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Running :app:`Pyramid` on Google's App Engine

It is possible to run a :app:`Pyramid` application on Google's App Engine. Content from this tutorial was contributed by YoungKing, based on the "appengine-monkey" tutorial for Pylons. This tutorial is written in terms of using the command line on a UNIX system; it should be possible to perform similar actions on a Windows system.

  1. Download Google's App Engine SDK and install it on your system.

  2. Use Subversion to check out the source code for appengine-monkey.

    $ svn co http://appengine-monkey.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/ \
        appengine-monkey
    
  3. Use appengine_homedir.py script in appengine-monkey to create a :term:`virtualenv` for your application.

    $ export GAE_PATH=/usr/local/google_appengine
    $ python2.5 /path/to/appengine-monkey/appengine-homedir.py --gae \
      $GAE_PATH pyramidapp
    

    Note that $GAE_PATH should be the path where you have unpacked the App Engine SDK. (On Mac OS X at least, /usr/local/google_appengine is indeed where the installer puts it).

    This will set up an environment in pyramidapp/, with some tools installed in pyramidapp/bin. There will also be a directory pyramidapp/app/ which is the directory you will upload to appengine.

  4. Install :app:`Pyramid` into the virtualenv

    $ cd pyramidapp/
    $ bin/easy_install pyramid
    

    This will install :app:`Pyramid` in the environment.

  5. Create your application

    We'll use the standard way to create a :app:`Pyramid` application, but we'll have to move some files around when we are done. The below commands assume your current working directory is the pyramidapp virtualenv directory you created in the third step above:

    $ cd app
    $ rm -rf pyramidapp
    $ bin/paster create -t pyramid_starter pyramidapp
    $ mv pyramidapp aside
    $ mv aside/pyramidapp .
    $ rm -rf aside
    
  6. Edit config.py

    Edit the APP_NAME and APP_ARGS settings within config.py. The APP_NAME must be pyramidapp:main, and the APP_ARGS must be ({},). Any other settings in config.py should remain the same.

    APP_NAME = 'pyramidapp:main'
    APP_ARGS = ({},)
    
  7. Edit runner.py

    To prevent errors for import site, add this code stanza before import site in app/runner.py:

    import sys
    sys.path = [path for path in sys.path if 'site-packages' not in path]
    import site
    

    You will also need to comment out the line that starts with assert sys.path in the file.

    # comment the sys.path assertion out
    # assert sys.path[:len(cur_sys_path)] == cur_sys_path, (
    #   "addsitedir() caused entries to be prepended to sys.path")
    

    For GAE development environment 1.3.0 or better, you will also need the following somewhere near the top of the runner.py file to fix a compatibility issue with appengine-monkey:

    import os
    os.mkdir = None
    
  8. Run the application. dev_appserver.py is typically installed by the SDK in the global path but you need to be sure to run it with Python 2.5 (or whatever version of Python your GAE SDK expects).

    Startup success looks something like this:

    [chrism@vitaminf pyramid_gae]$ python2.5 \
                  /usr/local/bin/dev_appserver.py \
                  pyramidapp/app/
    INFO     2009-05-03 22:23:13,887 appengine_rpc.py:157] # ... more...
    Running application pyramidapp on port 8080: http://localhost:8080
    

    You may need to run "Make Symlinks" from the Google App Engine Launcher GUI application if your system doesn't already have the dev_appserver.py script sitting around somewhere.

  9. Hack on your pyramid application, using a normal run, debug, restart process. For tips on how to use the pdb module within Google App Engine, see this blog post. In particular, you can create a function like so and call it to drop your console into a pdb trace:

  10. Sign up for a GAE account and create an application. You'll need a mobile phone to accept an SMS in order to receive authorization.

  11. Edit the application's ID in app.yaml to match the application name you created during GAE account setup.

    application: mycoolpyramidapp
    
  12. Upload the application

    $ python2.5 /usr/local/bin/appcfg.py update pyramidapp/app
    

    You almost certainly won't hit the 3000-file GAE file number limit when invoking this command. If you do, however, it will look like so:

    HTTPError: HTTP Error 400: Bad Request
    Rolling back the update.
    Error 400: --- begin server output ---
    Max number of files and blobs is 3000.
    --- end server output ---
    

    If you do experience this error, you will be able to get around this by zipping libraries. You can use pip to create zipfiles from packages. See :ref:`pip_zip` for more information about this.

    A successful upload looks like so:

    [chrism@vitaminf pyramidapp]$ python2.5 /usr/local/bin/appcfg.py \
                                  update ../pyramidapp/app/
    Scanning files on local disk.
    Scanned 500 files.
    # ... more output ...
    Will check again in 16 seconds.
    Checking if new version is ready to serve.
    Closing update: new version is ready to start serving.
    Uploading index definitions.
    
  13. Visit http://<yourapp>.appspot.com in a browser.

Zipping Files Via Pip

If you hit the Google App Engine 3000-file limit, you may need to create zipfile archives out of some distributions installed in your application's virtualenv.

First, see which packages are available for zipping:

$ bin/pip zip -l

This shows your zipped packages (by default, none) and your unzipped packages. You can zip a package like so:

$ bin/pip zip pytz-2009g-py2.5.egg

Note that it requires the whole egg file name. For a :app:`Pyramid` app, the following packages are good candidates to be zipped.

  • Chameleon
  • zope.i18n

Once the zipping procedure is finished you can try uploading again.

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