term:`PasteDeploy` term for a single configuration of a WSGI
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308 server, a WSGI application, with a set of middleware in-between.
309
310 Zope
311 `The Z Object Publishing Framework <http://zope.org>`_, a
312 full-featured Python web framework.
313
314 Grok
315 `A web framework based on Zope 3 <http://grok.zope.org>`_.
316
317 Django
318 `A full-featured Python web framework <http://djangoproject.com>`_.
319
320 Pylons
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321 `A lightweight Python web framework <http://pylonshq.com>`_ and a
322 predecessor of Pyramid.
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323
324 ZODB
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325 `Zope Object Database <http://zodb.org>`_, a
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326 persistent Python object store.
327
328 ZEO
329 `Zope Enterprise Objects
330 <http://www.zope.org/Documentation/Books/ZopeBook/2_6Edition/ZEO.stx>`_
331 allows multiple simultaneous processes to access a single
332 :term:`ZODB` database.
333
334 WebOb
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335 `WebOb <http://webob.org>`_ is a WSGI request/response
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336 library created by Ian Bicking.
337
338 PasteDeploy
339 `PasteDeploy <http://pythonpaste.org>`_ is a library used by
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340 :app:`Pyramid` which makes it possible to configure
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341 :term:`WSGI` components together declaratively within an ``.ini``
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342 file. It was developed by Ian Bicking.
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343
344 Chameleon
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345 `chameleon <http://chameleon.repoze.org>`_ is an attribute language
346 template compiler which supports the :term:`ZPT` templating
347 specification. It is written and maintained by Malthe Borch. It has
348 several extensions, such as the ability to use bracketed (Mako-style)
349 ``${name}`` syntax. It is also much faster than the reference
350 implementation of ZPT. :app:`Pyramid` offers Chameleon templating out
351 of the box in ZPT and text flavors.
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352
353 ZPT
354 The `Zope Page Template <http://wiki.zope.org/ZPT/FrontPage>`_
355 templating language.
356
357 METAL
358 `Macro Expansion for TAL <http://wiki.zope.org/ZPT/METAL>`_, a
359 part of :term:`ZPT` which makes it possible to share common look
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360 and feel between templates.
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361
362 Genshi
363 An `XML templating language <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/Genshi/>`_
364 by Christopher Lenz.
365
366 Jinja2
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367 A `text templating language <http://jinja.pocoo.org/2/>`_ by Armin
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368 Ronacher.
369
370 Routes
371 A `system by Ben Bangert <http://routes.groovie.org/>`_ which
372 parses URLs and compares them against a number of user defined
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373 mappings. The URL pattern matching syntax in :app:`Pyramid` is
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374 inspired by the Routes syntax (which was inspired by Ruby On
375 Rails pattern syntax).
376
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377 route
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378 A single pattern matched by the :term:`url dispatch` subsystem,
379 which generally resolves to a :term:`root factory` (and then
380 ultimately a :term:`view`). See also :term:`url dispatch`.
381
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382 route configuration
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383 Route configuration is the act of associating request parameters with a
384 particular :term:`route` using pattern matching and :term:`route
385 predicate` statements. See :ref:`urldispatch_chapter` for more
386 information about route configuration.
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387
388 Zope Component Architecture
389 The `Zope Component Architecture
390 <http://www.muthukadan.net/docs/zca.html>`_ (aka ZCA) is a system
391 which allows for application pluggability and complex dispatching
392 based on objects which implement an :term:`interface`.
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393 :app:`Pyramid` uses the ZCA "under the hood" to perform view
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394 dispatching and other application configuration tasks.
395
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396 reStructuredText
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397 A `plain text format <http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html>`_
398 that is the defacto standard for descriptive text shipped in
399 :term:`distribution` files, and Python docstrings. This
400 documentation is authored in ReStructuredText format.
401
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402 root
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403 The object at which :term:`traversal` begins when :app:`Pyramid`
404 searches for a :term:`context` resource (for :term:`URL Dispatch`, the
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405 root is *always* the context resource unless the ``traverse=`` argument
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406 is used in route configuration).
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407
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408 subpath
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409 A list of element "left over" after the :term:`router` has
410 performed a successful traversal to a view. The subpath is a
411 sequence of strings, e.g. ``['left', 'over', 'names']``. Within
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412 Pyramid applications that use URL dispatch rather than traversal, you
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413 can use ``*subpath`` in the route pattern to influence the
414 subpath. See :ref:`star_subpath` for more information.
415
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416 interface
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417 A `Zope interface <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/zope.interface>`_
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418 object. In :app:`Pyramid`, an interface may be attached to a
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419 :term:`resource` object or a :term:`request` object in order to
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420 identify that the object is "of a type". Interfaces are used
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421 internally by :app:`Pyramid` to perform view lookups and other
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422 policy lookups. The ability to make use of an interface is
423 exposed to an application programmers during :term:`view
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424 configuration` via the ``context`` argument, the ``request_type``
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425 argument and the ``containment`` argument. Interfaces are also
426 exposed to application developers when they make use of the
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427 :term:`event` system. Fundamentally, :app:`Pyramid`
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428 programmers can think of an interface as something that they can
429 attach to an object that stamps it with a "type" unrelated to its
430 underlying Python type. Interfaces can also be used to describe
431 the behavior of an object (its methods and attributes), but
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432 unless they choose to, :app:`Pyramid` programmers do not need
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433 to understand or use this feature of interfaces.
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434
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435 event
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436 An object broadcast to zero or more :term:`subscriber` callables
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437 during normal :app:`Pyramid` system operations during the
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438 lifetime of an application. Application code can subscribe to
439 these events by using the subscriber functionality described in
440 :ref:`events_chapter`.
441
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442 subscriber
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443 A callable which receives an :term:`event`. A callable becomes a
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444 subscriber via :term:`imperative configuration` or via
445 :term:`configuration decoration`. See :ref:`events_chapter` for more
446 information.
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447
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448 request type
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449 An attribute of a :term:`request` that allows for specialization
450 of view invocation based on arbitrary categorization. The every
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451 :term:`request` object that :app:`Pyramid` generates and
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452 manipulates has one or more :term:`interface` objects attached to
453 it. The default interface attached to a request object is
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454 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IRequest`.
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455
456 repoze.lemonade
457 Zope2 CMF-like `data structures and helper facilities
458 <http://docs.repoze.org/lemonade>`_ for CA-and-ZODB-based
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459 applications useful within :app:`Pyramid` applications.
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460
461 repoze.catalog
462 An indexing and search facility (fielded and full-text) based on
463 `zope.index <http://pypi.python.org/pypi/zope.index>`_. See `the
464 documentation <http://docs.repoze.org/catalog>`_ for more
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465 information.
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466
467 repoze.who
468 `Authentication middleware <http://docs.repoze.org/who>`_ for
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469 :term:`WSGI` applications. It can be used by :app:`Pyramid` to
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470 provide authentication information.
471
472 repoze.workflow
473 `Barebones workflow for Python apps
474 <http://docs.repoze.org/workflow>`_ . It can be used by
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475 :app:`Pyramid` to form a workflow system.
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476
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477 virtual root
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478 A resource object representing the "virtual" root of a request; this
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479 is typically the physical root object (the object returned by the
480 application root factory) unless :ref:`vhosting_chapter` is in
481 use.
482
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483 lineage
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484 An ordered sequence of objects based on a ":term:`location` -aware"
485 resource. The lineage of any given :term:`resource` is composed of
486 itself, its parent, its parent's parent, and so on. The order of the
487 sequence is resource-first, then the parent of the resource, then its
488 parent's parent, and so on. The parent of a resource in a lineage is
489 available as its ``__parent__`` attribute.
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490
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491 root factory
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492 The "root factory" of a :app:`Pyramid` application is called
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493 on every request sent to the application. The root factory
494 returns the traversal root of an application. It is
495 conventionally named ``get_root``. An application may supply a
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496 root factory to :app:`Pyramid` during the construction of a
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497 :term:`Configurator`. If a root factory is not supplied, the
498 application uses a default root object. Use of the default root
499 object is useful in application which use :term:`URL dispatch` for
500 all URL-to-view code mappings.
501
502 SQLAlchemy
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503 `SQLAlchemy <http://www.sqlalchemy.org/>`_ is an object
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504 relational mapper used in tutorials within this documentation.
505
506 JSON
507 `JavaScript Object Notation <http://www.json.org/>`_ is a data
508 serialization format.
509
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510 jQuery
511 A popular `Javascript library <http://jquery.org>`_.
512
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513 renderer
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514 A serializer that can be referred to via :term:`view
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515 configuration` which converts a non-:term:`Response` return
516 values from a :term:`view` into a string (and ultimately a
517 response). Using a renderer can make writing views that require
518 templating or other serialization less tedious. See
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519 :ref:`views_which_use_a_renderer` for more information.
520
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521 renderer factory
522 A factory which creates a :term:`renderer`. See
523 :ref:`adding_and_overriding_renderers` for more information.
524
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525 mod_wsgi
526 `mod_wsgi <http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/>`_ is an Apache
527 module developed by Graham Dumpleton. It allows :term:`WSGI`
528 applications (such as applications developed using
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529 :app:`Pyramid`) to be served using the Apache web server.
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530
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531 view predicate
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532 An argument to a :term:`view configuration` which evaluates to
533 ``True`` or ``False`` for a given :term:`request`. All predicates
534 attached to a view configuration must evaluate to true for the
535 associated view to be considered as a possible callable for a
536 given request.
537
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538 route predicate
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539 An argument to a :term:`route configuration` which implies a value
540 that evaluates to ``True`` or ``False`` for a given
541 :term:`request`. All predicates attached to a :term:`route
542 configuration` must evaluate to ``True`` for the associated route
543 to "match" the current request. If a route does not match the
544 current request, the next route (in definition order) is
545 attempted.
546
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547 routes mapper
548 An object which compares path information from a request to an
549 ordered set of route patterns. See :ref:`urldispatch_chapter`.
550
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551 predicate
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552 A test which returns ``True`` or ``False``. Two different types
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553 of predicates exist in :app:`Pyramid`: a :term:`view predicate`
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554 and a :term:`route predicate`. View predicates are attached to
555 :term:`view configuration` and route predicates are attached to
556 :term:`route configuration`.
557
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558 decorator
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559 A wrapper around a Python function or class which accepts the
560 function or class as its first argument and which returns an
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561 arbitrary object. :app:`Pyramid` provides several decorators,
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562 used for configuration and return value modification purposes. See
563 also `PEP 318 <http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0318/>`_.
564
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565 configuration declaration
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566 An individual method call made to a :term:`configuration directive`,
567 such as registering a :term:`view configuration` (via the
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568 :meth:`~pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view` method of the
569 configurator) or :term:`route configuration` (via the
570 :meth:`~pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route` method of the
571 configurator). A set of configuration declarations is also implied by
572 the :term:`configuration decoration` detected by a :term:`scan` of code
573 in a package.
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574
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575 configuration decoration
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576 Metadata implying one or more :term:`configuration declaration`
577 invocations. Often set by configuration Python :term:`decorator`
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578 attributes, such as :class:`pyramid.view.view_config`, aka
579 ``@view_config``.
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580
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581 scan
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582 The term used by :app:`Pyramid` to define the process of
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583 importing and examining all code in a Python package or module for
584 :term:`configuration decoration`.
585
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586 configurator
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587 An object used to do :term:`configuration declaration` within an
588 application. The most common configurator is an instance of the
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589 :class:`pyramid.config.Configurator` class.
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590
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591 imperative configuration
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592 The configuration mode in which you use Python to call methods on
593 a :term:`Configurator` in order to add each :term:`configuration
594 declaration` required by your application.
595
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596 declarative configuration
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597 The configuration mode in which you use the combination of
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598 :term:`configuration decoration` and a :term:`scan` to configure your
599 Pyramid application.
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600
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601 Not Found view
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602 An :term:`exception view` invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when the developer
603 explicitly raises a :class:`pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPNotFound`
604 exception from within :term:`view` code or :term:`root factory` code,
605 or when the current request doesn't match any :term:`view
606 configuration`. :app:`Pyramid` provides a default implementation of a
607 not found view; it can be overridden. See
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608 :ref:`changing_the_notfound_view`.
609
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610 Forbidden view
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611 An :term:`exception view` invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when the developer
612 explicitly raises a :class:`pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPForbidden`
613 exception from within :term:`view` code or :term:`root factory` code,
614 or when the :term:`view configuration` and :term:`authorization policy`
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615 found for a request disallows a particular view invocation.
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616 :app:`Pyramid` provides a default implementation of a forbidden view;
617 it can be overridden. See :ref:`changing_the_forbidden_view`.
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618
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619 Exception view
620 An exception view is a :term:`view callable` which may be
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621 invoked by :app:`Pyramid` when an exception is raised during
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622 request processing. See :ref:`exception_views` for more
623 information.
624
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625 HTTP Exception
626 The set of exception classes defined in :mod:`pyramid.httpexceptions`.
627 These can be used to generate responses with various status codes when
628 raised or returned from a :term:`view callable`. See also
629 :ref:`http_exceptions`.
630
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631 thread local
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632 A thread-local variable is one which is essentially a global variable
633 in terms of how it is accessed and treated, however, each `thread
634 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thread_(computer_science)>`_ used by the
635 application may have a different value for this same "global" variable.
636 :app:`Pyramid` uses a small number of thread local variables, as
637 described in :ref:`threadlocals_chapter`. See also the `threading.local
638 documentation
639 <http://docs.python.org/library/threading.html#threading.local>`_ for
640 more information.
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641
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642 multidict
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643 An ordered dictionary that can have multiple values for each key. Adds
644 the methods ``getall``, ``getone``, ``mixed``, ``add`` and
645 ``dict_of_lists`` to the normal dictionary interface. See
646 :ref:`multidict_narr` and :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IMultiDict`.
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647
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648 PyPI
649 `The Python Package Index <http://pypi.python.org/pypi>`_, a
650 collection of software available for Python.
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651
652 Agendaless Consulting
653 A consulting organization formed by Paul Everitt, Tres Seaver,
654 and Chris McDonough. See also http://agendaless.com .
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655
656 Jython
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657 A `Python implementation <http://www.jython.org/>`_ written for
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658 the Java Virtual Machine.
659
660 Python
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661 The `programming language <http://python.org>`_ in which
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662 :app:`Pyramid` is written.
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663
664 CPython
665 The C implementation of the Python language. This is the
666 reference implementation that most people refer to as simply
667 "Python"; :term:`Jython`, Google's App Engine, and `PyPy
668 <http://codespeak.net/pypy/dist/pypy/doc/>`_ are examples of
669 non-C based Python implementations.
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670
671 View Lookup
672 The act of finding and invoking the "best" :term:`view callable`
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673 given a :term:`request` and a :term:`context` resource.
674
675 Resource Location
676 The act of locating a :term:`context` resource given a :term:`request`.
677 :term:`Traversal` and :term:`URL dispatch` are the resource location
678 subsystems used by :app:`Pyramid`.
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679
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680 Google App Engine
681 `Google App Engine <http://code.google.com/appengine/>`_ (aka
682 "GAE") is a Python application hosting service offered by Google.
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683 :app:`Pyramid` runs on GAE.
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684
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685 Venusian
686 `Venusian <http://docs.repoze.org/venusian>`_ is a library which
687 allows framework authors to defer decorator actions. Instead of
688 taking actions when a function (or class) decorator is executed
689 at import time, the action usually taken by the decorator is
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690 deferred until a separate "scan" phase. :app:`Pyramid` relies
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691 on Venusian to provide a basis for its :term:`scan` feature.
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692
693 Translation String
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694 An instance of :class:`pyramid.i18n.TranslationString`, which
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695 is a class that behaves like a Unicode string, but has several
696 extra attributes such as ``domain``, ``msgid``, and ``mapping``
697 for use during translation. Translation strings are usually
698 created by hand within software, but are sometimes created on the
699 behalf of the system for automatic template translation. For
700 more information, see :ref:`i18n_chapter`.
701
702 Translation Domain
703 A string representing the "context" in which a translation was
704 made. For example the word "java" might be translated
705 differently if the translation domain is "programming-languages"
706 than would be if the translation domain was "coffee". A
707 translation domain is represnted by a collection of ``.mo`` files
708 within one or more :term:`translation directory` directories.
709
710 Translator
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711 A callable which receives a :term:`translation string` and returns a
712 translated Unicode object for the purposes of internationalization. A
713 :term:`localizer` supplies a translator to a :app:`Pyramid` application
714 accessible via its :class:`~pyramid.i18n.Localizer.translate` method.
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715
716 Translation Directory
717 A translation directory is a :term:`gettext` translation
718 directory. It contains language folders, which themselves
719 contain ``LC_MESSAGES`` folders, which contain ``.mo`` files.
720 Each ``.mo`` file represents a set of translations for a language
721 in a :term:`translation domain`. The name of the ``.mo`` file
722 (minus the .mo extension) is the translation domain name.
723
724 Localizer
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725 An instance of the class :class:`pyramid.i18n.Localizer` which
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726 provides translation and pluralization services to an
727 application. It is retrieved via the
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728 :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_localizer` function.
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729
730 Locale Name
731 A string like ``en``, ``en_US``, ``de``, or ``de_AT`` which
732 uniquely identifies a particular locale.
733
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734 Default Locale Name
735 The :term:`locale name` used by an application when no explicit
736 locale name is set. See :ref:`localization_deployment_settings`.
737
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738 Locale Negotiator
739 An object supplying a policy determining which :term:`locale
740 name` best represents a given :term:`request`. It is used by the
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741 :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_locale_name`, and
742 :func:`pyramid.i18n.negotiate_locale_name` functions, and
743 indirectly by :func:`pyramid.i18n.get_localizer`. The
744 :func:`pyramid.i18n.default_locale_negotiator` function
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745 is an example of a locale negotiator.
746
747 Gettext
748 The GNU `gettext <http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/>`_
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749 library, used by the :app:`Pyramid` translation machinery.
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750
751 Babel
752 A `collection of tools <http://babel.edgewall.org/>`_ for
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753 internationalizing Python applications. :app:`Pyramid` does
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754 not depend on Babel to operate, but if Babel is installed,
755 additional locale functionality becomes available to your
756 application.
757
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758 Lingua
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759 A package by Wichert Akkerman which provides :term:`Babel` message
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760 extractors for Python source files and Chameleon ZPT template files.
761
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762 Message Identifier
763 A string used as a translation lookup key during localization.
764 The ``msgid`` argument to a :term:`translation string` is a
765 message identifier. Message identifiers are also present in a
766 :term:`message catalog`.
767
768 Message Catalog
769 A :term:`gettext` ``.mo`` file containing translations.
770
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771 Internationalization
772 The act of creating software with a user interface that can
773 potentially be displayed in more than one language or cultural
774 context. Often shortened to "i18n" (because the word
775 "internationalization" is I, 18 letters, then N). See also:
776 :term:`Localization`.
777
778 Localization
779 The process of displaying the user interface of an
780 internationalized application in a particular language or
781 cultural context. Often shortened to "l10" (because the word
782 "localization" is L, 10 letters, then N). See also:
783 :term:`Internationalization`.
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784
785 renderer globals
786 Values injected as names into a renderer based on application
787 policy. See :ref:`adding_renderer_globals` for more
788 information.
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789
790 response callback
791 A user-defined callback executed by the :term:`router` at a
792 point after a :term:`response` object is successfully created.
793 See :ref:`using_response_callbacks`.
794
795 finished callback
796 A user-defined callback executed by the :term:`router`
797 unconditionally at the very end of request processing . See
798 :ref:`using_finished_callbacks`.
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799
800 pregenerator
801 A pregenerator is a function associated by a developer with a
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802 :term:`route`. It is called by
803 :meth:`~pyramid.request.Request.route_url` in order to adjust the set
804 of arguments passed to it by the user for special purposes. It will
805 influence the URL returned by
806 :meth:`~pyramid.request.Request.route_url`. See
807 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IRoutePregenerator` for more information.
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808
809 session
810 A namespace that is valid for some period of continual activity
811 that can be used to represent a user's interaction with a web
812 application.
813
814 session factory
815 A callable, which, when called with a single argument named
816 ``request`` (a :term:`request` object), returns a
817 :term:`session` object.
818
7698bd8 @bbangert First set of Mako docs for narrative.
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819 Mako
820 `Mako <http://www.makotemplates.org/>`_ is a template language language
821 which refines the familiar ideas of componentized layout and inheritance
822 using Python with Python scoping and calling semantics.
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823
824 View handler
825 A view handler ties together
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826 :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route` and
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827 :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view` to make it more convenient
828 to register a collection of views as a single class when using
829 :term:`url dispatch`. View handlers ship as part of the
830 :term:`pyramid_handlers` add-on package.
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831
832 Deployment settings
833 Deployment settings are settings passed to the :term:`Configurator` as a
834 ``settings`` argument. These are later accessible via a
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835 ``request.registry.settings`` dictionary in views or as
836 ``config.registry.settings`` in configuration code. Deployment settings
837 can be used as global application values.
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838
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839 WebTest
840 `WebTest <http://pythonpaste.org/webtest/>`_ is a package which can help
841 you write functional tests for your WSGI application.
842
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843 view mapper
844 A view mapper is a class which implements the
845 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IViewMapperFactory` interface, which performs
846 view argument and return value mapping. This is a plug point for
847 extension builders, not normally used by "civilians".
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848
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849 matchdict
850 The dictionary attached to the :term:`request` object as
851 ``request.matchdict`` when a :term:`URL dispatch` route has been matched.
852 Its keys are names as identified within the route pattern; its values are
853 the values matched by each pattern name.
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854
855 pyramid_zcml
856 An add-on package to :app:`Pyramid` which allows applications to be
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857 configured via :term:`ZCML`. It is available on :term:`PyPI`. If you
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858 use :mod:`pyramid_zcml`, you can use ZCML as an alternative to
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859 :term:`imperative configuration` or :term:`configuration decoration`.
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860
861 ZCML
862 `Zope Configuration Markup Language
863 <http://www.muthukadan.net/docs/zca.html#zcml>`_, an XML dialect
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864 used by Zope and :term:`pyramid_zcml` for configuration tasks.
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865
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866 pyramid_handlers
867 An add-on package which allows :app:`Pyramid` users to create classes
868 that are analogues of Pylons 1 "controllers". See
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869 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/pyramid_handlers/dev/ .
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870
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871 pyramid_jinja2
872 :term:`Jinja2` templating system bindings for Pyramid, documented at
873 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/pyramid_jinja2/dev/ . This
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874 package also includes a scaffold named
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875 ``pyramid_jinja2_starter``, which creates an application package based
876 on the Jinja2 templating system.
877
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878 Akhet
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879 `Akhet <http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/akhet/en/latest/>`_ is a
880 Pyramid library and demo application with a Pylons-like feel.
881 It's most known for its former application scaffold, which helped
882 users transition from Pylons and those prefering a more Pylons-like API.
883 The scaffold has been retired but the demo plays a similar role.
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884
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885 Pyramid Cookbook
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886 An additional documentation resource for Pyramid which presents topical,
887 practical usages of Pyramid available via
888 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/ .
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889
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890 distutils
891 The standard system for packaging and distributing Python packages. See
892 http://docs.python.org/distutils/index.html for more information.
893 :term:`setuptools` is actually an *extension* of the Distutils.
894
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895 exception response
896 A :term:`response` that is generated as the result of a raised exception
897 being caught by an :term:`exception view`.
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898
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899 PyPy
900 PyPy is an "alternative implementation of the Python
901 language":http://pypy.org/
902
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903 tween
904 A bit of code that sits between the Pyramid router's main request
905 handling function and the upstream WSGI component that uses
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906 :app:`Pyramid` as its 'app'. The word "tween" is a contraction of
907 "between". A tween may be used by Pyramid framework extensions, to
908 provide, for example, Pyramid-specific view timing support, bookkeeping
909 code that examines exceptions before they are returned to the upstream
910 WSGI application, or a variety of other features. Tweens behave a bit
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911 like :term:`WSGI` 'middleware' but they have the benefit of running in a
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912 context in which they have access to the Pyramid :term:`application
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913 registry` as well as the Pyramid rendering machinery. See
914 :ref:`registering_tweens`.
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915
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916 pyramid_debugtoolbar
917 A Pyramid add on which displays a helpful debug toolbar "on top of" HTML
918 pages rendered by your application, displaying request, routing, and
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919 database information. :mod:`pyramid_debugtoolbar` is configured into
920 the ``development.ini`` of all applications which use a Pyramid
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921 :term:`scaffold`. For more information, see
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922 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/pyramid_debugtoolbar/dev/ .
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923
924 scaffold
925 A project template that helps users get started writing a Pyramid
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926 application quickly. Scaffolds are usually used via the ``pcreate``
927 command.
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928
bfdbcf4 @mcdonc mention pyramid_exclog
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929 pyramid_exclog
930 A package which logs Pyramid application exception (error) information
931 to a standard Python logger. This add-on is most useful when
932 used in production applications, because the logger can be configured to
933 log to a file, to UNIX syslog, to the Windows Event Log, or even to
934 email. See its `documentation
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935 <http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/pyramid_exclog/dev/>`_.
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936
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937 console script
938 A script written to the ``bin`` (on UNIX, or ``Scripts`` on Windows)
939 directory of a Python installation or virtualenv as the result of
940 running ``setup.py install`` or ``setup.py develop``.
941
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942 introspector
943 An object with the methods described by
944 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IIntrospector` that is available in both
945 configuration code (for registration) and at runtime (for querying) that
946 allows a developer to introspect configuration statements and
947 relationships between those statements.
948
949 conflict resolution
950 Pyramid attempts to resolve ambiguous configuration statements made by
951 application developers via automatic conflict resolution. Automatic
952 conflict resolution is described in
953 :ref:`automatic_conflict_resolution`. If Pyramid cannot resolve
954 ambiguous configuration statements, it is possible to manually resolve
955 them as described in :ref:`manually_resolving_conflicts`.
956
957 configuration directive
958 A method of the :term:`Configurator` which causes a configuration action
959 to occur. The method :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view` is a
960 configuration directive, and application developers can add their own
961 directives as necessary (see :ref:`add_directive`).
962
963 action
964 Represents a pending configuration statement generated by a call to a
965 :term:`configuration directive`. The set of pending configuration
966 actions are processed when :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.commit` is
967 called.
968
969 discriminator
970 The unique identifier of an :term:`action`.
971
972 introspectable
973 An object which implements the attributes and methods described in
974 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IIntrospectable`. Introspectables are used
975 by the :term:`introspector` to display configuration information about
976 a running Pyramid application. An introspectable is associated with a
977 :term:`action` by virtue of the
978 :meth:`pyramid.config.Configurator.action` method.
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979
980 asset descriptor
981 An instance representing an :term:`asset specification` provided by the
982 :meth:`pyramid.path.AssetResolver.resolve` method. It supports the
983 methods and attributes documented in
984 :class:`pyramid.interfaces.IAssetDescriptor`.
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985
986 Waitress
987 A :term:`WSGI` server that runs on UNIX and Windows under Python 2.6+
988 and Python 3.2+. Projects generated via Pyramid scaffolding use
989 Waitress as a WGSI server. See
990 http://docs.pylonsproject.org/projects/waitress/en/latest/ for detailed
991 information.
992
993 Green Unicorn
994 Aka ``gunicorn``, a fast :term:`WSGI` server that runs on UNIX under
995 Python 2.5+ (although at the time of this writing does not support
996 Python 3). See http://gunicorn.org/ for detailed information.
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